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Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation Annual Report 7/1/2016 6/30/2017 With Funds Provided By: Iowa Department of Public Health, Division of Behavioral Health © 2017 The University of Iowa THE IOWA CONSORTIUM FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE RESEARCH AND EVALUATION Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation

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  • Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation – Annual Report 7/1/2016 – 6/30/2017 With Funds Provided By:

    Iowa Department of Public Health, Division of Behavioral Health

    © 2017 The University of Iowa

    THE IOWA CONSORTIUM FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

    Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation

  • Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention

    Program Evaluation – Annual Report

    Heather Hershberger, MPP Program Evaluator

    Donna Lancianese, PhD

    Senior Program Evaluator

    Stephan Arndt, PhD Director

    Suggested Citation: Hershberger, H., Lancianese, D., & Arndt, S. (2017). Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Program Evaluation Report. (Iowa Department of Public Health Contract #5886YM50). The University of Iowa. Iowa City, IA: Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation. http://iconsortium.subst-abuse.uiowa.edu

  • 1

    Table of Contents

    Background 4

    Project Overview ......................................................................................................................... 4

    Evaluation Design .................................................................................................................................. 4

    Outcomes 5

    Demographics ............................................................................................................................. 5

    Changes from Pre-test to Post-test ............................................................................................. 5

    Attrition ................................................................................................................................................... 5

    Past 30 Day Use .................................................................................................................................... 7

    Table 1: Change in Past 30-Day Use: Comprehensive Prevention Survey Respondents .................... 8

    Table 2: Change in Past 30-Day Use: Comprehensive Prevention Survey Respondents in Year Two

    of Multi-Year Programs ........................................................................................................................ 10

    Attitudes Toward Substance Use .............................................................................................. 11

    Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use .............................................................................................................. 12

    Figure 1: Change in Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in

    Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs ............................................................................. 12

    Figure 2: Change in Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in

    Year Two of Multi-Year Programs ....................................................................................................... 12

    Figure 3: Change in Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single

    Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs ........................................................................................ 13

    Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use ........................................................................................................... 13

    Figure 4: Change in Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in

    Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs ............................................................................. 13

    Figure 5: Change in Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in

    Year Two of Multi-Year Programs ....................................................................................................... 14

    Figure 6: Change in Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single

    Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs ........................................................................................ 14

    Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use .......................................................................................................... 15

    Figure 7: Change in Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in

    Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs ............................................................................. 15

    Figure 8: Change in Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in

    Year Two of Multi-Year Programs ....................................................................................................... 15

    Figure 9: Change in Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single

    Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs ........................................................................................ 16

  • 2

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use ........................................................................... 16

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use........................................................................................... 17

    Figure 10: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School

    Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs .............................................................. 17

    Figure 11: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School

    Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs ......................................................................................... 18

    Figure 12: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use by Program: Elementary School

    Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs .............................................................. 18

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use ........................................................................................ 19

    Figure 13: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High

    School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs .................................................. 19

    Figure 14: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High

    School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs ............................................................................. 19

    Figure 15: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use by Program: Elementary School

    Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs .............................................................. 20

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use ...................................................................................... 20

    Figure 16: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High

    School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs .................................................. 20

    Figure 17: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High

    School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs ............................................................................. 21

    Figure 18: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use by Program: Elementary School

    Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs .............................................................. 21

    Diversion Program Outcomes ................................................................................................... 22

    Diversion Program Outcomes: Past 30-Day Use ................................................................................ 22

    Table 3: Change in Substance Use: Diversion Program Participants ................................................. 23

    Attitudes Toward Substance Use ........................................................................................................ 24

    Figure 19: Change in Attitudes Toward Substance Use: Diversion Program ...................................... 24

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use ..................................................................................... 25

    Figure 20: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use: Diversion Program .................. 25

    Conclusion 26

    Project Evaluation Questions .................................................................................................... 26

    Table 4: Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use by School Group ...... 26

    Table 5: Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use by Regular Programs27

    Table 6: Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use by Younger Youth

    Programs ............................................................................................................................................. 27

