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Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity Review Lisa Hall 1 , Tony Hill 2 , Liuqi Wang 1 , Tehani Kuske 1 , Dianne Edwards 1 , Alison Troup 3 , Chris Boreham 1 1 Geoscience Australia, ACT 2 Department of State Development (previously DMITRE), SA 3 Geological Survey Queensland, QLD Thanks to 3D Geo: Jim Preston

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  • Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas

    Prospectivity Review

    Lisa Hall 1, Tony Hill 2, Liuqi Wang1, Tehani Kuske1, Dianne Edwards1, Alison

    Troup 3, Chris Boreham1

    1 Geoscience Australia, ACT

    2 Department of State Development (previously DMITRE), SA

    3 Geological Survey Queensland, QLD

    Thanks to 3D Geo: Jim Preston

  • Cooper Basin

    Revival in unconventional hydrocarbon

    exploration

    Permian targets: shale gas, basin centred

    gas, deep coal seam gas plays.

    Unconventional gas resources potential

    across all basin remains poorly defined.

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    Australias largest onshore conventional

    gas and oil producer (QLD, SA)

    Infrastructure: pipelines to E Coast gas

    market/ Gladstone LNG

    Image source: DMITRE

    Depocentre

    Oil Pipeline

    Gas Pipeline

    Gas fields

    Oil fields

    Permits 02/10/13

    Exploration Permit

    Gazettal

    Production License

    Retention License

    Nappamerri Trough:

    Proven flow from

    multiple unco. gas

    targets Moomba 191,

    194, Encounter 1,

    Holdfast 1

    Windorah Trough:

    Tamarama 1 and

    Queenscliff 1; gas

    saturated section off

    structure

  • Cooper Basin Unco. Gas Prospectivity Review

    Project Aims

    Review of basin geology and petroleum systems elements, focusing on

    unconventional gas plays in the Permian

    1. Review of regional basin architecture (structure surfaces, isopachs)

    2. Evaluation of Permian source rocks

    Source distribution, type, quality

    Source maturity (petroleum systems modelling)

    3. Predict the possible extent of Permian unconventional gas plays:

    Play fairway / chance of success maps

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    Improve understanding of basin scale prospectivity

    Australia source rock study

    Underpin future resource assessment studies

  • Structural Elements/

    Tectono-stratigraphy

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    Base Cooper

    Depth

    91 m

    -4497

  • Permian Shows

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    High resistivity of the Gidgealpa Group

    (>20m over large intervals) => gas

    saturation (Hillis et al., 2001)

    Tests recovered gas with no water

    Overpressure

    Gidgealpa Gp basin centred gas

    Nappamerri Gp - seal

    A B

    A

    B

    Image source: DMITRE

  • Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Plays

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Hydrocarbon Prospectivity Atlas

    Shale Gas Play

    Hosted in shales/ fine siltstones

    Self sourced hydrocarbons

    Trapping mechanism: partly a

    sorbed gas reservoir

    Gas generation rate exceeds

    primary migration

    Basin Centred Gas Play

    (Pervasive tight gas)

    Hosted in low perm sands

    Migrated hydrocarbons

    Trapping mechanism: relative

    perm. of gas and water in low

    perm. reservoirs

    Primary mig. rate > secondary

    mig. rate

    Coal Seam Gas Play (Dry)

    Coal hosted

    Self sourced hydrocarbons

    Trapping mechanism: primarily a

    sorbed gas reservoir

    Primary mig. rate > secondary

    mig. rate

    Shale gas Deep CSG BCG Source Seal Reservoir

    Conventional Unconventional Gas Plays

    Gid

    ge

    alp

    a G

    p

    Roseneath

    Murteree

    Toolachee

    Patchawarra

  • Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Plays

    Unco. play types:

    1) Basin centred gas

    2) Shale gas

    3) Deep coal seam gas

    Gidgealpa Gp composite resource play: Basin centred gas accumulation +/- shale +/-

    deep coal seam gas +/- natural fracture play

    (Menpes et al., URTec, 2013)

    Shale gas Deep CSG BCG Source Seal Reservoir

    Conventional Unconventional Gas Plays

    Gid

    ge

    alp

    a G

    p

    Roseneath

    Murteree

    Toolachee

    Patchawarra

  • Basin Architecture

    Regional update of key

    structure surfaces and isopachs

    Better integration of datasets

    across the state border

    Update of older interpretations

    in QLD to incorporate new

    seismic and well picks

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    Draft regional 3D basin model

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    Top Daralingie Clip1500 2000 2500 3000

