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  • 1. Computer Networking Yehuda Afek( afekatcs.tau.ac.il ) Adopted the slides from Yishay Mansour Teaching Assistant:Yahav Nussbaum

2. Course Information

  • Lectures:Sunday4 7 Schreiber 006
  • Exercises:Wednesday 11 12,12 1Orenstein 103

Web site:http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~nuss/comnet08/

  • An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking / Keshav
  • Computer Networks / Tanenbaum
  • Data Networks / Bertsekas and Gallager
  • A Top-down Approach to Computer Networking / Kurouse-Ross

Books: 3. Practical Information Homework assignment: MandatoryBoth theoretical and programmingGrades: Final Exam:60%theory exercises:20% Programming exercises:20% 4. Motivation

  • Todays economy
    • manufacturing, distributing, and retailinggoods
    • but also creating and disseminatinginformation
      • publishing
      • banking
      • film making.
    • part of the information economy
  • Future economy is likely to be dominated by information!

5. Information?

  • Arepresentationof knowledge
  • Examples:
    • books
    • bills
    • CDs & DVDs
  • Can be represented in two ways
    • analog (atoms)
    • digital (bits)
  • the Digital Revolution
    • convert information as atoms to information as bits
    • use networks to move bits around instead of atoms

6. The Challenges

  • represent all types of information as bits.
  • move the bits
    • Inlarge quantities ,
    • everywhere,
    • cheaply ,
    • Securely,
    • withquality of service,
    • .

7. Todays Networks are complex!

    • hosts
    • routers
    • links of various media
    • applications
    • protocols
    • hardware, software

Tomorrows will be even more! 8. Internet Physical Infrastructure

  • Residentiala ccess
    • Cable
    • Fiber
    • DSL
    • Wireless
  • Campus access, e.g.,
    • Ethernet
    • Wireless
  • The Internet is a network of networks
  • Each individually administrated network is called an Autonomous System (AS)

BackboneISP ISP ISP 9. This courses Challenge

  • To discuss this complexity in anorganizedway, that will make todays computer networks (and their limitations) more comprehensive.
  • identification, and understanding relationship of complex systems pieces.
  • Problems that are beyond a specific technology

10. Early communications systems

  • I.e. telephone
  • point-to-point links
  • directly connect together the users wishing to communicate
  • use dedicated communication circuit
  • if distance between users increases beyond the length of the cable, the connection is formed by a number of sections connected end-to-end in series.

11. Data Networks

  • set of interconnected nodes exchange information
  • sharing of the transmission circuits= "switching".
  • many links allow more than one path between every 2 nodes.
  • network must select an appropriate path for each required connection.

12. 13. Qwest backbonehttp://www.qwest.com/largebusiness/enterprisesolutions/networkMaps/preloader.swf 14. Networking Issues - Telephone

  • Addressing- identify the end user
  • phone number 1-201-222-2673 = country code + city code + exchange + number
  • Routing- How to get from source to destination.
  • Telephone circuit switching: Based on the phone number.
  • Information Units - How is information sent
  • telephone Samples @ Fixed sampling rate. not self descriptive! have to knowwhereandwhena sample came

15. Networking Issues - Internet

  • Addressing -identify the end user
  • IP addresses 132.66.48.37, Refer to ahost interface= network number + host number
  • Routing-How to get from source to destination
  • Packet switching: move packets (chunks) of data among routers from source to destination independently.
  • Information Units -How is information sent.
  • Self-descriptive data: packet = data + metadata (header).

16.

  • Telephone networks support a single, end-to-end quality of service but is expensive to boot

Internet supports no quality of service but is flexible and cheap Future networks will have to support a wide range of service qualities at a reasonable cost 17. History 1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles

  • 1961:Kleinrock - queuing theory shows effectiveness of packet-switching
  • 1964:Baran - packet-switching in military networks
  • 1967:ARPAnet conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • 1969:first ARPAnet node operational
  • 1972: ARPAnet demonstrated publicly
    • NCP (Network Control Protocol) first host-host protocol
    • first e-mail program
    • ARPAnet has 15 nodes

18. History 1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets

  • 1970:ALOHAnet satellite network in Hawaii
  • 1973:Metcalfes PhD thesis proposes Ethernet
  • 1974:Cerf and Kahn - architecture for interconnecting networks
  • late70s:proprietary architectures: DECnet, SNA, XNA
  • late 70s:switching fixed length packets (ATM precursor)
  • 1979:ARPAnet has 200 nodes

19. Cerf and Kahns internetworking principles:

    • minimalism, autonomy - no internal changes required to interconnect networks
    • best effort service model
    • stateless routers
    • decentralized control

Defines todays Internet architecture 20. History 1980-1990: new protocols,proliferation of networks

  • 1983:deployment of TCP/IP
  • 1982:SMTP e-mail protocol defined
  • 1983:DNS defined for name-to-IP-address translation
  • 1985:FTP protocol defined
  • 1988:TCP congestion control
  • new national networks: CSnet, BITnet, NSFnet, Minitel
  • 100,000 hosts connected to confederation of networks

21. History 1990 - : commercialization and WWW

  • early 1990s: ARPAnet decomissioned
  • 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on commercial use of NSFnet (decommissioned, 1995)
  • early 1990s:WWW
    • hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson 1960s]
    • HTML, http: Berners-Lee
    • 1994: Mosaic, later Netscape
    • late 1990s: commercializationof WWW

22. Demand and Supply

  • Huge growth in users
    • The introduction of the web
  • Faster home access
    • Better user experience.
  • Infrastructure
    • Significant portion of telecommunication.
  • New evolving industries
    • Although, sometimes temporary setbacks

23. Internet: Users 24. Users around the Globe (2002) 25. Users around the Globe (2007) http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm 26. Penetration around the Globe (2008) http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm 27. Users around the Globe (2002/5/8) 28. Technology: Modem speed 29. Todaysoptions

  • Modem: 56 K
  • ISDN: 64K 128K
  • Frame Relay: 56K ++
  • Today High Speed Connections
    • Cable, ADSL, Satellite.
    • All are available at 5Mb (2005)

OBSOLETE 30. Coming soon(1999) 31. Today (2005) 32. Why do we need Standards

  • Networks (and other media) support communication between different entities
  • Need agreement to ensure correct, efficientand meaningful communication

33. Various Organizations Issue Standards

  • IEEE ( Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers )
  • IETF ( Internet Engineering Task Force )