  • 3

    Table 7: Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use by School

    Group ................................................................................................................................................... 28

    Table 8: Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use by Regular

    Programs ............................................................................................................................................. 29

    Table 9: Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use by Younger

    Youth Programs ................................................................................................................................... 29

    Appendix 31

    Institute of Medicine Categories of Populations Served

    by Agency and Program ............................................................................................................ 31

  • 4

    BACKGROUND

    Project Overview

    The Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Project provides primary alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention services to all counties in Iowa. The project is funded through a Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant from the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The Iowa Department of Public Health, Division of Behavioral Health (IDPH) administers the prevention portion of the Block Grant funds through a competitive process to provide funding for each county in the state. Eighteen providers covering twenty-three service areas were awarded contracts to implement a variety of evidence-based prevention programming for the funding cycle that runs from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017. The Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation (Consortium) was awarded a contract with IDPH to evaluate the project and provide training and technical assistance to the providers on data collection and data entry. In addition, one contractor implemented prevention programming with early elementary students who are below the appropriate age for surveying; therefore, data for that contractor is not included in this report. Another contractor did not have access to schools for programming, so they do not have any surveys to include for this report. One contractor did not enter their post-tests by data cutoff thus their data are not included in this report.

    Evaluation Design The evaluation employs a matched pre-post design, whereby a survey is administered when a participant enters the mentoring program and at the beginning of each subsequent project year (pre-test), then again at the end of each project year (post-test) for all single year and multi-year programs. Two survey instruments are used: the Comprehensive Survey, designed for participants in sixth grade and above; and the Younger Youth (YY) survey, designed for participants in kindergarten through fifth grade. Agency staff collect these data and enter them into an online system called Qualtrics. The Consortium then downloads the data for analyses and reporting. This report provides data for State Fiscal Year 2017 (FY17) and includes participants involved in the program between July 2016 and June 2017. Agencies submitted 6,056 pre-tests and 5,608 post-tests during FY17. This yielded 5,185 total matched surveys. Matched data include participants completing the Comprehensive and YY survey instruments. The matched data sets are used to answer the following evaluation questions:

    Has alcohol/tobacco/marijuana use changed in the target population?

    Has the percentage of the target population who indicate at baseline (pre-test) that substance use by someone their age is wrong or very wrong remained the same (maintained) or increased after the intervention (post-test)?

    Has perceived risk of harm from alcohol/tobacco/marijuana use maintained a positive response (belief that using poses a moderate or great risk of harm) or increased from pre-test to post-test?

  • 5

    OUTCOMES

    Demographics

    Demographic data provided here include participants in all programs who completed the Comprehensive or YY survey instrument. Participants included in this evaluation ranged in age from eight to 19; the median age (at post-test) was 12. Seventy percent of the participants are in middle school (6th through 8th grade students). Males and females almost equally comprise the respondents (50.6% male, 49.4 female), and 10.4% of all respondents are Hispanic or Latino.

    Participant racial groups are delineated below:

    78.8% White

    4.1% Black/African American

    1.6% Asian

    1.1% American Indian/Alaska Native

    0.3% Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander

    2.6% Some Other Race

    10.2% More than one race

    Changes from Pre-test to Post-test

    Attrition The evaluators performed an attrition analysis to identify potential differences between participants who terminated their involvement in the program, that is, they did not complete a post-test, and those who remained in the program, that is, they completed a post-test this project year. The analysis was conducted on data for students in single-year programs and the first year of multi-year programs. Agencies differ in the number of curriculum years implemented of any given program, and not all students completed a pre-test in FY17. Therefore, determining attrition can be difficult. The evaluators split the analysis into three parts the Regular Comprehensive Prevention participants excluding Diversion, the Younger Youth (YY) participants, and those participants in the Diversion Program.

