COMPUTER SKILLS - COMPUTERS WORK Any digital computer ... GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER •Generation in computer terminology is a ... The period of first generation: 1946-1959.

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17/05/1438 1 COMPUTER SKILLS COMP101/L 1 Course Content Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Numbering Systems Chapter 3 Hardware Chapter 4 Introduction to Computer Networks Chapter 5 Introduction to the Internet Chapter 6 System And Application Software 2 17/05/1438 2 Chapter I Introduction 3 HOW COMPUTERS WORK Any digital computer carries out five functions in gross terms Takes data as input Stores the data/instructions in its memory and use them when required. Processes the data and converts it into useful information. Generates the output Controls all the above four steps 4 17/05/1438 3 FUNCTIONS OF COMPUTER 5 ADVANTAGES High Speed Accuracy Storage Capability Flexibility Reliability Automation Reduction in Paper Work Reduction in Cost 6 17/05/1438 4 DISADVANTAGES A computer is a machine that has no intelligence to perform any task. Each instruction has to be given to computer. A computer cannot take any decision on its own. 7 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Hardware - Physical components that make up a computer system Hardware of a Modern personal computer 8 17/05/1438 5 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Software - Computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling computer hardware what to do and how to do it. 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Hardware and Software have interrelated relationship. This means that without software, hardware is very limited; and without hardware, software wouldn't be able to run at all. 10 Relationship between Hardware and Software 17/05/1438 6 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 1. Business A computer has high speed of calculation, diligence, accuracy, reliability, which made it an integrated part in all business organizations. Banking Insurance Marketing 11 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 2. Education The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the education system. The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education). 12 17/05/1438 7 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 3. Health Care Computers have become important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. The computers are being used in hospitals to keep the records of patients and medicines. 13 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER Healthcare Applications Some major fields of health care in which computers are used are: Diagnostic System - Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness. Laboratory-diagnostic System - All tests can be done and reports are prepared by computer. Patient Monitoring System - These are used to check patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG etc. Pharmacy Information System - Computer checks Drug-Labels, Expiry dates, harmful drugs side effects etc. Surgery: Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery. 14 17/05/1438 8 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 4. Engineering Design Computers are widely used in Engineering purpose. One of major areas is CAD (Computer aided design). That provides creation and modification of images. 15 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER Engineering Applications Some fields are: Structural Engineering - Requires stress and strain analysis for design of Ships, Buildings, Budgets, and Airplanes etc. Industrial Engineering - Computers deal with design, implementation and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials and equipments. Architectural Engineering - Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings. 16 17/05/1438 9 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 5. Military Computers are largely used in defense. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons etc. Military also employs computerized control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been used are: Missile Control Military Communication Military Operation and Planning Smart Weapons 17 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 6. Communication Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant for. Some main areas in this category are: E-mail Chatting Files transfer Video-conferencing 18 17/05/1438 10 APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER 7. Government Seamlessly integrating all Ministries and Government entities to provide faster and more effective public services online. 19 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. 20 17/05/1438 11 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER S.N. Generation & Description 1 First Generation The period of first generation: 1946-1959. Vacuum tube based. 2 Second Generation The period of second generation: 1959-1965. Transistor based. 3 Third Generation The period of third generation: 1965-1971. Integrated Circuit based. 4 Fourth Generation The period of fourth generation: 1971-1980. VLSI microprocessor based. 5 Fifth Generation The period of fifth generation: 1980-onwards. ULSI microprocessor based 21 TYPES OF COMPUTER 1. PC (PERSONAL COMPUTER) A PC can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. Another name of PC is Microcomputer, because PCs are based on the microprocessor technology. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is playing games and surfing Internet. 22 http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_first_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_first_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_first_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_second_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_second_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_second_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_third_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_third_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_third_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fourth_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fourth_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fourth_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fifth_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fifth_generation.htmhttp://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_fifth_generation.htm17/05/1438 12 TYPES OF COMPUTERS 2. Workstation Workstation is a computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications. These applications require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. 23 TYPES OF COMPUTERS 3. Minicomputer (Servers) It is a midsize multi-processing system capable of supporting large number of users simultaneously. 24 17/05/1438 13 TYPES OF COMPUTER 4. Mainframe Computer Mainframe is more powerful and costly than ordinary servers; capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. 25 TYPES OF COMPUTER 5. Super Computer Supercomputers are more powerful and expensive than the mainframes. They are employed for specialized applications that require big amount of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting, scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). 26 17/05/1438 14 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER 27 COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY Advantages Make routine tasks quick, easy, and accurate Save lives Create large amounts of new wealth. Find information, Create entertainment Disadvantages Brings with it new opportunities for crime Software theft Hacking Attacks by computer viruses Loose of privacy 28 17/05/1438 15 COMPUTER SCIENCE AS DISCIPLINE Computer science is a discipline that spans theory and practice. Computer science can be seen on a higher level, as a science of problem solving. Computer science also has strong connections to other disciplines, such as engineering, health care, business, and other areas. 29 Some Major Areas of Computer Science 1. Operating Systems--concerned with the development and structure of complex programs which facilitate man-machine communications. 2. Programming Languages--the study of the design and properties of languages by which humans communicate with computers. 3. Intelligent Systems--concerned with means by which computers may perform tasks which might be characterized as "intelligent" if performed by humans. 4. Software Engineering--the study of tools and techniques for software design, development, testing and maintenance. 30

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