CONTROLLERS WORKSHOP 6 October 2011 Canberra THE ORIENTEERING COURSE MAP

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<ul><li><p>CONTROLLERS WORKSHOP6 October 2011 CanberraTHE ORIENTEERING COURSE MAP</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map1 Introduction2 General requirements of a map3 Map specifications4 Explanation of symbols5 Field checking6 Checklist for controlling the map making process7 Map deviations8 Other considerations9 Summary10 Tasks</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map1 Introduction1.1 Fairness</p><p>A standardised map is the basis for orienteering as an international event</p><p>a map with deviations = unfair competitionIts important to maintain the integrity and credibility of the sport and its based on rules</p><p>Nick Davies, Director IAAF, in reference to Usain Bolt being disqualified for a false start in the 100m final at the World Athletics Championships, August 2011</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map1 Introduction1.2 Rules applying to orienteering mapsInternational RulesCompetition Rules for IOF Foot orienteering Events 2011Section 15. MapsAppendix 6. Competition Format - Map scalesInternational Specifications for Orienteering Maps 2000 (ISOM2000)International Specifications for Sprint Orienteering Maps 2007 (ISSOM2007)International Specifications for Mountain Bike Orienteering Maps 2010 (ISMTBOM2010)International Specifications for Ski Orienteering Maps 2009 (ISSkiOM2009)Check list for controlling the map making of major IOF eventsGuidelines for using non-offset printed maps in World Ranking EventsIOF PrintTech test sheet spot colour, off set printed test sheetIOF Control Descriptions 2004Guidelines for World Ranking EventsSection 10. Model EventSection 11. Map</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map1 Introduction1.2 Rules applying to orienteering maps</p><p>Australian RulesCompetition Rules for Orienteering Australia Foot Orienteering EventsSection 15. MapsSection 17. Restricted areas and routesSection 18. Control descriptionsOA Operational Manual Section 2.9. Mapping of Rock FeaturesSection 2.10. Mapping - Digital Printing Policy</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map1 Introduction1.3 Development of O maps and influencing technology1897First public event, in Norway1900-1950 Small scale topographic maps used, 1:100,000 to 1:50,000 1928Invention of orienteering compass 1948Maps drawn specifically for orienteering1:25,0001960s PhotocopiersISOM69 1:25000, use of standard symbols1972Concept of runabilityISOM75 1: 200001970sLaser printers and copiers 1978First contour base map in Aust using a stereoplotter / analog machine1982ISOM82 1: 150001988Inkjet printer $1000ISOM90 1:150001990s Digital cartography ie OCAD, colour photocopiers &amp; printers, Laser jet printer (600dpi)2000ISOM2000 1:15000, 1:10000 for non elites, Sprint O at 1:5000, MTBO2000s Digital photogrammetry, digital aerial photography2005GPS, Airborne Laser Scanning (LIDAR), Google Earth (aerial and satellite photographs)2007ISSOM2007 1:5000/40002008Nearmap high resolution (to 2cm) digital aerial photographsISMBTOM2010The future? Automatic derivation of symbols from laser scanning? 3-D maps?</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map1 Introduction1.3 Development of O maps and influencing technology</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map2 General requirements2.1 Orienteering and the mapThe map must give a picture of the terrain</p></li><li><p>2 General requirements2.2 ContentThe map must contain features which:are obvious on the ground to a competitor at speed and,features that influence route choice</p><p> running navigation</p><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map2 General requirements2.3 Accuracya competitor should not perceive any inaccuracy in the mapspatial and height accuracyrelative and absolute accuracymaps should now be georeferencednormally World Geocentric System 1984 which is virtually identical to Geocentric Datum of Aust 1994</p><p>Control 24?Correct location on mapCorrect location in fieldMap distortionRelative locationAbsolute location</p><p>GPS tracking now requiresa higher level of map accuracy</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map2 General requirements2.4 Generalisation and legibiltiyThe Controller may need to advise the level of detail to be mappedThe map must be legible and easy to interpret at running speed</p><p>The need for GENERALISATION to aid map LEGIBILITY:</p><p>a few well drawn features are better than a lot of small detail that may clutter the map or disguise the shape of the landform</p><p>Eduard Imhof, Swiss cartographer</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map2 General requirements2.4 Generalisation and legibiltiyThere are two phases of generalisation</p><p>(1) Selective generalisation what is to be mappedMaps get more and more detailed. I dont know if this is the right way to go, but it is a fact. Thierry Gueorgiou Dec 2007</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map2 General requirements2.4 Generalisation and legibiltiy</p><p> (2) Graphic generalisation how it is to be drawn</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map2 General requirements2.4 Generalisation and legibiltiyGeneralisation or smoothing of LIDAR contours in the field by the mapper is essential</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map3 Map specifications3.1 ScaleTerrain that cannot be legibly presented at a scale of 1:15000 is not suitable for foot orienteering</p><p>Long distance1:15000, 1:10000* with approval** for elites 1:10000* for &lt; M/W16 and &gt;M/W40</p><p>Middle distance1:15000, 1:10000*</p><p>Relay1:15000, 1:10000*</p><p>Sprint1: 5000 or 4000</p><p>*A 1:10000 map is a strict enlargement of a 1:15000 map</p><p>**Approval is needed for M/W Elite junior &amp; senior and M/W 17-39A in the Australian Championships to use a scale other than 1:15000</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map3 Map specifications3.2 Contour intervalStandard is 5m interval. In flat terrain 2.5m may be used.Form lines: only one form line between contoursthere is a tendency to over use form lines</p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map3 Map specifications3.3 Dimensions of map symbolsCertain minimum dimensions must be respected to aid legibility </p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map3 Map specifications3.3 Dimensions of map symbolsCertain minimum dimensions must be respected to aid legibility </p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map3 Map specifications3.3 Dimensions of map symbolsOCAD can measure areas &amp; lengthsController can easily check compliance to minimum dimensions </p></li><li><p>Controllers Workshop - The orienteering course map3 Map specifications3.4 Enlargement of maps A 1:10000 scale map is a strict enlargement of a 1:15000 scale map</p><p>Why? 1:15000 considered a good compromise between the conflicting requirements of map reading for fine navigation &amp; for route choice. Larger map scales will lead to more map detail (ie less generalisation) and larger size maps for Long distance races. More detail requires more simplification by the orienteer and will slow down the running speed. Standard scales are 1:15000 and 1:5000/4000. </p></li></ul>

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