    The following Regular Comprehensive participants were more likely to leave the program:

    Slightly fewer than one in 10 participants took a pre-test but did not take a post-test and were considered attrition cases

    Participants indicating American Indian as their race1

    Participants who were 17 through 19 years old2

    Respondents in the 8th, 11th, and 12th grades3

    Adolescents who thought drinking alcohol was not wrong at all4 and not risky5

    1 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ2 = 16.95; df = 6; p = .009 2 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ2 = 35.23; df = 10; p < .001 3 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ2 = 47.77; df = 8; p < .001 4 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ2 =9.13; df =3 ; p = .028 5 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 13.02; df = 3; p = .005

  • 6

    Adolescents who thought smoking cigarettes was not wrong at all6 and not risky7

    Adolescents who thought that smoking marijuana was not wrong at all8 and not risky9

    Adolescents who thought that using over-the-counter medications differently from the directions was not wrong at all10 and not risky11

    The regular Comprehensive Prevention respondents represented by the outcome data in this report differ from those who initiated the program. When interpreting outcomes, take into consideration the selective attrition discussed above.

    The following YY participants were more likely to leave the program:

    Less than 2% of YY attrited

    Youth participants indicating Black/African American and Multi-Racial12 as their race

    Eight and nine year olds13

    Participants who indicated that they would only hurt their body a little bit if they smoked marijuana once a week14

    The following Diversion participants were more likely to leave the program:

    Only 1.3% of Diversion participants left the program, there was not any statistically significant group more likely to leave the program.

    The Evaluators recommend prevention agencies investigate the differences between racial minorities as certain groups were more likely to attrite, as well as the differences between grades given that 8th, 11th, and 12th graders were more likely to attrite. In addition, given that all regular Comprehensive Prevention participants were less likely to complete a program the less risky they thought alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were prevention agencies might want to implement programming with a greater emphasis on the risks of these substances. This is especially important for elementary school programming considering that elementary student groups believe marijuana is less risky than middle and high school aged groups. With the exception of Diversion, nearly all kids perceived alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana as less risky than wrong.

    6Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ2 =21.38; df =3 ; p < .000 7 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 10.05; df = 3; p = .018 8 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ2 =11.08; df =3 ; p = .011 9 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 9.28; df = 3; p = .026 10 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 16.50; df = 3; p = .001 11 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 15.53; df = 3; p = .001 12 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 14.83; df = 6; p = .022 13 Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 16.99; df = 5; p = .005 14Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test χ 2 = 6.73; df = 2; p = .035

  • 7

    Past 30 Day Use Past 30-day use data are provided for middle and high school youth reporting past 30-day use of alcohol, binge drinking, cigarettes, and marijuana at the pre-test, and the percentage change and direction of change at post-test. A positive (+) percentage point change indicates an increase in use, whereas a negative (-) change indicates a decrease in use. Individual program data are provided for programs where 50 or more participants completed both a pre-test and a post-test. The YY survey does not ask about past 30-day use, therefore participants who completed that survey are not included in the past 30-day use data. In addition, data for Diversion program participants are provided separately because the population served by Diversion programs is different from that of the other programs. Kids in the Diversion program are referred from school, a parent, or Juvenile Court. In the case of Juvenile Court, this programming diverts kids from the courtroom. The Iowa Youth Survey (IYS) data are provided as a reference for interpreting the outcome data in this report. The IYS is a biennial assessment of Iowa’s school-age (grades 6, 8, and 11) students’ attitudes toward substance use and actual use of substances. The IYS data reflect changes due to maturation of the youth through the different grade levels. The 2016 IYS data provided here represent an estimate of the change one might see among youth in the general population over the course of one year versus the outcomes of youth who complete specific prevention programming under the Comprehensive Prevention project. The average yearly change was calculated by dividing the difference between grades by the number of years between grades. This was done using 6th and 11th grade IYS data to provide a reference for Comprehensive Prevention Project outcomes in Table 1. This comparison includes all grades who participated in the IYS, as the Comprehensive Prevention participants range from 9th through 12th grades. While the time span between pre-test and post-test for some prevention programs presented here is less than one year, the IYS average yearly change serves as a general point of reference when examining the program outcomes rather than comparing to zero, or no change. It is important to note that youth who participated in Comprehensive Prevention programming may also have completed the IYS. Table 1 on the following page shows past 30-day use for single year programs and year one of multi-year programs. The change values presented in the tables do not necessarily indicate statistically significant differences from pre-test to post-test.

