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C. IV. FETTER
C. W. Fetter Department of Geology University of WisconsinOshkosh
Macmillan Publishing Company New York
Maxwell Macmillan Canada Toronto
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Editor: Robert A. McConnin Production Editor: Sharon Rudd Art Coordinator: Peter A. Robison Text Designer: Debra A. Fargo Cover Designer: Robert Vega Production Buyer: Pamela D. Bennett Illustrations: Maryland CartoGraphics Inc.
This book was set in Garamond by Syntax International and was printed and bound by Book Press, Inc., a Quebecor America Book Group Company. The cover was stamped by Book Press, Inc., a Quebecor America Book Group Company
Copyright 1993 by Macmillan Publishing Company, a division of Macmillan, Inc. Printed in the United States of America
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fetter, C. W. (Charles Willard)
Contaminant hydrogeoIogy/C. W. Fetter, p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 - 0 2 - 3 3 7 1 3 5 - 8 1. Water, UndergroundPollution. 2. Water, UndergroundPollutionUnited States. 3. Transport theory. 4. Hydrogeology.
I. Title. TD426.F48 1992 628.1'68dc20 92-17787
CIP Printing: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Year: 3 4 5 6 7
This book is dedicated to my parents, C. Willard Fetter and Grace Fetter.
When I completed the second edition of Applied Hydrogeology, I realized that it pro-vided only the barest of introductions to what is o n e of the most fascinating aspects of hydrogeology, the occur rence and movement of dissolved and nonaqueous phase con-taminants. Consulting work that I was doing also demonstrated that to understand fully the distribution of contaminants be low the water table o n e must consider the move-ment of soil moisture and contaminants in the vadose zone. As none of the standard tex tbooks present advanced topics of solute movement and retardation in both the saturated and vadose zone as well as the occur rence and movement of nonaqueous phase liquids, I think that there is a place for an advanced t ex tbook on contaminant hydrogeology.
In a very real sense this new b o o k is a sequel to Applied Hydrogeology. There is almost no overlap between the two books ; although s o m e material needed to be re-peated to lay the logical foundation for the advanced concepts presented in this book . Contaminant Hydrogeology is intended to be a t ex tbook for a graduate-level course in mass transport and ground-water contamination. Such a course might be taught in de-partments such as geology, civil engineering, geological engineering, or agricultural engineering. In order to obtain the fullest benefit from such a course, the students should have completed a course in geohydrology or hydrogeology. Basic knowledge of physics and chemistry is needed to understand the concepts presented herein.
In addition to its utility as a textbook, Contaminant Hydrogeology will be a valu-able reference b o o k for the working professional. Bo th solved example problems and case histories are presented. There is a mixture of the theoretical and the practical. Chapter 1 presents an overview of ground-water contamination and a review of basic mathematics. T h e theory of mass transport in the saturated zone is presented in Chap-ter 2. Top ics include advective-dispersive theory, stochastic transport theory, and de-scription of solute flow using fractals. Retardation and attenuation of dissolved solutes is covered in Chapter 3, whereas Chapter 4 introduces flow and mass transport in the vadose zone. T h e distribution and movement of nonaqueous phase liquids both above and be low the water table is discussed in Chapter 5. T h e reactions of inorganic com-pounds dissolved in ground water is the topic of Chapter 6. Chapter 7 contains an overview of organic chemistry and an exhaustive look at biodgradation of organic compounds in the ground. Chapter 8 contains "how-to" information on conducting
v i i
field investigations to install borings and monitoring wells as well as collecting soil, soil-water, and ground-water samples. The latest information on site remediation is found in Chapter 9.
In a b o o k of this nature there are a very large number of variablesfar more than can be accommodated by the 26 letters of the English and the 24 letters of the Greek alphabets. Many variables are indicated by symbols that are a combination of English and/or Greek letters. A variable is defined where first used in a chapter and then is listed in a table of notation at the end of the chapter. In order to accommodate the large number of variables in the book, the meaning of some symbols changes from chapter to chapter. Although this is not a desirable circumstance, it seemed preferable to such tactics as also utilizing the Hebrew and Russian alphabets. In many cases, if the reader goes to the original literature cited in the text, the notation of the original article will not be the same as that used in this text. This was necessary to have consistency within the text.
Units of measurement have been abbreviated in the text. Appendix E contains a key to these abbreviations.
