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  • Slide 1
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 5 Learning Disabilities This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental lease, or lending of the program. Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Focus Questions What are the key features of most definitions of learning disabilities? What are the key features of most definitions of learning disabilities? Why is there a call for a new definition, and how might it be different? Why is there a call for a new definition, and how might it be different? Why is it correct to consider learning disabilities a lifelong condition? Why is it correct to consider learning disabilities a lifelong condition? What are some learning characteristics that contribute to these students poor academic performance? What are some learning characteristics that contribute to these students poor academic performance? How might the array of services be re-conceptualized for students with learning disabilities? How might the array of services be re-conceptualized for students with learning disabilities?
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Challenge Question What constitutes an appropriate education for these students, and in what setting should it be provided? What constitutes an appropriate education for these students, and in what setting should it be provided?
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Thinking About Dilemmas to Solve Think about whether: Think about whether: This disability area should be discontinued and replaced with a high incidence category combining all mild disabilities This disability area should be discontinued and replaced with a high incidence category combining all mild disabilities The size of the category should be limited The size of the category should be limited The operational definition should become more restrictive The operational definition should become more restrictive Research findings are leading to effective practices for unique sets of learners Research findings are leading to effective practices for unique sets of learners Learning disabilities range from mild to severe cases Learning disabilities range from mild to severe cases
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon History of the Field 1919 Kurt Goldstein worked with young men from WWI 1919 Kurt Goldstein worked with young men from WWI Alfred Strauss and Heinz Werner worked at Wayne County Training Center in Michigan with pupils thought to be brain injured Alfred Strauss and Heinz Werner worked at Wayne County Training Center in Michigan with pupils thought to be brain injured During the 1920s and 1930s, Samuel Orton, a neurology specialist, developed theories and remedial reading techniques for children he called dyslexic During the 1920s and 1930s, Samuel Orton, a neurology specialist, developed theories and remedial reading techniques for children he called dyslexic Laura Lehtinen developed systematic and direct teaching methods similar to the methods used today Laura Lehtinen developed systematic and direct teaching methods similar to the methods used today Sam Kirk and colleagues published the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) which was used to identify students with disabilities Sam Kirk and colleagues published the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) which was used to identify students with disabilities Learning Disabilities coined by Professor Sam Kirk in 1963 Learning Disabilities coined by Professor Sam Kirk in 1963
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon History of the Field In the 1960s, Marianne Frostig developed materials designed to improve students visual perceptual performance In the 1960s, Marianne Frostig developed materials designed to improve students visual perceptual performance In the 1970s, the field of learning disabilities debated the best way to remediate students academic deficits In the 1970s, the field of learning disabilities debated the best way to remediate students academic deficits Process/product debate Process/product debate In 1974, Don Hammill and Steve Larsen showed that perceptual approaches were seldom effective in teaching academic skills, but direct instruction techniques do make a difference In 1974, Don Hammill and Steve Larsen showed that perceptual approaches were seldom effective in teaching academic skills, but direct instruction techniques do make a difference Many fads and invalidated practices have been proposed for solving a learning disability including: Many fads and invalidated practices have been proposed for solving a learning disability including: Teaching students to crawl again, regardless of age Teaching students to crawl again, regardless of age Special diets Special diets Removing florescent lighting Removing florescent lighting Plants placed on desks Plants placed on desks These fads were promoted by the media, but had little scientific evidence to support their claims These fads were promoted by the media, but had little scientific evidence to support their claims
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Learning Disabilities Defined Two definitions Two definitions US Department of Educations IDEA US Department of Educations IDEA National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) IDEA v. NJCLD IDEA v. NJCLD Federal definition is older and has a medical orientation The NJCLD definition allows for co-existing disabilities The NJCLD definition acknowledges problems many individuals have with social skills
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Need for a New Definition? Neither definition directly stated the defining characteristic of LD: unexpected underachievement Neither definition directly stated the defining characteristic of LD: unexpected underachievement Great dissatisfaction existed with definitions of LD because of: Great dissatisfaction existed with definitions of LD because of: The great inconsistency in the percentage of students in this category The great inconsistency in the percentage of students in this category The concern of this categorys size The concern of this categorys size IDEA 2004 addresses this by stating that a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement is not required to determine eligibility for a learning disability. If a student is unresponsive to research-validated instructional interventions, then the classification of learning disability may be appropriate IDEA 2004 addresses this by stating that a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement is not required to determine eligibility for a learning disability. If a student is unresponsive to research-validated instructional interventions, then the classification of learning disability may be appropriate
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Learning Disabilities Defined Reading Reading Students identified with LD have much lower reading abilities than students who are low achievers Students identified with LD have much lower reading abilities than students who are low achievers Reading is the most common reason for referrals to special education Reading is the most common reason for referrals to special education Reading/learning disabilities cause pervasive academic problems Reading/learning disabilities cause pervasive academic problems Math Math Fifty percent of students with LD have disabilities with math (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2001) Students with a math disability have trouble retrieving information from long-term memory Students need graphic representations and real- world examples to help them solve problems Learning disabilities often co-exist with ADHD Learning disabilities often co-exist with ADHD
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Identifying Learning Disabilities Discrepancy formulas are used to determine whether a students gap between achievement and potential is significant and accounts for the students learning failures Discrepancy formulas are used to determine whether a students gap between achievement and potential is significant and accounts for the students learning failures Two tests are needed Two tests are needed IQ IQ Standardized Achievement Test Standardized Achievement Test Use of discrepancy formulas provide objectivity in the identification process Use of discrepancy formulas provide objectivity in the identification process
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Criticisms of Discrepancy Formulas IQ tests are not reliable and are unfair to many groups of children IQ tests are not reliable and are unfair to many groups of children Results have little utility in planning a students educational program Results have little utility in planning a students educational program The process is not helpful in determining which interventions might be successful The process is not helpful in determining which interventions might be successful Outcomes do not relate to performance in the classroom, general education curriculum, or on statewide assessments Outcomes do not relate to performance in the classroom, general education curriculum, or on statewide assessments Children must fail before they qualify for needed services Children must fail before they qualify for needed services
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright 2007 Allyn & Bacon Chara

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