  • 8

    Table 1: Change in Past 30-Day Use: Comprehensive Prevention Survey Respondents

    Percentage of Youth Reporting Past 30-Day Use at the Pre-Test and Change at Post-Test:

    Comprehensive Prevention Survey Respondents in Single-Year Programs and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Group N Median

    Age

    Alcohol Binge Drinking Cigarettes Marijuana

    Pre-Test %

    Change Pre-Test

    % Change

    Pre-Test %

    Change Pre-Test

    % Change

    Iowa Youth Survey 58,410 13 – +1.00 – +0.50 – +0.50 – +0.50

    Comprehensive Prevention Excluding Diversion – Year 1

    3,341 13 9.00 -1.99 1.93 -0.12 2.09 +0.19 1.68 -0.12

    LifeSkills Training – Year 1 1,192 13 9.35 -2.12 2.04 -0.76 1.95 -0.59 1.44 -0.17

    Project ALERT – Year 1 1,114 12 5.85 -0.72 0.90 +0.36 1.53 +0.63 0.72 -0.18

    Prime for Life – Non Diversion

    354 14 17.25 -11.37 4.31 -1.96 2.36 -0.39 1.97 -0.79

    Too Good for Drugs 352 12 9.83 -1.45 1.72 -0.29 1.16 -0.29 1.45 -0.29

    Project Northland 132 13 8.46 0 0.77 +0.77 0.00 +1.54 0 0

    Brain Power 58 12 1.72 +1.72 0 0 0 0 0 0

    Note: IYS entries indicate the yearly average change in 30-day use between all Iowa students in grades 6th through 8th. These grades were chosen based on the median age of the Comprehensive Prevention participants. Data are from the 2016 Iowa Youth Survey, State of Iowa report (Alcohol from question B16, Binge Drinking from B17, Cigarettes from B34, and Marijuana from B40). The total number of 6th graders completing the 2016 Iowa Youth Survey was 29,275; the total number of 8th graders was 29,135. The median age of 6th graders was 11.5 and 8th graders was 13.

  • 9

    The increase in alcohol for the Comprehensive Prevention participant group is statistically significant (McNemar test results are: Alcohol, p

  • 10

    Table 2: Change in Past 30-Day Use: Comprehensive Prevention Survey Respondents in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    There is no evidence of change from pre-test to post-test for the year two programs. However, this also means that use of those substances showed no evidence of increasing as would be expected due to maturation.

    Percentage of Youth Reporting Past 30-Day Use at the Pre-Test and Change at Post-Test:

    Comprehensive Prevention Survey Respondents in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    Group N Median

    Age

    Alcohol Binge Drinking Cigarettes Marijuana

    Pre-Test %

    Change Pre-Test

    % Change

    Pre-Test %

    Change Pre-Test

    % Change

    Iowa Youth Survey 58,410 13 – +1.00 – +0.50 – +0.50 – +0.50

    Comprehensive Prevention 218 13 14.75 -2.76 1.38 -0.92 2.30 -0.92 2.76 0

    Project ALERT – Year 2 147 12 15.65 -2.72 2.04 -1.36 3.40 -2.04 4.08 0

    LifeSkills Training – Year 2 59 13 13.79 -3.45 0 0 0 +1.72 0 0

    Note: IYS entries indicate the yearly average change in 30-day use between all Iowa students in grades 6th through 8th. These grades were chosen based on the median age of the Comprehensive Prevention participants. Data are from the 2016 Iowa Youth Survey, State of Iowa report (Alcohol from question B16, Binge Drinking from B17, Cigarettes from B34, and Marijuana from B40). The total number of 6th graders completing the 2016 Iowa Youth Survey was 29,275; the total number of 8th graders was 29,135. The median age of 6th graders was 11.5 and 8th graders was 13.