1 am grateful to all who helped with this project. The following individuals pro-vided helpful reviews of chapter drafts: J ean M. Bahr, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Robert A. Griffin, University of Alabama; J ames I. Hoffman, Eastern Washington Univer-sity; Martinus Th. van Genuchten, U.S. Department of Agriculture Salinity Laboratory; Stephen Kornder, J ames River Paper Company; Garrison Sposito, University of California, Berkeley; and Nicholas Valkenburg, Geraghty and Miller, Inc. Peter Wierenga, University of Arizona, provided information on measuring soil-moisture tensions and Shlomo Neuman, University of Arizona, furnished me with a copy of Mualem's Soil Property Catalogue. Mary Dommer prepared the manuscript, and Sue Birch provided some of the figures.
C. W. Fetter
1.1 - Ground Water as a Resource 1
1.2 Types of Ground-Water Contaminants 2
1.3 Drinking-Water Standards 11
1.4 Risk and Drinking Water 14
1.5 Sources of Ground-Water Contamination 15 1.5.1 Category I: Sources Designed to Discharge Substances 16 1.5.2 Category I I : Sources Designed to Store, Treat and/or Dispose of
Substances 19 1.5.3 Category I I I : Sources Designed to Retain Substances During Transport 25 1.5.4 Category IV: Sources Discharging Substances as a Consequence of Other
Planned Activities 25 1.5.5 Category V: Sources Providing a Conduit for Contaminated Water to
Enter Aquifers 27 1.5.6 Category VI: Naturally Occurring Sources Whose Discharge is Created
and/or Exacerbated by Human Activity 28
1.6 Relative Ranking of Ground-WaterContamination Sources 29
1.7 ' Ground-Water Contamination as a Long-Term Problem 31
1.8 Review of Mathematics and the Flow Equation 32 1.8.1 Derivatives 32 1.8.2 Darcy's Law 35 1.8.3 Scaler, Vector, and Tensor Properties of Hydraulic Head and Hydraulic
Conductivity 35 1.8.4 Derivation of the Flow Equation in a Deforming Medium 37 1.8.5 Mathematical Notation 40 References 41
Chapter T w o
Mass Transport in Saturated Media 43
2.1 Introduction 43
2.2 Transport by Concentration Gradients 43
2.3 Transport by Advection 47
2.4 Mechanical Dispersion 49
2.5 Hydrodynamic Dispersion 51
2.6 Derivation of the Advection-Dispersion Equation for Solute Transport 52
2.7 Diffusion versus Dispersion 54
2.8 Analytical Solutions of the Advection-Dispersion Equation 56 2.8.1 Methods of Solution 56 2.8.2 Boundary and Initial Conditions 56 2.8.3 One-Dimensional Step Change in Concentration (First-Type
Boundary) 57 2.8.4 One-Dimensional Continuous Injection into a Flow Field (Second-Type
Boundary) 58 2.8.5 Third-Type Boundary Condition 60 2.8.6 One-Dimensional Slug Injection into a Flow Field 61 2.8.7 Continuous Injection into a Uniform Two-Dimensional Flow Field 61 2.8.8 Slug Injection into a Uniform Two-Dimensional Flow Field 63
2.9 Effects of Transverse Dispersion 65
2.10 Tests to Determine Dispersivity 66 2.10.1 Laboratory Tests 66 2.10.2 Field Tests for Dispersivity 68 2.10.3 Single-Well Tracer Test 69
2.11 Scale Effect of Dispersion 71
2.12 Stochastic Models of Solute Transport 77 2.12.1 Introduction 77 2.12.2 Stochastic Descriptions of Heterogeneity 78 2.12.3 Stochastic Approach to Solute Transport 81
2.13 Fractal Geometry Approach to Field-scale Dispersion 85 2.13.1 Introduction 85 2.13.2 Fractal Mathematics 85 2.13.3 Fractal Geometry and Dispersion 88 2.13.4 Fractal Scaling of Hydraulic Conductivity 90
2.14 Deterministic Models of Solute Transport 93
Case Study: Borden Landfill Plume 96
2.15 Transport in Fractured Media 103
2.16 Summary 107 Chapter Notation 109 References 1 1 1
Chapter T h r e e
Transformation, Retardation, and Attenuation of Solutes 115