Conflict management1

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>CONFLICT MANAGEMENTStructureObjectivesIntroductionNature and Types of ConflictThe Conflict ProcessImpact of ConflictLevels of Conflict (1) Intra-Personal Conflict (2) Inter-Personal Conflict (3) Inter-Group and Organisational Conflict CONFLICT MANAGEMENT1. Management of Conflict2. Conflict Resolution Strategies3. Let us Sum Up4. Key Words5. Terminal QuestionsOBJECTIVESINTRODUCTIONFundamentals of ConflictWhen people, groups or organisations diagree over significant issues, conflict may arise. Particularly, conflict occurs when a person or a group believes its attempts to achieve its goal are being blocked by another person or a groupConflict can and does create such situations that it makes it nearly impossible for people to work together. Nature and Types of ConflictRobbins defines conflict as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. The definition encompasses a wide range of conlicts that people experience in organisations.</p> <p>There is increasing evidence that not all conflicts are bad for performance and productivity. Some conflicts do support the goals of the group and improve the groups performance. These have been labeled functional constructive forms of conflict. Functional and Dysfunctional ConflictImpact on Performance1. Positive2. Neutral3. NegativeModerate Levels of Conflict are constructiveToo much or too little Conflict is destructiveTYPES OF CONFLICTIn organisation, there are three types of conflicts : 1. Task Conflict2. Relationship Conflict3. Process ConflictTHE CONFLICT PROCESS1. The process consists of four stages whch is presented.Stage 1Antecedent Conditions</p> <p>Stage 21. Perceived Conflict2. Felt ConflictThe Conflict ProcessStage 31. Manifest Conflict2. Conflict Management Strategy Stimulation ResolutionStage 4ConsequencesConflict Process1. Conflict exist at the interpersonal level. One party plans to block the attempts of another party from achieving a goal. In organisations some potential danger and harm threaten the hormonious functioning and their existence.2. Scarcity of resources, heterogeneity of members and diversity of goals, values, perception; also the degree of dependence between groups and insufficient exchange of information. The Conflict ProcessThe antecedent conditions must be perceived as threatening for conflict to develop. Perceives the harm that might be done to him and feels/realizes the potential damage.A party blocks the other partys attempts in attainment of goals.The conflict finally results in an outcome that may be functional or dysfunctional. IMPACT OF CONFLICTConflict can have both positive and negative impact on individuals, groups and organisations.Intergroup conflict may produce some changes within the group which are :(1) Group cohesiveness increases(2) Group becomes task-oriented(3) Leadership becomes more directive</p> <p>Rigidification of organisation structureGroup unity is stressedProlonged conflict is likely to affect the relationship between groups in the following manner: Groups become antagonistic toward each other Perceptual distortion</p> <p>Ineffective or absence of communicationGroup apply a double standard</p> <p>The potential benefits or intergroup conflicts are:Conflict clarifies the real issueConflict increases innovationIntergroup conflict produces cohesiveness within the group</p> <p>Conflict serves as a catharsisConflict resolution solidifies intergroup relationshipsLEVELS OF CONFLICTWe can distinguish three levels of conflict : Intra-Personal ConflictInter-Personal ConflictInter-Group and Organisational ConflictIntra-Personal ConflictGoal Conflict : Approach-approach conflictApproach-avoidance conflictAvoidance-avoidance conflict </p> <p>Inter-Personal ConflictInterpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individual in an organisation.Personal DifferencesInformation DeficiencyRole IncompatibilityEnvironmental StressInter-Group and Organisational ConflictOrganisational conflict, refers to conflict between two groups, departments or sections in an organisationTask Inter-Dependence : Task AmbiguityGoal IncompatibilityCompetition for Limited ResourcesCompetitive Reward SystemsLine and Staff</p> <p>MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICTWhen a potentially harmful conflict situation exists a manager needs to engage in conflict resolution. Managers should first attempt to determine the source of the conflict.The manager can help groups view their goals as part of a super ordinate goal to which the goals of both conflicting parties can contribute.Stimulating Functional ConflictSituations where conflict is needed for enhanced performance:The organisation is filled with yes menEmployees are afraid to admit ignoranceCompromise is emphasized in decision-makingManagers stress on harmony and peacePopularity is given more importance than technical competencePeople show great resistance to changeThere is unusually low rate of employee turnover.