    100 km

    u29945 Nov 24 2014

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    Top Toolachee Clip1500 2000 2500 3000

    100 km

    u29945 Nov 24 2014

    New Structure Surfaces

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    => Defines limit of Gidgealpa

    hybrid play

    Toolachee Daralingie Roseneath

    Epsilon Murteree Patchawarra

    DRAFT

  • Regional Reservoir/ Seal

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    Gidgealpa Gp Isopach Hybrid Play

    Gross Reservoir Thickness

    Nappamerri Gp Isopach

    Regional Seal Thickness

    Thickness

    1833 m

    0

    Patchawarra Sands (Heath, 198x)

    POROSITY < 9%

    PERMEABILITY 1000m

    >400m

    >400m

  • Source Rock

    Characterisation

    Toolachee/ Patchawarra:

    Coals/ shales (TOCs: 1 80%)

    HI values >250

    Type II/III kerogen => Good to

    very good oil + gas source

    potential

    Roseneath/ Murteree shales

    Majority of TOCs 0.8 - 12 %

    HIs < 200

    Type III kerogen => Gas prone

    Toolachee/ Patchawarra the best

    quality source rocks

    Some potential in the Roseneath/

    Murteree

    Toolachee

    Formation

    Patchawarra

    Formation

    Roseneath

    Shale

    Murteree

    Shale

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

  • Source Rock

    Distribution

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

    Compare isopachs with

    viable source rock samples

    Good source distribution

    across all formation extents

    Toolachee/

    Patchawarra: good

    source distribution

    across all basin

    Roseneath/ Murteree

    shales: Restricted to

    southern Cooper Basin,

    although some potential

    north of the JNP trend

    Further integration with

    facies mapping still required

    Average TOC %

    2 - 5

    6 - 10

    10 - 20

    20 - 30

    >30

    Roseneath Shale Murteree Shale

    Toolachee Formation Patchawarra Formation

    Av TOC: 9.1% Av TOC: 8%

    Av TOC: 21% Av TOC: 24%

  • Petroleum Systems Modelling

    Multi-1D basin modelling study in

    progress: (Trinity-Genesis).

    91 1D genesis models.

    Calibration: Corr. temp., VR

    etc.

    New compositional kinetic

    models (Mahlstedt et al., in

    prep)