  • 11

    Attitudes Toward Substance Use

    Figures 1 through 9 on the following pages show change in individual attitudes toward substance use from the pre-test to the post-test, by program. Data for programs serving middle and high school students are provided first, followed by data for programs serving elementary school youth. The elementary school youth group contains some 6th graders, although all of these students completed the YY survey. Programs are grouped according to program duration (single-year/year one of multi-year, and year two of multi-year programs). Multi-year program data present individual years of the program and therefore are not indicative of how the complete program performs. The change values presented in the figures do not necessarily indicate statistically significant differences from pre-test to post-test. The number in parentheses after each program name in the figures is the number of respondents answering the question on both the pre-test and the post-test. Attitude responses are coded on a Likert scale from “not wrong at all” to “very wrong.” Individual attitudes either:

    1) improved, which means that attitudes moved up the scale towards “very wrong” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent felt alcohol use was wrong at pre-test and very wrong at post-test);

    2) maintained +, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were unfavorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (“wrong” or “very wrong”);

    3) maintained -, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were favorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (“a little wrong” or “not wrong at all”); or

    4) worsened, meaning that attitudes moved down the scale away from “very wrong” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent felt marijuana use was “wrong” at pre-test and “a little bit wrong” at post-test).

    Maintaining a response from pre-test to post-test that use is “wrong” or “very wrong,” or moving up the scale towards “very wrong” from any point on the scale is considered a positive outcome. Desired outcomes for these questions are improvement in (“improved”) or positive maintenance (“maintained +”) of attitudes toward substance use. In Figures 1 through 9, a positive outcome percentage is the percent improved plus the percent maintained +.

  • 12

    Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use Figure 1: Change in Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Figure 2: Change in Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    16.1% 16.6% 15.3% 14.0% 14.8%18.9% 15.5%

    68.1% 69.0% 72.3% 69.3%62.9%

    72.0%

    65.5%

    2.2% 1.5%0.9%

    1.8%4.3%

    1.5%3.4%

    13.7% 12.9% 11.5% 14.9% 18.0%

    7.6%15.5%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Comp Yr 1(n=3,287)

    Lifeskills Yr 1(n=1,186)

    Project ALERTYr 1 (n=1,099)

    Too Good forDrugs (n=342)

    Prime for Life(n=256)

    ProjectNorthland

    (n=132)

    Brain Power(n=58)

    Perc

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    How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to drink beer, wine, or liquor (alcohol) regularly?

    Improved Maintained + Maintained - Worsened

    16.1% 16.3% 17.2%

    69.6% 70.1% 63.8%

    2.8%3.4%

    1.7%

    11.5% 10.2%17.2%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Comp Yr- 2(n=217)

    Project ALERT - Yr 2(n=147)

    LifeSkills - Yr 2(n=58)

    Pe

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    How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to drink beer, wine, or liquor (alcohol) regularly?

    Improved Maintained + Maintained - Worsened

  • 13

    Figure 3: Change in Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use Figure 4: Change in Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    5.1% 5.6% 5.9%1.9%

    5.2%

    90.2% 88.4% 91.2% 95.8% 89.7%

    1.3% 2.1% 0.3%0.0% 1.7%

    3.5% 3.9% 2.7% 2.3% 3.4%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    All Younger Youth (n=1,506)

    Too Good for Drugs(n=799)

    Brain Power(n=339)

    LifeSkills Yr 1(n=265)

    Project Northland(n=58)

    Perc

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    How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to drink beer, wine, or liquor (alcohol) regularly?

    Improved Maintained + Maintained - Worsened

    12.9% 12.8% 14.0% 9.8% 11.7% 12.1%19.3%

    75.8% 77.2% 77.5% 80.2%70.8%

    79.5%73.7%

    1.2%0.4% 0.5% 0.6%

    2.3%

    2.3%0.0%

    10.0% 9.6% 8.0% 9.5%15.2%

    6.1% 7.0%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Comp Yr 1(n=3,285)

    Lifeskills Yr 1(n=1,182)

    Project ALERTYr 1 (n=1,094)

    Too Good forDrugs

    (n=348)

    Prime for Life(n=257)

    ProjectNorthland

    (n=132)

    Brain Power(n=57)

    Perc

    en

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    How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to smoke cigarettes?

