computer history, generations, types and io

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  • FUNDAMENTALS of

    COMPUTER SCIENCE

    Hem Sagar Pokhrel

    Lecturer, Prime College

  • When Computer Came into existence ?

  • It was a mechanical adding-machine. Invented by 19 year old French mathematician Blaise

    Pascal.

    It could only perform addition and subtraction. It had 8 wheels and each wheel had 10 digits from 0 to

    9.

    Pascaline

    (1642)

    Improved and strong computing machine which could multiply, divide and workout square roots apart from

    addition and subtraction.

    Invented by German mathematician Gothfried von Leibnitsz.

    The machine also had handle and gear.

    Stepped

    Recknor

    (1671)

  • 3

    Charles Babbage 1791-1871

    English mathematician, engineer, philosopher and inventor.Originated the concept of the programmable computer, and designed one.Could also be a Jerk.

  • Difference Engine

    Numerical tables were constructed by hand using large numbers of human computers (one who computes).

    Annoyed by the many human errors this produced, Charles Babbage designed a difference engine that could calculate values of polynomial functions.

    It was never completed, although much work was done and money spent.

    Book Recommendation: The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage and the Quest to Build the First Computer

    by Doron Swade

  • Analytical Engine

    Charles Babbage first described a general purpose analytical engine in 1837, but worked on the design until his death in 1871. It was never built.

    As designed, it would have been programmed using punch-cards and would have included features such as sequential control, loops, conditionals and branching. If constructed, it would have been the first computer as we think of them today.

  • Augusta Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace 1815-1852

    Created a program for the (theoretical) Babbage analytical engine which would have calculated Bernoulli numbers.

    Widely recognized as the first programmer.

  • Konrad Zuse Z1 Computer

    First freely programmable computer, electro-mechanical punch tape control.

  • It is believed that the first programmable computer z1was invented in 1936 in Berlin Germany by Konrad Zuse.

    It was programmable machine that was able to remember numbers.

    Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

    First Programmable Computer Z1

  • Uses Vacuum tubes as the basic components and magnetic drums and punch cards as memory.

    Very expensive, use lot of electricity, generated a lot of heat and taking up entire rooms.

    Vacuum tubes required constant maintenance. This maintenance was very expensive and could be afforded only by very large organizations.

    This generation computers works on machine language which the lowest- level programming language.

    They used batch processing operating systems and perform single instruction at a time.

    Inputs for these computers were based on punched cards and paper taps and output was displayed on printouts.

    Examples: MARK I, ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC, IBM 650 etc UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client the U.S.

    Census Bureau in 1951.

    FIRST GENERATION (1942-1959)

  • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes as CPU component in the second generation of computers.

    Ferrite cores & magnetic disks were used for memory. The transistor was invented in 1947 but used in computer in late 1950s. Transistors

    were smaller, faster, cheaper, energy-efficient and more reliable. Thus second

    generation computers were smaller, use less power, cheaper and produced less heat.

    Magnetic disk storage increased capacity of storage and magnetic cores for main storage increased processing speed.

    Symbolic machine language or assembly language was used instead of machine language, which allowed programmers to make a improved software.

    High level programming languages were also being developed like FORTRAN, COBOL.

    They used batch processing and multiprogramming operating systems. Example: IBM 1400 and 7000 Series, Control Data 3600 etc.

    SECOND GENERATION (1959-1965)

  • Integrated Circuit (ICs) instead of transistors used in this generations computers. IC is a silicon chips which reduces the size of computer and increase speed and

    efficiency of processing. Each IC is solid state microcircuits which works similar

    likes many resistors, transistors, diodes and conductors.

    Now user interacted with third generation computers through keyboard, monitors and operating system instead of punched cards and printouts.

    In this generation, Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming Operating System were used.

    High-level language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, etc.) were used during this generation.

    Examples: IBM-360, ICL-1900, IBM-370, and VAX-750.

