continental drift—an idea before its time alfred wegener (1880–1930) dedicated scientist....
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- Continental DriftAn Idea Before Its Time Alfred Wegener (18801930) Dedicated scientist. Continental drift hypothesis: The worlds continents are in motion and have been drifting apart into different configurations over geologic time. Proposed that the continents were at one time joined together to form the supercontinent of Pangaeauniversal land
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- Wegener used evidence from many disciplines to support his hypothesis Jigsaw fit of the continents Fossil evidence Matching rock types Matching mountain chains on different continents Paleoclimatic evidence Continental DriftAn Idea Before Its Time
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- Despite evidence to support continental drift, Wegener could not explain how continents moved. Without a suitable explanation, Wegeners ideas were dismissed.
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- Acceptance of Continental Drift Detailed mapping of the seafloor revealed: Huge mountain ranges in the middle of ocean basins Deep trenches alongside some continental margins
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- Acceptance of Continental Drift: Seafloor Spreading Harry Hess hypothesis of seafloor spreading provided the mechanism for continental drift: The seafloor is not permanent, it is constantly being renewed. Mid-ocean ridges are sites of new lithosphere formation. Oceanic trenches are sites of lithosphere destruction (subduction).
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- Seafloor Spreading Is Supported By: Magnetic Studies of the Ocean Floor Lava erupted at the mid-ocean ridges is rich in iron. Magnetite crystals align themselves to Earths magnetic field. Earths magnetic poles flipthe north and south poles exchange positionsknown as magnetic reversal.
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- Seafloor Spreading Is Supported By: Magnetic Studies of the Ocean Floor The seafloor holds a record of Earths magnetic field at the time the rocks of the seafloor cooled. The magnetic record appears as parallel, zebra-like stripes on both sides of mid- ocean ridges. The age of the ocean floor and the rate of seafloor spreading could be determined.
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- The Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the dramatic, changing surface features of the Earth. Earths lithosphere is divided into 8 large plates and some smaller ones. The continents move because they are embedded within the drifting plates.
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- The Theory of Plate Tectonics Plates are sections of Earths strong, rigid outer layerthe lithosphere. Plates consist of uppermost mantle and overlying crust. Plates overlie and ride atop the weaker asthenosphere. Eight major lithospheric plates Plates are in motion and continually changing in shape and size Largest plate is the Pacific Plate Several plates include an entire continent plus a large area of seafloor
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- The Theory of Plate Tectonics Earths plates move in different directions and at different speeds. Continental plates tend to move slowly. Oceanic plates tend to move faster.
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- The Theory of Plate Tectonics Interactions between plates occur along plate boundaries. Creation and destruction of lithosphere occurs along plate boundaries. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains occur along plate boundariesand sometimes along former plate boundaries.
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- The Theory of Plate Tectonics: Three Types of Plate Boundaries Divergent Plate Boundaries Magma generation and lithosphere formation Convergent Plate Boundaries Magma generation and lithosphere destruction Transform Fault Boundaries No magma generation, no formation or destruction of lithosphere
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- Divergent Boundary Features Plates move away from one another Asthenosphere rises and partially melts to form lava New crust is formed as lava fills in the gaps between plates In the ocean, seafloor spreading Mid-ocean ridge On land, continents tear apart Rift valley Shallow earthquakes
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- Convergent Boundary Features Plates move toward each other Oceanic crust is destroyed Continental crust is deformed Deep earthquakes
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- Types of Convergent Boundaries Oceanic-oceanic convergence: Older and denser plate descends beneath the other (subduction). Partial melting of mantle rock generates magma and volcanoes. If the volcanoes emerge as islands, a volcanic island arc is formed (Japan, Aleutian islands, Tonga islands).
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- Oceaniccontinental convergence: Denser oceanic plate subducts beneath the the less-dense continental plate. Partial melting of subducting rock and generates magma. Mountains produced by volcanic activity and compression are called continental volcanic arcs (Andes and Cascades). Types of Convergent Boundaries
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- Continentalcontinental convergence: Continued subduction can bring two continents together. Less dense, buoyant continental lithosphere does not subduct. The result is a collision between two continental blocks. The process produces mountains (Himalayas, Alps, Appalachians).
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- ContinentalContinental Convergence The continent to continent collision of India with Asia producedand is still producingthe Himalayas Sites of the deepest, strongest earthquakes
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- Transform-Fault Boundaries Plates slide past one another and no new lithosphere is created or destroyed - two segments of a mid-ocean ridge Transform faults are oriented perpendicular to mid-ocean ridge Permits plates to move from offset ridge segments Shallow but strong earthquakes
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- Transform-Fault Boundaries Most transform fault boundaries are located within ocean basins. A few transform fault boundaries, such as the infamous San Andreas Fault, cut through continental crust.
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- Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes The plate tectonics model accounts for the global distribution of earthquakes. About 80% of the worlds big earthquakes occur in subduction zones of the Ring of Fire.
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- GPS units stationed around the globe give us real time data of plate motions
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