    Major differences in thermal

    history between depocentres

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.6

    1.61.6

    1.6

    1.8

    1.8

    1.8

    1.8

    2

    2

    300 400 500 600 700 800

    6800

    6900

    7000

    7100

    7200

    7300

    Alkina_1

    Andree_1

    Arrabury _1

    Ballat_1

    Barrolka_1Barrolka_East_1

    Bary ulah_1

    Beanbush_1

    Boldrewood_1

    Bundeena_1

    Buny a_1

    Burley _2

    Callabonna_1

    Chandos-1

    Cook_North_1

    Coonatie_2

    Cuddapan-1

    Cumbroo_1

    Cuttapirrie_1

    Daralingie_5

    Dilchee_1

    Doonmulla_1

    Dullingari_1

    Durham Downs-1

    Encounter_1

    Ethel_1

    Gidgealpa_16

    Gilpeppee-1

    Holdf ast_1

    Ingella_1

    Innamincka_3

    Jack_Lake_1

    Jackson South-1

    Juniper-1

    Keilor-1

    Kenny _1

    Kidman_2

    Kirby _1

    Kurunda_1

    Lamdina_1

    MacKillop_1

    Macadama-1Mahl-1

    Marengo_1

    Marradong_1

    McKinlay _1

    McLeod_1Merrimelia_7

    Mingana_1

    Moomba_27

    Moothandella-1

    Mt Howitt-1

    Mundi_1Munkarie_1

    Nealy on-1

    Nockatunga-2Nulla_1

    Packsaddle_3

    Padulla_1

    Paning_1

    Pepita_1

    Perenty _1

    Pinna_1

    Pondrinie_1

    Regleigh_1

    Russel_1

    Spencer_2

    Springf ield-1

    Strathmount_1

    Strzelecki_1

    Tallalia-1

    Tartulla_1

    Teedeeldee_1

    Three_Queens_1

    Ticklara_2

    Tindilpie-10

    Tinga_Tingana_1

    Tinpilla-1

    Tintaburra_1

    Tirrawarra_1Tirrawarra_North_1

    Toolachee_1

    Verona-1

    Wantana_1

    Wareena_1

    Warnie_East_1

    Wemy ss_1

    Whanto_1

    Wippo-1

    Wolgolla_1

    Wooloo_1

    Mid Toolachee Vitrinite Ro 0 Ma Clip

    0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

    120 km

    u29945 Nov 26 2014

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8 0.8 0.8

    1

    1

    1 1

    1

    1

    1

    111

    1 11

    1.2

    1.21.2

    1.4

    1.6

    1.8

    2

    2

    2.2

    2.2

    2.42.43

    300 400 500 600 700 800

    6800

    6900

    7000

    7100

    7200

    7300

    Alkina_1

    Andree_1

    Arrabury _1

    Ballat_1

    Barrolka_1Barrolka_East_1

    Bary ulah_1

    Beanbush_1

    Boldrewood_1

    Bundeena_1

    Buny a_1

    Burley _2

    Callabonna_1

    Chandos-1

    Cook_North_1

    Coonatie_2

    Cuddapan-1

    Cumbroo_1

    Cuttapirrie_1

    Daralingie_5

    Dilchee_1

    Doonmulla_1

    Dullingari_1

    Durham Downs-1

    Encounter_1

    Ethel_1

    Gidgealpa_16

    Gilpeppee-1

    Holdf ast_1

    Ingella_1

    Innamincka_3

    Jack_Lake_1

    Jackson South-1

    Juniper-1

    Keilor-1

    Kenny _1

    Kidman_2

    Kirby _1

    Kurunda_1

    Lamdina_1

    MacKillop_1

    Macadama-1Mahl-1

    Marengo_1

    Marradong_1

    McKinlay _1

    McLeod_1Merrimelia_7

    Mingana_1

    Moomba_27

    Moothandella-1

    Mt Howitt-1

    Mundi_1Munkarie_1

    Nealy on-1

    Nockatunga-2Nulla_1

    Packsaddle_3

    Padulla_1

    Paning_1

    Pepita_1

    Perenty _1

    Pinna_1

    Pondrinie_1

    Regleigh_1

    Russel_1

    Spencer_2

    Springf ield-1

    Strathmount_1

    Strzelecki_1

    Tallalia-1

    Tartulla_1

    Teedeeldee_1

    Three_Queens_1

    Ticklara_2

    Tindilpie-10

    Tinga_Tingana_1

    Tinpilla-1

    Tintaburra_1

    Tirrawarra_1Tirrawarra_North_1

    Toolachee_1

    Verona-1

    Wantana_1

    Wareena_1

    Warnie_East_1

    Wemy ss_1

    Whanto_1

    Wippo-1

    Wolgolla_1

    Wooloo_1

    Top Roseneath Vr Ro(%) 0 Ma0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

    120 km

    u29945 Nov 26 2014

    0.6

    0.8

    0.8

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1 1

    1 1

    1

    1.2 1.21.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.4 1.4

    1.41.6

    1.8

    2

    2

    2.2

    2.4

    2.4

    2.62.6

    3

    3

    300 400 500 600 700 800

    6800

    6900

    7000

    7100

    7200

    7300

    Alkina_1

    Andree_1

    Arrabury _1

    Ballat_1

    Barrolka_1Barrolka_East_1

    Bary ulah_1

    Beanbush_1

    Boldrewood_1

    Bundeena_1

    Buny a_1

    Burley _2

    Callabonna_1

    Chandos-1

    Cook_North_1

    Coonatie_2

    Cuddapan-1

    Cumbroo_1

    Cuttapirrie_1

    Daralingie_5

    Dilchee_1

    Doonmulla_1

    Dullingari_1

    Durham Downs-1

    Encounter_1

    Ethel_1

    Gidgealpa_16

    Gilpeppee-1

    Holdf ast_1

    Ingella_1

    Innamincka_3

    Jack_Lake_1

    Jackson South-1

    Juniper-1

    Keilor-1

    Kenny _1

    Kidman_2

    Kirby _1

    Kurunda_1

    Lamdina_1

    MacKillop_1

    Macadama-1Mahl-1

    Marengo_1

    Marradong_1

    McKinlay _1

    McLeod_1Merrimelia_7

    Mingana_1

    Moomba_27

    Moothandella-1

    Mt Howitt-1

    Mundi_1Munkarie_1

    Nealy on-1

    Nockatunga-2Nulla_1

    Packsaddle_3

    Padulla_1

    Paning_1

    Pepita_1

    Perenty _1

    Pinna_1

    Pondrinie_1

    Regleigh_1

    Russel_1

    Spencer_2

    Springf ield-1

    Strathmount_1

    Strzelecki_1

    Tallalia-1

    Tartulla_1

    Teedeeldee_1

    Three_Queens_1

    Ticklara_2

    Tindilpie-10

    Tinga_Tingana_1

    Tinpilla-1

    Tintaburra_1

    Tirrawarra_1Tirrawarra_North_1

    Toolachee_1

    Verona-1

    Wantana_1

    Wareena_1

    Warnie_East_1

    Wemy ss_1

    Whanto_1

    Wippo-1

    Wolgolla_1

    Wooloo_1

    Top Epsilon Vitrinite Ro(%) 0 Ma

    0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

    120 km

    u29945 Nov 26 2014

    0.6

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1 1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    11 1

