COMPUTER SKILLS - جامعة نزوى OF COMPUTER • Generation in computer ... The period of first generation: 1946-1959. ... computers and computer-related technology ...
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COMPUTER SKILLS COMP101 1 Course Content Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Numbering Systems Chapter 3 Hardware Chapter 4 Introduction to Computer Networks Chapter 5 Introduction to the Internet Chapter 6 System And Application Software 2 Chapter I Introduction 3 HOW COMPUTERS WORK Any digital computer carries out five functions in gross terms Takes data as input Stores the data/instructions in its memory and use them when required. Processes the data and converts it into useful information. Generates the output Controls all the above four steps 4 FUNCTIONS OF COMPUTER 5 ADVANTAGES High Speed Accuracy Storage Capability Flexibility Reliability Automation Reduction in Paper Work Reduction in Cost 6 DISADVANTAGES A computer is a machine that has no intelligence to perform any task. Each instruction has to be given to computer. A computer cannot take any decision on its own. 7 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Hardware - Physical components that make up a computer system Hardware of a Modern personal computer 8 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Software - Computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling computer hardware what to do and how to do it. 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Hardware and Software have symbiotic interrelated relationship. This means that without software, hardware is very limited; and without hardware, software wouldn't be able to run at all. 10 Relationship between Hardware and Software APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 1. Business A computer has high speed of calculation, diligence, accuracy, reliability, and versatility which made it an integrated part in all business organizations. Banking Insurance Marketing 11 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 2. Education The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the education system. The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education). CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning. There are number of methods in which educational institutions can use computer to educate the students such as: Prepare a database about students performance Data analysis. 12 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 3. Health Care Computers have become important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. The computers are being used in hospitals to keep records of patients and medicines. 13 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER Some major fields of health care in which computers are used are: Diagnostic System - Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness. Laboratory-diagnostic System - All tests can be done and reports are prepared by computer. Patient Monitoring System - These are used to check patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG etc. Pharmacy Information System - Computer checks Drug-Labels, Expiry dates, harmful drugs side effects etc. Surgery: Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery. 14 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 4. Engineering Design Computers are widely used in Engineering purpose. One of major areas is CAD (Computer aided design). That provides creation and modification of images. 15 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER Some fields are: Structural Engineering - Requires stress and strain analysis for design of Ships, Buildings, Budgets, and Airplanes etc. Industrial Engineering - Computers deal with design, implementation and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials and equipments. Architectural Engineering - Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings. 16 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 5. Military Computers are largely used in defense. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons etc. Military also employs computerized control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been used are: Missile Control Military Communication Military Operation and Planning Smart Weapons 17 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 6. Communication Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant for. Some main areas in this category are: E-mail Chatting Files transfer Video-conferencing 18 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 7. Government Seamlessly integrating all Ministries and Government entities to provide faster and more effective public services online. 19 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. 20 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER S.N. Generation & Description 1 First Generation The period of first generation: 1946-1959. Vacuum tube based. 2 Second Generation The period of second generation: 1959-1965. Transistor based. 3 Third Generation The period of third generation: 1965-1971. Integrated Circuit based. 4 Fourth Generation The period of fourth generation: 1971-1980. VLSI microprocessor based. 5 Fifth Generation The period of fifth generation: 1980-onwards. ULSI microprocessor based 21 http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_first_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_second_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_third_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fourth_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fifth_generation.htmTYPES OF COMPUTER 1. PC (PERSONAL COMPUTER) A PC can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. Another name of PC is Microcomputer, because PCs are based on the microprocessor technology. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is playing games and surfing Internet. 22 TYPES OF COMPUTER 2. Workstation: Workstation is a computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other such types of applications which require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. 23 TYPES OF COMPUTER 3. Minicomputer It is a midsize multi-processing system capable of supporting up to 250 users simultaneously 24 TYPES OF COMPUTER 4. Mainframe Computer Mainframe is very large in size and is an expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Mainframe executes many programs concurrently and supports many simultaneous execution of programs 25 TYPES OF COMPUTER 5. Super Computer Supercomputers are one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amount of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting, scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). 26 TYPES OF COMPUTER S.N Type Specifications 1 PC (Personal Computer) It is a single user computer system having moderately powerful microprocessor 2 WorkStation It is also a single user computer system which is similar to personal computer but have more powerful microprocessor. 3 Mini Computer It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. 4 Main Frame It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. Software technology is different from minicomputer. 5 Supercomputer It is an extremely fast computer which can execute hundreds of millions of instructions per second. 27 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER S.No Operation Description 1 Take Input (Input Unit) The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system 2 Store Data (Memory Unit) Saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required. 