</p> <p>Stimulating Functional ConflictMay adopt one or more of the following techniquesManipulate Communication ChannelsDeviate messages from traditional channelsSuppress informationTransmit too much informationTransmit ambiguous or threatening informationManagement of ConflictOrganisational Restructure (Redefine jobs/tasks, reforms units/activities)Increase a units sizeIncrease specialisation/standardisationInclude, exclude or transfer membersIncrease interdependence between units</p> <p>Management of ConflictAlter Behaviour PatternsAttempt to change personality characteristicsCreate role conflictDevelop role incongruenceConflict Resolution StrategiesWhen the level of conflict is too high, conflict needs to be resolved.A comprehensive package of conflict resolution strategies has been suggested byh Feldman. These may be classified as follows:1) Conflict-avoidance strategies2) Conflict-diffusion strategies3) Conflict-containment strategies4) Conflict-confrontation strategies Conflict Resolution StrategiesConflict-avoidance StrategiesConflict-Diffusion StrategiesConflict-Containment StrategiesBargainingConflict-Confrontation StrategiesRestructuring</p> <p>Strategies for Resolving ConflictsFrustrationRemoval of barriers that evoke frustrationDiversion into competitive channelsGoal conflictApproach-approach conflict may be tackled by applying concepts from the theory of Cognitive DissonanceApproach-avoidance conflict can be resolved by examining and solving the problems causing the conflictRole conflict can be resolved by minimizing the number of roles and fixing priorities for them. Strategies for Resolving ConflictsMost of the intrapersonal conflict can be resolved by developing compatibility between the conflictees personal and organisation goals.Inter-Personal Conflict(1) Lose-Lose(2) Win-Lose(3) Win-Win(4) Transactional AnalysisInter-Group and Organisational ConflictProblem SolvingOranisation RedesignSuper ordinate goalsExpansion of ResourcesAvoidance SmootheningCONCEPT OF TEAMMost of the activities of the organisation achieve its goals. The most prevalent type of formal group is the command team. Another type of formal team is the committee. A quality circle is a kind of team. When a team has completed its investigation and identified a solution, it makes a formal presentation to the plant management and staff.Some formal teams are temporary. </p> <p>CONCEPT OF TEAMThey may be called task forces or project teams.Informal teams or groups emerge whenever people come together and interact.</p> <p>TEAM DEVELOPMENTThe team is formed as a result of interaction and influence of members who strive for the achievement of common goal. In this process, the team members try to understand others behaviour, realise the appropriateness of the behaviour and the role of the team memebrs.Forming : In this stage the members try to explore and understand the behaviour of the team members.Storming : In the second stage, members start competing for status, leadership and control in the group. Individuals understand other behaviour and assert their role in the group.Team DevelopmentNorming : The members start moving in a cohesive manner. They establish a balance among various conflicting forces. They develop group norms and consensus for the achievement of the group goal.Performing : In this stage, the team makes effort for the performance of task and accomplishment of objectives. The established pattern of relationships improves co-ordination and helps in resolving conflicts.</p> <p>Team DevelopmentAdjourning : When this purpose if fulfilled, the team may be adjourned.</p> <p>TEAM BUILDINGThe Johari Window ApproachThe Role Negotiation ApproachThe team Roles ApproachThe Behaviour Modification ApproachThe Simulation ApproachThe Action Research ApproachThe Appreciative Inquiry ApproachProjection into FutureTeam BuildingLinkage with Individual GoalsForce-Field AnalysisStrengthening Positive ForcesReducing Negative ForcesMonitoringTEAM EFFECTIVENESSEffective team has following parameters:-The degree to which objectives of the team are achieved.The degree to which the team achieves the needs and well being of its members; andThe ability of the team to survive. TEAM EFFECTIVENESSOrganisational and team environment relates to the following elements:- Reward SystemCommunicationSystemsPhysical SpaceOrganisational EnvironmentOrganisational Structure, and Organisational Leadership</p> <p>Team DesignIt involves following elements : It involves following elements:*Task Characteristics*Team Size; and* Team Composition3. Team Processes: It includes* Team Development, Team Norms, Team Roles, and Team CohesivenessConcept of LeadershipLeadership may be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals. The leader is a part of the group that he leads, but he is distinct from the rest of the group. Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. Leadership naturally implies the existence of a leader and followers as well as their mutual interaction.It involves inter-personal relation which sustains the followers accepting the leaders guidance for accomplishment of specified goals.Managers have to guide and lead their subordinates towards the achievement of group goals. Therefore, a manager can be more effective if he is good leader. He does not depend only on his positional power or formal authority to secure group performance but exercises leadership influence for the purpose. As a leader he influences the conduct and behaviour of the members of work team in the interest. </p> <p>It is a continuous process whereby the manager influences, guides and directs the behaviour of subordinates.The manager-leader is able to influence his subordinates behaviour at work due to the quality of his own behaviour as leader.The purpose of managerial leadership is to get willing cooperation of the work group in the achievement of specified goals.The success of a manager as leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by the subordinates.Concept of LeadershipManagerial leadership requires that while group goals are pursued, individual goals are also achieved.</p> <p>IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIPManagement is based on the formal authority of managers. Whereas, being leaders of work group enables managers to achieve results on the basis of inter-personal relations. The enables managers to achieve results on the basis of inter-personal relations. The leader manager identifies himself with the work group.Theories of LeadershipBehavioural TheoryThe behavioural theories of leadership are based on the belief that leaders can be identified by reference to their behaviour in relating to the followers. They are described as employee-centred leaders. On the other hand, leaders who are production-centred emphasize job performance in conformity with prescribed standards.Behavioural TheoryLeader followers relations, that is the degree of followers trust, confidence and respect for the leader.The extent to which the task performed by subordinates is routine or non-routine (known as task structure).The position power of the leader, that is , the power associated with the rank and position of the leader in the organisation. Behavioural TheoryHe defined favourableness of a situation as the degree to which the situation enables the leader to exert his influence over his group.Another situational theory is the Path-Goal Theory. According to this theory, leaders are effective due to their influence on followers motivation, ability to perform, and their satisfaction. Subordinates are motivated by the leader to the extent he is able to influence their expectancies relating to the performance and attractiveness of the goal.Leardership StylesThere are three basic styles of leadership as follows:(i) Autocratic or Authoritative Style(ii) Democratic or Participative Style, and (iii) Laissez-faire or Free-rein Style</p> <p>Autocratic or Authoritative StyleAn autocratic leader centralises power and decision making in himself and exercises complete control over the subordinates. LimitationsSeveral limitations of the autocratic style of leadership.It results in low morale due to the ineer dissatisfaction of employees.Efficiency of production goes down in the long run.It does not permit development of future managers from among capable subordinates.Democratic or Participative StyleThe democratic style is also known as participative style. In this style , decisions are taken by the leader in consultation with the subordinates and with their participation in the decision-making process. Laissez Faire Leadership StyleLaissez faire leadership style is just the opposite of autocratic style. A manager, who adopts this style, completely gives up his leadership role. The subordinate group is allowed to make decisions and it is left to the members of the group to do as they like.Functions of LeadershipThe more important to these functions are given below:-The develop team workTo act as a representative of the work-groupTo act as a counsellor of the people at workTime managementProper use of powerSecure effectiveness of group-effortEffective and Ineffective StylesThe following are regarded as more effective styles:-ExecutiveDeveloperBenevolent AutocratBureaucratCompromiserMissionaryAutocratDeserter</p> <p>Factors Influencing Leadership EffectivenessThe leaders own personality, past experience and expectations.The expectations and behaviour of his superiors.The subordinates characteristics, expectations and behaviour.The requirements of tasks to be performed by subordinates.Expectations and behaviour of fellow managers(peers).Organisational culture(climate) and policies.</p> <p>Qualities of an Effective LeaderMental and physical healthEmpathySelf-confidenceAwareness of others opinion about himselfObjectivityKnowledge and Intelligence DecisivenessAbility to CommunicateSense of purpose and respo...</p>