    1

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.21.2

    1.21.2

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4 1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.6

    1.6

    1.61.6

    1.6

    1.6 1.6

    1.8

    1.8

    1.8

    1.8

    2

    2 22.22.42.62.83

    3.2

    3.2

    3.43.4

    300 400 500 600 700 800

    6800

    6900

    7000

    7100

    7200

    7300

    Alkina_1

    Andree_1

    Arrabury _1

    Ballat_1

    Barrolka_1Barrolka_East_1

    Bary ulah_1

    Beanbush_1

    Boldrewood_1

    Bundeena_1

    Buny a_1

    Burley _2

    Callabonna_1

    Chandos-1

    Cook_North_1

    Coonatie_2

    Cuddapan-1

    Cumbroo_1

    Cuttapirrie_1

    Daralingie_5

    Dilchee_1

    Doonmulla_1

    Dullingari_1

    Durham Downs-1

    Encounter_1

    Ethel_1

    Gidgealpa_16

    Gilpeppee-1

    Holdf ast_1

    Ingella_1

    Innamincka_3

    Jack_Lake_1

    Jackson South-1

    Juniper-1

    Keilor-1

    Kenny _1

    Kidman_2

    Kirby _1

    Kurunda_1

    Lamdina_1

    MacKillop_1

    Macadama-1Mahl-1

    Marengo_1

    Marradong_1

    McKinlay _1

    McLeod_1Merrimelia_7

    Mingana_1

    Moomba_27

    Moothandella-1

    Mt Howitt-1

    Mundi_1Munkarie_1

    Nealy on-1

    Nockatunga-2Nulla_1

    Packsaddle_3

    Padulla_1

    Paning_1

    Pepita_1

    Perenty _1

    Pinna_1

    Pondrinie_1

    Regleigh_1

    Russel_1

    Spencer_2

    Springf ield-1

    Strathmount_1

    Strzelecki_1

    Tallalia-1

    Tartulla_1

    Teedeeldee_1

    Three_Queens_1

    Ticklara_2

    Tindilpie-10

    Tinga_Tingana_1

    Tinpilla-1

    Tintaburra_1

    Tirrawarra_1Tirrawarra_North_1

    Toolachee_1

    Verona-1

    Wantana_1

    Wareena_1

    Warnie_East_1

    Wemy ss_1

    Whanto_1

    Wippo-1

    Wolgolla_1

    Wooloo_1

    Mid Patch Vitrinite Ro(%) 0 Ma Clip

    0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

    120 km

    u29945 Nov 26 2014

    Toolachee Roseneath

    Murteree Patchawarra

    0.8

    0.8

    0.8

    0.80.8

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.21.2

    1.2

    1.2

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.4

    1.6

    1.6

    1.6

    1.6

    1.8

    1.8

    1.8

    1.8 2

    2

    300 400 500 600 700 800

    6800

    6900

    7000

    7100

    7200

    7300

    Alkina_1

    Andree_1

    Arrabury _1

    Ballat_1

    Barrolka_1Barrolka_East_1

    Bary ulah_1

    Beanbush_1

    Boldrewood_1

    Bundeena_1

    Buny a_1

    Burley _2

    Callabonna_1

    Chandos-1

    Cook_North_1

    Coonatie_2

    Cuddapan-1

    Cumbroo_1

    Cuttapirrie_1

    Daralingie_5

    Dilchee_1

    Doonmulla_1

    Dullingari_1

    Durham Downs-1

    Encounter_1

    Ethel_1

    Gidgealpa_16

    Gilpeppee-1

    Holdf ast_1

    Ingella_1

    Innamincka_3

    Jack_Lake_1

    Jackson South-1

    Juniper-1

    Keilor-1

    Kenny _1

    Kidman_2

    Kirby _1

    Kurunda_1

    Lamdina_1

    MacKillop_1

    Macadama-1Mahl-1

    Marengo_1

    Marradong_1

    McKinlay _1

    McLeod_1Merrimelia_7

    Mingana_1

    Moomba_27

    Moothandella-1

    Mt Howitt-1

    Mundi_1Munkarie_1

    Nealy on-1

    Nockatunga-2Nulla_1

    Packsaddle_3

    Padulla_1

    Paning_1

    Pepita_1

    Perenty _1

    Pinna_1

    Pondrinie_1

    Regleigh_1

    Russel_1

    Spencer_2

    Springf ield-1

    Strathmount_1

    Strzelecki_1

    Tallalia-1

    Tartulla_1

    Teedeeldee_1

    Three_Queens_1

    Ticklara_2

    Tindilpie-10

    Tinga_Tingana_1

    Tinpilla-1

    Tintaburra_1

    Tirrawarra_1Tirrawarra_North_1

    Toolachee_1

    Verona-1

    Wantana_1

    Wareena_1

    Warnie_East_1

    Wemy ss_1

    Whanto_1

    Wippo-1