3 Processing Data (CPU) Performing arithmetic, and logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information. 4 Output Information (Output Unit) The process of producing useful information or results for the user, such as a printed report or visual display. 5 Control the workflow (Control Unit) Directs the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed. 28 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER 29 COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY Advantages Make routine tasks quick, easy, and accurate Save lives Create large amounts of new wealth. Find information, Create entertainment Disadvantages brings with it new opportunities for crime Copying the software without proper copyrights, leads to software theft Hacking Attacks by computer viruses Unreliable software Loose of privacy 30 COMPUTER SCIENCE AS DISCIPLINE Computer science is a discipline that spans theory and practice Computer science can be seen on a higher level, as a science of problem solving. Computer science also has strong connections to other disciplines, such as engineering, health care, business, and other areas 31 Major Areas of Computer Science 1. Operating Systems--concerned with the development and structure of complex programs which facilitate man-machine communications. 2. Computational Science--the analysis of numerical methods for solving mathematical problems with a computer. 3. Programming Languages--the study of the design and properties of languages by which humans communicate with computers. 4. Architecture--the study and use of mathematical logic to design electronic circuits. 5. Intelligent Systems--concerned with means by which computers may perform tasks which might be characterized as "intelligent" if performed by humans. 6. Automata Theory--an abstract study of computers and their capabilities. 7. Information Storage and Retrieval--the study of methods for storing a vast amount of data in a computer and methods for searching and retrieving this data. 32 Major Areas of Computer Science 8. Software Engineering--the study of tools and techniques for software design, development, testing and maintenance. 9.Computer Network--the study of the principles of communication between computers. Computer networking emphasizes the design of local area networks (LANs), which connect computers within a small geographical area, and wide area networks (WANs), which use telephone lines or radio waves to connect computers thousands of miles apart. 10. Computer Graphics--which is related to graphic design and the visual arts, combines video and computer technologies to produce two-, three-, and four-dimensional graphic images (such as those seen in video games and computer- animated films) using computers. Computer Engineering: A broad discipline that incorporates the fields of computer science and electrical engineering. Computer engineering emphasizes the theory, design, and development of computers and computer-related technology including both hardware and software 33 Best Job opportunities of Computer Science Professionals 1. Software Developer These professionals design and program the computer applications we all use each day 2. Information Security Analysts These professionals are responsible for making sure that data on company websites and servers is protected from theft and fraud 3. Computer Systems Analysts These professionals design the ideal systems for businesses and organizations and help implement these designs 4. Computer and Information Systems Manager These professionals are typically the information technology leader in an organization. 5. Computer and Information Research Scientists These professionals do research to solve complex computer problems in a variety of industries, and invent new ways to approach the ways we use technology. 34 Best Job opportunities of Computer Science Professionals 6. Computer Network Architect These professionals are responsible for building connections between several businesses or a huge network of users 7. Network and Computer Systems Administrators As a systems administrator, these professionals are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the physical computer networks within organizations 8. Database Administrator Database administrators use software to manage information capacity for businesses, government bureaus, and other organizations. 9. Web Developer These professionals are responsible for the look and functionality of company websites, intranets, and applications 10. Computer Support Specialists These professionals help troubleshoot software and hardware problems for large and small companies alike. 35 FUTURE COMPUTER Predicting the future is hard and risky. But predicting the future in the computer industry is even harder and riskier due to dramatic changes in technology and limitless challenges to innovation. Our world is already much, much smarter than 10 years ago and as computing power doubles every 18 months, its propelling us towards a radically different future. Engineers are already designing driverless cars that rely on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and laser sensors to avoid obstacles autonomously. 36 FUTURE COMPUTER By 2020, computer intelligence will be everywhere, not just in the cars and the roads, but practically in every object you see around you. This new world will require sophisticated intelligent coordination software, voice, image, and motion recognition will transform human-computer interfaces into a seamless interaction between the user and all the computing devices in that persons life. In the future, you might be able to talk to computers and robots the same way you talk to your friends. 37 FUTURE COMPUTER Researchers are trying to break down the language barrier between humans and computers, as part of a new program from the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA), which is responsible for developing new technologies for the U.S. military. The program dubbed Communicating with Computers (CwC) aims to get computers to express themselves more like humans by enabling them to use spoken language, facial expressions and gestures to communicate 38 Q & A 39 COMPUTER SKILLSCOMP101Course ContentChapter IHOW COMPUTERS WORKFUNCTIONS OF COMPUTERADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGESFUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMSFUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMSFUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMSAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERAPPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERGENERATIONS OF COMPUTERGENERATIONS OF COMPUTERTYPES OF COMPUTERTYPES OF COMPUTERTYPES OF COMPUTERTYPES OF COMPUTERTYPES OF COMPUTERTYPES OF COMPUTERMAJOR COMPONENTS OF COMPUTERMAJOR COMPONENTS OF COMPUTERCOMPUTERS AND SOCIETYCOMPUTER SCIENCE AS DISCIPLINEMajor Areas of Computer ScienceMajor Areas of Computer ScienceBest Job opportunities of Computer Science ProfessionalsBest Job opportunities of Computer Science ProfessionalsFUTURE COMPUTERFUTURE COMPUTERFUTURE COMPUTERQ & A
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Generations of Computer - of Computer First Generation of Computer (1946-1959) Main Features Major Innovation - Vacuum Tubes Main Memory - Punched Cards
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What computers are - it321.files. Computers (1642 –1945) •First Generation Vacuum Tubes (1946 –1959) •Second Generation Transistors ... Computer Generations.