    Improved Maintained + Maintained - Worsened

  • 14

    Figure 5: Change in Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    Figure 6: Change in Attitudes Toward Cigarette Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    14.4% 13.6% 17.5%

    77.8% 80.3% 71.9%

    0.9%1.4%

    0.0%

    6.9% 4.8% 10.5%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Comp Yr 2(n=216)

    Project ALERT Yr 2(n=147)

    LifeSkills Yr 2(n=57)

    Perc

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    How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to smoke cigarettes?

    Improved Maintained + Maintained - Worsened

    3.9% 3.8% 4.4% 3.0%

    1.8%

    93.5% 92.6% 93.8% 95.8% 96.5%

    0.7%1.1% 0.0%

    0.8%0.0%

    1.9% 2.5% 1.8% 0.4% 1.8%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    All Younger Youth (n=1,501)

    Too Good for Drugs(n=797)

    Brain Power(n=338)

    LifeSkills Yr 1(n=265)

    Project Northland(n=57)

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    How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to smoke cigarettes?

    Improved Maintained + Maintained - Worsened

  • 15

    Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use

    Figure 7: Change in Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Figure 8: Change in Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    9.2% 9.8% 7.5% 10.8% 9.0% 7.6% 7.1%

    80.6% 81.6% 86.2% 78.7%

    71.0%

    87.9% 85.7%

    2.0% 1.9% 0.6% 1.6%3.5%

    0.8% 1.8%

    8.2% 6.7% 5.8% 8.9%16.5%

    3.8% 5.4%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Comp Yr 1(n=3,235)

    Lifeskills Yr 1(n=1,179)

    Project ALERTYr 1 (n=1,086)

    Too Good forDrugs

    (n=315)

    Prime for Life(n=255)

    ProjectNorthland

    (n=132)

    Brain Power(n=56)

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    10.3% 9.8% 12.1%

    77.5% 77.6%77.6%

    1.9%

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    10.3% 9.8% 10.3%

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    Comp Yr 2(n=213)

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    LifeSkills Yr 2(n=58)

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    Figure 9: Change in Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use

    Figures 10 through 18 on the following pages show change from pre- to post-test in individuals’ perceptions of risk of harm from substance use, by program. Data for programs serving middle and high school students are provided first, followed by data for programs serving elementary school youth. The elementary school youth group contains some 6th graders, although all YY completed the YY survey. Programs are grouped according to program duration (single-year/year one of multi-year, and year two of multi-year programs). Multi-year program data present individual years of the program and therefore are not indicative of how the complete program performs. The change values presented in the figures do not necessarily indicate statistically significant differences from pre-test to post-test. The number in parentheses after each program in the figures is the number of respondents answering the question on the pre-test and the post-test. Perceived risk responses are coded on a Likert scale from ”no risk” to ”great risk.” Individual perceptions of risk either:

    1) improved, which means that their reported perception of risk of harm from using alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana moved up the scale from pre-test to post-test towards “great risk,” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent felt alcohol use posed “no risk” at pre-test and “moderate risk” at post-test);

    2) maintained +, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were unfavorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (that use posed “moderate risk” or “great risk”);

    2.0% 2.0% 2.4%1.1% 1.7%

    96.2% 95.3% 96.4% 98.9% 96.6%

    0.1%0.3% 0.0%

    0.0% 0.0%

    1.7% 2.4 1.2% 0.0% 1.7%

    0%

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    All Younger Youth (n=1,495)

    Too Good for Drugs(n=791)

    Brain Power(n=337)

    LifeSkills Yr 1(n=264)

    Project Northland(n=58)

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  • 17

    3) maintained –, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were favorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (that use posed “slight risk” or “no risk”); or

    4) worsened, meaning that their reported perception of risk of harm moved down the scale from pre-test to post-test away from “great risk,” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent reported that marijuana use posed “moderate risk” of harm at pre-test and “slight risk” at post-test).