    THIRD GENERATION(1965-1975)

  • Very large scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits were used in Computer of this generation. (VLSI circuits are having thousands of transistors in a single chip. )

    Computers of this generation are more powerful, reliable, affordable and compact. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971 which is mostly used as Central Processing

    unit in theses computers.

    Computers of this generation also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

    In this generation, Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System were used in computers.

    All the higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE, etc were used in this generation.

    Example: IBM PC, Apple-Macintosh etc.

    FOURTH GENERATION(1975-1988)

  • The VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology. Millions of transistors are placed in a single IC in ULSI chips. Computers of this generation use parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial

    Intelligence) software.

    Higher level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net, etc., are used in this generation. 64 bit microprocessors have been developed during this period. They are under development and are future of modern computing.

    FIFTH GENERATION(1988-till date)

  • Differents Types of Computers

  • Before Digital Era..

    On the

    basis of work.

    On the

    basis of size.

    IBM IBM Compatible Apple/Macintosh On the basis of Brand.

    XT AT PS/2

    On the basis of Model.

    Specific General

    On the basis of Purpose.

  • Most powerful computer system currently available. They needs a large room to install.

    Minimum world length is 64 bit in super computer. CPU speed of super computer is minimum 100 MIPS. It is

    equivalent to more than 5000 personal computers.

    They uses multiprocessing and parallel processing and is able to handle huge amount of data.

    Very expensive and are in use for particular applications that require huge amounts of mathematical calculations.

    Supercomputers are used for Defense systems, weather forecasting, scientific simulations, animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy

    research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data.

    Examples: CRAY Research :- CRAY-1 & CRAY-2, PARAM(India), Fujitsu (VP2000), Hitachi (S820), NEC (SX20), PARAM 10000 by C-DAC, Anupam by

    BARC and PACE Series by DRDO.

    Super Computer

    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_s3YvJJZ34I8/TP4BNs9h7pI/AAAAAAAAA4Y/FZyZfMZSQjg/s321600/Columbia_Supercomputer_-_NASA_Advanced_Supercomputing_Facility_n.jpghttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_s3YvJJZ34I8/TP4BNs9h7pI/AAAAAAAAA4Y/FZyZfMZSQjg/s321600/Columbia_Supercomputer_-_NASA_Advanced_Supercomputing_Facility_n.jpg

  • Able to process large amount of data at very high speed. These computers Supports multi-user facility. Have many Number of processors varies from one to six. They are more powerful than supercomputers because

    they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a

    single program faster than a mainframe.

    Mainframes computers are used in the Banks, Credit Card Processing, Insurance Companies, Hospitals, Railways and Airways systems etc. which

    need online processing of large number of transactions and requires massive data

    storage and processing capabilities.

    Some examples of mainframe computers are IBM 3000 series, Burroughs B7900, Univac 1180, ICL 39 and CDC 6600.

    Mainframe Computer

    http://1.bp.blogspot.com/__K6I2VVkaG0/S4I9NbHzApI/AAAAAAAAACc/YZemp4RgrV8/s1600/IBM_i5-family.jpghttp://1.bp.blogspot.com/__K6I2VVkaG0/S4I9NbHzApI/AAAAAAAAACc/YZemp4RgrV8/s1600/IBM_i5-family.jpg

  • It is a midsize computer, larger and more powerful than most of microcomputers but are smaller and less powerful than

    mainframes.

    In general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from up to 200 users

    simultaneously.

    These computers are used when the volume of processing is large for e.g. Data processing for a medium sized organization.

    Mostly these computers used to control and monitor production processes, to analyze results of experiments in laboratories, as servers in LANs (Local Area

    Networks).

    Examples: PDP 11/45 and VAX 11 etc.

    Mini Computer

    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-f4JEhZwo-gY/Udet7ZWRG9I/AAAAAAAAAe4/XzykV9yvc7Q/s1600/bench-style-workstations.jpghttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/-f4JEhZwo-gY/Udet7ZWRG9