connected cars - on the highways of tomorrow

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  • Richard Galinaitis

    Bus 552E - Technology and Adaptive Systems

    10/13/2014

    Connected Cars

    Image: U.S. Department of Transportation

  • RICHARD GALINAITIS 1

    CONNECTED CARS

    Table of Contents

    Identification/definition of the Connected Car (How do I recognize it?) ................................................................ 2

    Explanation and profile of the Connected Cars ............................................................................................................ 3

    Recent applications (initial target domains) .................................................................................................................... 4

    Identification of major players/users .............................................................................................................................. 5

    Assessment of limitations and potential .......................................................................................................................... 7

    Brief history of the evolution of the technology - including a timeline of the keys to development and

    application ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

    How should one decide when to adopt and how to employ the technology? .......................................................... 9

    Future development and expectations........................................................................................................................... 10

    Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................................... 11

    Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12

  • RICHARD GALINAITIS 2

    CONNECTED CARS

    Identification/definition of the Connected Car (How do I recognize it?)

    It was rumored that at a computer expo many years ago, Bill Gates made a joke that "If GM had kept up with

    technology like the computer industry has, we would all be driving $25.00 cars that got 1,000 miles to the

    gallon." While it is debatable whether Bill Gates actually made this remark, what is not debatable is the inclusion

    of high technology features and functions that are constantly being introduced to the automotive industry.

    With the earliest introduction of a simple controller in Volkswagen cars equipped with electronic fuel injection

    in the late 60s, computers have taken on more responsibilities as the years have passed. While not necessarily

    required to implement fuel injection, with the advent of more federally mandated emissions controls required

    in the 70s and 80s, computers became necessary to make cars more fuel efficient and cleaner. In todays

    automobiles computers are connected to everything from the Automatic transmission to Zone controlled air

    conditioners and people are expecting more features in their cars that allow them instant status updates for

    many systems in their automobiles. In 1996, GM launched *OnStar which then offered services to allow for

    automatic emergency

    response should the car be

    involved in an accident and

    some simple concierge

    services similar to phone

    operator services.

    Connected cars can be simply

    defined as automobiles that

    allow for connectivity to

    services beyond what is

    inherently a part of the car

    itself. This includes a range of services as simple as connectivity to a cell phone that allows for information to

    be exchanged between the phone and the car all the way to a fully autonomous vehicle that gathers information

    Figure 1 - NXP Semiconductors platform for the connected car

  • RICHARD GALINAITIS 3

    CONNECTED CARS

    from its environment via on-board sensors, Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications or Vehicle-to-

    Infrastructure (V2I) communications.

    Explanation and profile of the Connected Cars

    At the core of the connected car, is a computer controller that listens and talks to the various sensors and

    controllers throughout the car. The sensors allow the computers to react to external/internal stimuli and are

    the human analogue of the following:

    1. Touch to feel the slightest vibration, pressure or temperature in many systems of the car

    2. Hearing to hear voice commands inside the cabin

    3. Smell/Taste to examine the exhaust and gas vapors present in different systems

    4. Sight To view the cars surroundings for lane markings, other vehicles or parking spots

    The connected car interacts with the external environment though one of three ways

    1. V2V Also known as Car-to-Car (C2C), V2V is the communications

    mechanism through which vehicles are aware of other vehicles within

    their immediate vicinity. The V2V communication standards are still a work in progress between key

    players and the governing bodies like the US DOT, NHTSA, CEN and ETSI. These standards are a

    vital requirement to ensuring that all OEM and aftermarket system manufacturers allow for

    communicated information to be received timely, reliably and in a standard format over a common

    channel (currently a 75MHz bandwidth spectrum in the 5.85 5.925 GHz frequency band).

    2. V2I also known as Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I),

    V2I is the mechanism through which cars will talk

    to the infrastructure to obtain information about

    current traffic loading and potential emergency

    conditions so the driver and/or vehicle can

    respond appropriately. Currently slated to

    operate in the 5.9 GHz spectrum, the primary

    goal of V2I is to minimize traffic accidents and

    the injuries associated with the accidents. An

    additional targeted benefit includes

    environmental gains such as better fuel efficiency

    by helping traffic flow more consistently. One of

    the ultimate goals for the V2I systems in to

    reduce potential crash scenarios by an additional 12% over a V2V system.

    Figure 2 - V2I sensors allow the vehicle to identify its surroundings

  • RICHARD GALINAITIS 4

    CONNECTED CARS

    3. V2X when vehicles are able to communicate to both Infrastructure and other vehicles. In this case,

    As implied in the V2I implementation, there is also a requirement that local and federal governments will have

    to start adding the required smart traffic management systems such as traffic lights, roadway departure warning

    systems, lane management systems to allow for emergency vehicle passage.

    Figure 3 - V2X encompasses communications between vehicles and Infrastructure

    Recent applications (initial target domains)

    The initial application domain available for connected cars was initially

    focused on simple navigation. Before the advent of GPS satellites, GM

    was experimenting with their Driver Aid in Routing (DAIR) project

    which utilized encoded magnets imbedded in the road. These magnets

    were read by the in-car DAIR system which used indicator lights to

    indicate direction. Today, connected cars provide for a growing revenue

    stream and connected cars perform some of the following more popular applications

    1. Communications and Concierge services are available on many vehicles. These paid services allow

    a driver to interact with the system operator to get directions push down to their navigation system,

    make reservations, schedule maintenance

    appointments and a host of other services while

    keeping their eyes on the road. Additionally,

    emergency calls can be placed automatically when

    the car senses it has been involved in a collision to

    improve emergency response times.

    2. Engine diagnostics through the use of a phone

    application or a call to the car manufacturer, a

  • RICHARD GALINAITIS 5

    CONNECTED CARS

    connected car owner can get the current status of critical automobile systems and schedule a

    maintenance appointment as needed.

    3. Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous driving applications are available in several vehicles today.

    From applications that find and automatically park the car to adaptive cruise control systems that slow

    down or stop as needed based on traffic ahead of the vehicles. Some cruise control systems even

    utilized lane changing sensors to keep the automobile in the current lane of travel, thereby requiring

    minimal driver interventions when travelling long stretches of highway.

    4. Smart Navigation systems that receive traffic and accident alerts over the air and are able to

    recommend alternative routes to avoid traffic congestion.

    5. Security and Safety are also major application uses. For example, when a connected car is stolen, the

    owner only need to contact their service provider in conjunction with police to get the location of the

    stolen vehicle. Additionally, if the connected car is involved in a police chase, the car can be safely

    disabled by a remote signal.

    Figure 4 - Telematics Roadmap

    Identification of major players/users

    A number of different industries have the opportunity to work in the connected car domain. Among them are

    the obvious automobile and third party infotainment/navigation manufactures. But there are also service

    indus

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