concentric and isometric
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- 1. Teres Major Trapezius- Upper back Latisimus Dorsi- Lower Back Erector spinae
- 2. Biceps Triceps Deltoids Pectoralis Major Rectus Abdominus Obliques
- 3. Quadriceps: Rectus femoris Vastus intermedius Vastus Lateralis Vastus Medialis Tibialis anterior
- 4. Gluteus Maximus Hamstrings: Biceps Femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Soleus Gastrocnemius
- 5. ORIGIN - INSERTION -
- 6. Origin Insertion
- 8. WITHIN OUR SKELETAL MUSCLE WE ACTUALLY HAVE 2 TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBRE CALLED FAST AND SLOW TWITCH FIBRES, RELATED TO THE SPEED IN WHICH THEY CONTRACT. Slow Fibres: Walk long distances Fast fibres: React quickly when needed
- 9. RED in colour, as they have a good blood supply They are suited to endurance work and are slow to fatigue - Due to having a dense network of blood vessels.
- 10. They also contain many MITOCHONDRIA (Energy producing organelles within cells), making them more efficient at producing energy using OXYGEN (O2). Type 1 Slow Twitch Fibres
- 11. FAST TWITCH FIBRES CONTRACT TWICE AS QUICKLY AS SLOW TWITCH FIBRES AND THICKER IN SIZE. They have a poor blood supply, meaning they are whiter in appearance and will fatigue quicker due to lack of OXYGEN (O2) Type 2a and type 2b Fast Twitch Fibres
- 12. Their FASTER, HARDER contractions make them suitable for producing fast and powerful contractions. E.G: Sprinting and Weightlifting Type 2a and type 2b Fast Twitch Fibres
- 13. TYPE 2 (A) Work at slightly lower intensities, but higher than slow twitch fibres are capable of. For example, a 400m runner would utilise Type 2a fibres.
- 14. Type 2 (b) These fibres work when a person is working close to their maximum intensity. For example, a 100m runner would use these type of fibres, or an Olympic lifter performing a fast lift.
- 15. Type 1 and Type 2b fibres will always retain their distinctive features. However, Type 2a can take on characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2b depending on the training (they do not change their fibre type). Bursztyn (1997): well trained middle- distance athletes will have 80% slow twitch fibres and well trained sprinters may have up to 75% fast twitch fibres
- 16. How do muscles work? Muscles can only pull Muscles are attached to bones by tendons Muscles pull when they contract When the muscle contracts it pulls on the bone causing movement
- 17. How do muscles work? The bone act like levers and the joints are the fulcrum Muscles get shorter and fatter when they contract. Muscles usually work as pairs pulling in opposite directions these are called antagonistic muscles.
- 18. The biceps and triceps work together as an antagonistic pair to move the elbow joint. To flex the elbow, the biceps (the flexor) contracts and the triceps (the extensor) relaxes. To extend the elbow, the actions are reversed so that the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes. The muscles of the upper arm
- 19. The quadriceps and hamstrings in the legs are another antagonistic pair. Can you answer the following questions? Which joint do they move? What types of movement are produced? Which is the flexor and which is the extensor? Identify the origin and insertion of each muscle. quadriceps hamstrings Quad & Hamstring movement
- 21. The fixators hold the scapula still by increasing tension, but keeping the same length. In the same way that a guy rope holds a tent up.
- 22. E.g. Walking is automatic takes no real cognitive effort learned & needs concentration for toddlers. With constant practice: 1. Neural networks & motor neuron/muscle pathways become fast and effortless, 2. No conscious thought to achieve the fluid sequence of motor activity that produces optimal walking behaviour.
- 23. Eccentric - Involves controlling the weight on its way down Concentric - Contraction to push weight away from the body
- 24. WHERE A MUSCLE CONTRACTS, BUT DOES NOT CHANGE IN LENGTH. THE MUSCLE IS ACTIVE IN HOLDING A STATIC POSITION THIS IS EASY TO TRAIN, BUT SOON LEADS TO FATIGUE
- 25. Give examples of sporting activities using each of the types of contraction Muscle contraction
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