computer hardware and software. 1.the history of computer first computer: eniac: 1946 in america,...

Download Computer hardware and software. 1.The history of computer First computer: ENIAC: 1946 in America, Vacuum tubes computer, It’s main components were vacuum

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  • Computer hardware and software

  • The history of computerFirst computer:ENIAC: 1946 in America , Vacuum tubes computer, Its main components were vacuum tubes. 5000 times/s (computing ability, example , It could compute a plus like 2+5 for 5000 times per second.

    Computer generations:Vacuum tubes time (1946--- 1958)Transistor time (1958---1970)This time, we used transistors replacing vacuum tubes.(3) Integrated circuit time (1971---about 1980)We used integrated circuit replacing transistors (called discrete components). An integrated circuit chip contains 10000 transistors or more.

  • (4) Large Scale Integrated Circuit time Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit time (1980s---now) The third generation has less transistors in a chip. LSI or VLSI contains more transistors in a chip. Now, Pentium (CPU, Central processing Unit) contains 200,000,000 transistors.

  • Computer Application areas

    Science Computing data managementControllingCAD/CAM Computer Aided Design/ManufactureArtificial Intelligence Information High Way

    In Medical areas:Hospital Management System; Artificial Intelligence system in medicineMedical instruments with Artificial Intelligence Human gene analysis

  • 3. Computer Categories (1)Super Computer (High performance computer ): It has high speed computing ability, very larger storage ability. In 2010, 36th 500 top supercomputer in world, Chinese Computer TianHe 1, First won top. The computing speed is 2566 PFLOPS.(PFLOPS: floating point operations per second) It has 186368 CPU. Its peak speed is 4701 PFLOPS.The supercomputer is national power. (2) Microcomputer (Personal computer) Now, we are using microcomputer. Many families have this kind computer. We can use them for computing, managing medical experiment data, playing games.

  • 4. Microcomputer Hardware

    CPU Memory Input device Output device


  • Main Board

  • Memory

  • Displayer display card

    The display card is an interface between CPU and displayer.

  • Keyboard and Mouse

  • Power Case Hard Disk CDROM

  • Sound cardLoudspeaker boxPrinterScannerMODEMNetwork Card

  • U :U disk: material : FLASHIt has replaced floppy drive .

    mobile HDD(mobile hard disk drive)

    SSD Serial ATA Solid State Disk

  • Software categories

    System software: The system software is computer basic and indispensable software. For example, Operating System is an indispensable program, if there is no this file, the computer will not run.

    Application software: These kinds of software is designed for application purposes. For example, WORD, EXCEL and POWERPOINT are application software.

  • 6. Computer Virus

    The virus is a program with damaging other programs and data.We must install a clearing virus program on a computer.(rasing)


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