    Wolgolla_1

    Wooloo_1

    Top Toolachee Vitrinite 0 Ma Clip

    0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

    120 km

    u29945 Nov 26 2014

    Cooper

    Trinity

    Model

    Vitrinite Ro(%)

    Windorah Trough/

    Ullenbury Depression

    Gas mature

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

  • Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Plays

    Unco. play types:

    1) Basin centred gas

    2) Shale gas

    3) Deep coal seam gas

    Gidgealpa Gp composite resource play: Basin centred gas accumulation +/- shale +/-

    deep coal seam gas +/- natural fracture play

    (Menpes et al., URTec, 2013)

    Shale gas Deep CSG BCG Source Seal Reservoir

    Conventional Unconventional Gas Plays

    Gid

    ge

    alp

    a G

    p

    Roseneath

    Murteree

    Toolachee

    Patchawarra

  • Composite Resource Play - Selection Criteria

    Play element Input Dataset Best estimate

    Source

    (thickness and

    TOC)

    Toolachee/

    Patchawarra

    isopachs and TOC

    maps

    Toolachee OR

    Patchawarra

    >15m thick AND

    >2% TOC

    Source

    maturity

    Maturity maps Wet gas (VR =

    1.2) at top

    Patchawarra

    Reservoir

    thickness

    Gidgealpa Gp

    Isopach

    >100- 200m

    Seal thickness Nappamerri Gp isopach

    >80-100m

    INP

    UT

    GR

    IDS

    O

    UT

    PU

    T

    Overpressure > 0.45psi/ft

    TOC > 2

    1.1%

  • Gidgealpa Composite Resource Play -

    Play Fairway Map

    Relative Chance

    of Success

    High

    Low

    QLD potentially prospective

    but higher uncertainty due

    to limited data

    Still lots of potential for other play

    types in outside the play fairway!

    Moomba production

    First draft play fairway map:

    Nappamerri Trough and

    surrounds

    Areas in northern

    Queensland

    Extent of gas window major

    limiting factor

    DRAFT

    Revisions required to include:

    Updated basin architecture

    New maturity maps

    Improved common risk

    segment selection criteria

    Tamarama 1 and

    Queenscliff 1; gas

    saturated section

    off structure

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

  • SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering)

    Pilot Study

    Aim: use SANS/ USANS to investigate pore

    sizes/ pore fluids within source rocks to

    determine their petroleum potential.

    Assess pore accessibility (1 nm to 20 m) to HCs

    Measure quantitatively the pore-size-dependent

    adsorption and desorption of methane

    Observe changes in pore sizes and connectivity

    under reservoir simulated conditions while

    fracturing rock

    Determine which source rocks can

    produce HCs

    Determine rock properties before and after

    induced fracture

    Determine what resource is recoverable

    Kidman 1

    Moomba 27

    Burley 2

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

  • Summary of Results To Date

    Revised basin architecture

    Plenty of good quality, mature

    source rock across the basin.

    Draft play fairway map for the

    Gidgealpa Group composite

    resource play:

    Potential for significant

    amounts of unconventional

    GIP in the Permian section

    across the basin,

    Further updates to come.

    Pilot SANS project to investigate

    what is recoverable future work

    program?

    DRAFT

    Cooper Basin Unconventional Gas Prospectivity

  • Phone: +61 2 6249 9111

    Web: www.ga.gov.au

    Email: [email protected]

    Address: Cnr Jerrabomberra Avenue and Hindmarsh Drive, Symonston ACT 2609

    Postal Address: GPO Box 378, Canberra ACT 2601

    Questions/ feedback?

    Contact: [email protected]