    Maintaining a response from pre-test to post-test that use poses “moderate risk” or “great risk,” or moving up the scale towards “great risk” from any point on the scale is considered a positive outcome. Desired outcomes for these questions are improvement in (“improved”) or positive maintenance (“maintained +”) of perceived risk toward substance use. In Figures 10 through 18, a positive outcome is the percent improved plus the percent maintained +. Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use Figure 10: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    20.2% 21.0% 21.4% 20.1% 17.2%9.2% 12.3%

    60.5% 60.4% 60.2% 61.6%57.8% 70.2% 66.7%

    3.2%

    2.7% 2.6%

    4.6%

    4.3%4.6%

    0.0%

    16.2% 15.9% 15.8% 13.8%20.7%

    16.0%21.1%

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    Comp Yr 1(n=3,301)

    Lifeskills Yr 1(n=1,188)

    Project ALERTYr 1 (n=1,107)

    Too Good forDrugs

    (n=349)

    Prime for Life(n=256)

    ProjectNorthland

    (n=131)

    Brain Power(n=57)

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    Figure 11: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    Figure 12: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Alcohol Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    15.7% 12.9%24.1%

    59.4% 60.5%50.0%

    5.5% 4.1%10.3%

    19.4% 22.415.5%

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    12.5% 11.1% 14.8% 12.9%15.5%

    71.8% 74.0% 66.3% 72.7%77.6%

    4.8% 5.8%

    3.0%3.8% 3.4%

    10.9% 9.1%16.0%

    10.6%3.4%

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    All Younger Youth (n=1,502)

    Too Good for Drugs(n=799)

    Brain Power(n=338)

    LifeSkills Yr 1(n=264)

    Project Northland(n=58)

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    Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use

    Figure 13: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Figure 14: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    12.8% 13.0% 13.1% 13.2% 11.7% 9.2%14.3%

    74.1% 74.8% 73.6% 75.5% 74.6%72.5%

    69.6%

    2.5% 2.3% 2.3%

    4.0%

    2.3%3.8%

    0.0%

    10.6% 9.9% 11.0% 7.3% 11.3% 14.5% 16.1%

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    Comp Yr 1(n=3,213)

    Lifeskills Yr 1(n=1,182)

    Project ALERTYr 1 (n=1,104)

    Too Good forDrugs

    (n=273)

    Prime for Life(n=256)

    ProjectNorthland

    (n=131)

    Brain Power(n=56)

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    6.9% 3.4%15.5%

    79.3% 82.3%

    70.7%

    3.7% 3.4% 5.2%10.1% 10.9% 8.6%

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    Figure 15: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Cigarette Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use Figure 16: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    9.6% 8.9% 7.1%13.7% 12.3%

    79.8% 79.2% 81.5%

    80.6%78.9%

    3.5% 3.8% 3.6%3.0% 0.0%

    7.1% 8.2 7.7%2.7%

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    21.1% 18.8% 22.4% 21.0% 22.2% 15.3% 15.8%

    55.6% 59.0%55.9%

    51.7%56.8%

    60.3%54.4%

    6.0% 5.7% 3.1%7.8%

    7.4%7.6%

    0.0%

    17.4% 16.6% 18.6% 19.5%13.6% 16.8%

    29.8%

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    Comp Yr 1(n=3,296)

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    (n=348)

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    Figure 17: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use by Program: Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    Figure 18: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use by Program: Elementary School Youth in Single Year and Year One of Multi-Year Programs

    20.8% 19.2% 24.1%

    52.8% 54.1% 44.8%

    7.4% 8.2%6.9%

    19.0% 18.5%24.1%

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    16.9% 15.8% 17.4% 19.3% 12.1%

    52.5% 53.0% 48.6%

    57.6%

    58.6%

    15.0% 18.1%

    10.2%

    11.4%

    10.3%

    15.6% 13.1%

    23.7%

    11.7%19.0%

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    All Younger Youth (n=1,489)

    Too Good for Drugs(n=791)

    Brain Power(n=333)

    Life Skills Yr 1(n=264)

