Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 1 Chapter 3 Learning and Human Nature This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The.

Download Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 1 Chapter 3 Learning and Human Nature This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The.

Post on 03-Jan-2016

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

    *Chapter 3Learning and Human NatureThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-205-42428-7

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Learning vs. InstinctsLearning A process through which experience produces lasting change in behavior or mental processes

    Habituation- Learning not to respond to stimulation

    Instincts- Motivated behaviors that have a strong innate basis

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Behavioral learning Forms of learning that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses (e.g. classical and operant conditioning)LearningMere exposure effect Learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Essentials of Classical ConditioningNeutral stimulus Any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learningAcquisition Initial learning stage in classical conditioningconditioned response (CR) becomes elicited by the conditioned stimulus (CS)

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Basic Features of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)The stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)The response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)A previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)A response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the conditioned stimulus

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Classical ConditioningPrior to conditioningConditioningAfter conditioningNeutral stimulus(tone)(Orientation to soundbut no response)Unconditioned stimulus(food powder in mouth)Unconditioned response(salivation)Neutral stimulusCS (tone)Unconditioned stimulus(food powder)+Conditioned response(salivation)Conditioned stimulus(tone)Conditioned response(salivation)

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Classical ConditioningExtinction Weakening of a conditioned association in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus or reinforcerSpontaneous recovery Reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous RecoveryRest period

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Classical Conditioning:Generalization and DiscriminationStimulus generalization involves giving a conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the CSStimulus discrimination involves responding to one stimulus but not to stimuli that are similarConfusing stimuli may cause experimental neurosis

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Applications of Classical ConditioningConditioned Food Aversions Biological tendency in which an organism learns to avoid food with a certain sight, smell, or taste after a single experience, if eating it is followed by illness

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Biological Predispositions:A Challenge to PavlovGarcia & Koelling (1966) findings-Selective CS-UCS connectionInnate disposition to associationsWhy are some stimuli-consequence combinations readily learned while other combinations are highly resistant to learning?What any organism can or cannot learn in a given setting is due in part to its evolutionary history

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009How Do We LearnNew Behaviors byOperant Conditioning?

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009How Do We LearnNew Behaviors byOperant Conditioning?Trial-and-error learning Learner gradually discovers the correct response by attempting many behaviors and noting which ones produce the desired consequencesThorndike-law of effect

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Skinners Radical BehaviorismB.F. Skinner believed that the most powerful influences on behavior are its consequencesThe power of reinforcementreward = conditions that follow and strengthen a responseOperant chamber

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2009 *

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Power of ReinforcementPositive reinforcers Stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of that response happening againPositive = add or apply

    Negative reinforcers Removal of an unpleasant stimulus, that increases the probability of that response happening againNegative = subtract or remove

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Contingencies of Reinforcement:

    Varying the timing and frequency of reinforcementContinuous reinforcement Reinforcement schedule in which all correct responses are reinforcedPartial (intermittent) reinforcement Reinforcement schedule in which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Schedules of ReinforcementRatio schedules Provide reward after a certain number of responsesInterval schedules Provide reward after a certain time intervalFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain set number of responsese.g. factory workers getting paid after every 10 cases of product are completed

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain number of responses, but that number varies from trial to triale.g. slot machine pay-offs

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain fixed amount of time, regardless of number of responsese.g. weekly or monthly paychecks

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain amount of time, but that amount varies from trial to triale.g. random visits from the boss who delivers praise

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Power of ReinforcementPrimary reinforcers Reinforcers that fulfill basic biological needs or desires, such as food and sex, that have an innate basis to an organism

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Power of ReinforcementSecondary (conditioned) reinforcers Stimuli, such as money or tokens, that acquire their reinforcing power by their learned association with primary reinforcers

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Factors that can influence the effectiveness of reinforcementInstinctive drift- innate response tendencies interfere with learned behaviors; innate tendencies can override behaviors learned through reinforcemente.g., reinforcing your cat to not scratch the furniture

    Premack principle-a preferred activity can reinforce a less preferred activitye.g., children sitting quietly in class in order to go out for recess

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009PunishmentPunishment An aversive stimulus which diminishes the strength of the response it follows

    How does this differ from negative reinforcement?

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Punishment vs. Negative ReinforcementLoud NoisePress LeverPress LeverLoud Noise RemovedLoud Noise AppliedNegative ReinforcementPunishmentNo Noise

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Types of PunishmentPositive punishment The application or presentation of an aversive stimulus after a responseNegative punishment The removal of an attractive stimulus after a response

    Both attempt to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will reoccur

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Four Kinds of ConsequencesSTIMULUS

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Use of PunishmentPunishment can result in immediate change in behavior, often making it an easy solution; should be a logical consequence to make it work

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009The Abuse of PunishmentProblems associated with punishment:Power of use usually disappears when threat of punishment is removedRewards can override/overpower the punishmentOften triggers escape or aggressionTeaches legitimate use of aggression to influence othersMay inhibit learning new and better responsesIs often applied unequally

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009When does punishment work?when presented without delaywhen consistentwhen limited in duration and intensitywhen consequence is logicallimited to the specific situation at handwhen no mixed messages are sentwhen negative punishment is used

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009A checklist for Modifying Operant BehaviorConsider combining the following:

    Positive reinforcement -encourage desirable behaviorsPunishment -use logical consequences, swiftly, without undue harmNegative reinforcementExtinction -control all possible reinforcers

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Inset table to illustrate comparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning (pg. 3-40)

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Operant and Classical Conditioning ComparedClassical conditioning involves the association of two stimuli (UCS + CS) before the response or behaviorOperant conditioning involves a reinforcing (reward) or punishing stimulus after a response or behavior

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2009 *

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009How DoesCognitive PsychologyExplain Learning?

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009How DoesCognitive PsychologyExplain Learning?Insight learning Problem solving occurs by suddenly perceiving new forms or relationshipsCognitive maps A mental image used to navigate through a familiar environment

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009How DoesCognitive PsychologyExplain Learning?Latent learning-when learning occurs without reinforcement and without any hint that learning took place

    cognitive explanation of learning vs. the behavioral explanation

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Observational Learning: Banduras Challenge to BehaviorismObservational learning (social learning)form of cognitive learning new responses are acquired after watching others behavior and consequences of their behavior

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Rethinking Behavioral Learning in Cognitive TermsCognitive-behavioral psychologistsassociations occur when the organism is seen as an information seeker using logical and perceptual relations among eventsreinforcement changes expectations for future rewards or punishments

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Brain Mechanisms and LearningLong-term potentiation Biological process involving physical changes that strengthen the synapses in groups of nerve cellsbelieved to be the neural basis of learning

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Brain Mechanisms and LearningExtinction-forgetting unimportant associationsneurotransmitters block memoriesglutamate; norephinephrine

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Brain Mechanisms and LearningLearning circuitry-Simpler circuitsClassical conditioning and operant learning Complex learning-Concept formation, insight learning, and observational learning

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

  • *Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009Brain Mechanisms and LearningObservational learning and mirror neuronsNeurons that help us imitate others behaviors

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2009

    ***********************************3****************

Recommended

View more >