computer organisation, generations & current trend

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Computer Organisation, Generations & Current Trend. Prof. Sujata Rao Session 3. The C P U. Control Unit. Main Memory. Input. Arithmetic & Logic Unit. Output. Auxiliary & Backup Store. Store. Storage Device. Retrive. Display. Output. Central Processing Unit - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Computer Organisation,Generations & Current TrendProf. Sujata RaoSession 3

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The C P U StoreRetriveOutputStorage DeviceAuxiliary & Backup StoreDisplayCentral Processing Unit ( C P U )

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Main MemoryMain MemoryControl UnitArithmetic & Logic UnitRandom Access Memory ( R A M ) for Read & WriteRead Only Memory (R O M )O/SAppln PrgmExec PrgmBIOSSupervisory MemoryUser memory

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    R O MControl UnitArithmetic & Logic UnitMain MemoryRandom Access Memory ( R A M ) for Read & Write(R O M )O/SAppln PrgmExec PrgmBIOSSupervisory MemoryUser memory 1. Masked ROM 2. P R O M 3. E P R O M 4. E E P R O M D A T A

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    4 Type of R O MMasked R O M A bit pattern is permanently recorded.Specialised Manufacturing Process.Very Expensive

    P R O M - Programmable Read Only MemoryCan be programmed by UserUsing PROM Prgm can burn the fuses according to the bit pattern - Burning the PROM

    E P R O M Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.Info stored is Semi-Permanent. Can be erased by exposing the memory to Ultra Violet Rays.Can be programmed again Most commonly used

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    E E P R O M Electricity Erasable - Programmable Read Only MemorySimilar to EPROMInfo can be altered using electrical signalsManufacturing process is quite complexNot commonly UsedVery Expensive

    E A P R O M - Electricity Alterable - Programmable Read Only Memory

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Types of ComputerAnalog - Solves Problem by operating on contineous Variables.Digital - performs arithmetic, logical & comparative functions on info in digital formCombines features of Analog & Digital

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Generation of Computers1st - Tubes & Vales, large in size, Slow operating Speed, Limited Programming Capacity, Short Life Span, Generated lot heat

    2nd - Transistors , smaller in size, faster speed, lesser in cost & High reliability 3rd - Semiconductors, CHIP made of ICs in mid 60s, increased ALU capability, ability to perform parallel operation, improvement of instructions, much smaller , reduction in cost drastically 4th - silicon chips, high resolution monitors, graphics improved,speed improved, size & cost reduced.

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The C P U

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Super Grids Made by universities and the military (Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors, for example) and other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.

  • Types Of Hardware & SoftwareProf. Sujata RaoSession 4

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Types of ComputerGrid Computer

    Super Computer

    Mainframes

    Mini Computer Microcomputer

    Terminal Embedded Computer

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Super Grids Made by universities and the military (Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors, for example) and other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Super ComputerCDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray (First commercially successful supercomputer-speed of 9 megaflops)

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    SupercomputersCray 1 - 1976 (courtesy Cray Inc.) Cray Research-CRAY I vector architecture (designed by Seymour Cray, shaped the computer industry for years to come),

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Thinking Machines, The Connection Machine, as this model is called, contains 64,000 CPUs

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Players in the supercomputing arenaIn 40 years (2004) there are but a few players left in the supercomputing arena:Cray Dell HP (absorbed: Amdahl, Compaq who ate Digital) IBM NEC SGI Sun

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    CompaniesIBM 3090 VPF.Evans Sutherland ES-1,Fujitsu VP-400E, NSFnet established Apollo, Ardent, and Stellar Graphics Supercomputers,Hitachi S-820/80, Hypercube simulation on a LAN at ORNL,CRAY Y-MP,Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web project at CERNSeymour Cray: Founds Cray Computer Corp.-Begins CRAY 3 using gallium arsenide chipsBell Labs - Optical ProcessorsIntell - Paralell Processors

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    MainframesMark I mainframe (1950's)Eniac (1946) BINAC(1960's)

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    MainframeMainframe is an industry term for a large computer. The name comes from the way the machine is build up: all units (processing, communication etc.) were hung into a frame. Thus the main computer is build into a frame, therefore: Mainframe

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    ManufacturersAmdahl, Burroughs, CDC Cray, Fujitsu, Hitachi, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Intel, NEC, SGI, Sun, Texas Instruments, Thinking Machines Univac

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    ObjectiveA mainframe has 1 to 16 CPU's (modern machines more) Memory ranges from 128 Mb over 8 Gigabyte on line RAM Its processing power ranges from 80 over 550 Mips It has often different cabinets for Storage I/O RAM

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Separate processes (program) for task management program management job management serialization catalogs inter address space communication

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Objectivecentralized computing opposite from distributed computing. Meaning all computing takes (physically) place on the mainframe itself: the processor section .

    main purpose is to run commercial applications of Fortune 1000 businesses and other large-scale computing purposes.

    19 July 2006*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    IBM 4381 mainframe processor from 1985