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    Diversion Program Outcomes

    Diversion programs are prevention programs for indicated populations of youth who have already experienced legal or other consequences from their substance use. Hence, Diversion program data are presented separately from the primary prevention programs. Diversion programs also tend to be shorter in duration than other prevention programs, and usually span fewer than 30 days. The Comprehensive Prevention Survey instrument now accounts for such short programs by asking at the post-test if participants have used in the past 30 days or since the beginning of the prevention program, whichever is the shorter timeframe. Therefore, pre-test data presented below on substance use reflect use reported in the 30 days prior to starting the program and completing the pre-test, and post-test data reflect the timeframe from the start of the program or completion of the pre-test to the end of the program or completion of the post-test. Seventy-seven Diversion program participants completed both a pre-test and a post-test survey. The median age for these participants was 17 and the median grade was 11th. Diversion Program Outcomes: Past 30-Day Use

    Table 3 on the following page presents data on the percentage of Diversion program participants reporting use of alcohol, binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row), cigarettes, and marijuana at the pre-test and the amount and direction of change at post-test. Iowa Youth Survey data are also provided.

  • 23

    Table 3: Change in Substance Use: Diversion Program Participants

    There was no statistical evidence of change from pre-test to post-test for alcohol, binge drinking, cigarette, or marijuana use for Diversion programs (McNemar statistical tests yielded p values greater than 0.05). However, this also means that use of those substances showed no evidence of increasing as would be expected due to maturation.

    Percentage of Youth Reporting Use at the Pre-Test and Change at Post-Test:

    Diversion Program Participants

    Group N Median

    Age

    Alcohol Binge Drinking Cigarettes Marijuana

    Pre-Test %

    Change Pre-Test

    % Change

    Pre-Test %

    Change Pre-Test

    % Change

    Iowa Youth Survey 55,116 13 – +5.33 – +3.70 – +1.67 – +2.70

    Diversion 77 17 37.66 -5.19 24.68 +5.19 14.29 -2.56 14.47 -5.26

    Note: IYS entries indicate the yearly average change in 30-day use between all Iowa students in grades 8th through 11th. These grades were chosen based on the median age of Diversion participants. Data are from the 2016 Iowa Youth Survey, State of Iowa report (Alcohol from question B16, Binge Drinking from B17, Cigarettes from B34, and Marijuana from B40). The total number of 8th graders was 29,135 and the total number of 11th graders was 25,981. The median age of 8th graders was 13 and 11th graders was 16.

  • 24

    Attitudes Toward Substance Use Attitude responses are coded on a Likert scale from “not wrong at all” to “very wrong.” Individual attitudes either:

    1) improved, which means that attitudes moved up the scale towards “very wrong” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent felt alcohol use was “wrong” at pre-test and “very wrong” at post-test);

    2) maintained +, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were unfavorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (“wrong” or “very wrong”);

    3) maintained -, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were favorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (“a little wrong” or “not wrong at all”); or

    4) worsened, meaning that attitudes moved down the scale away from “very wrong” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent felt marijuana use was “wrong” at pre-test and “a little bit wrong” at post-test). Maintaining a response from pre-test to post-test that use is “wrong” or “very wrong,” or moving up the scale towards “very wrong” from any point on the scale is considered a positive outcome.

    Maintaining a response from pre-test to post-test that use is “wrong” or “very wrong,” or moving up the scale towards “very wrong” from any point on the scale is considered a positive outcome. Desired outcomes for these questions are improvement in (“improved”) or positive maintenance (“maintained +”) of attitudes toward substance use. Figure 19 presents data on the change in attitude toward alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use from pre-test to post-test for Diversion program participants. The change values presented in the figures do not necessarily indicate statistically significant differences from pre-test to post-test. The number in parentheses after each program in the figures is the number of respondents answering the question on the pre-test and the post-test. Figure 19: Change in Attitudes Toward Substance Use: Diversion Program

    11.7%3.9% 7.9%

    39.0%62.3%

    59.2%

    13.0%

    6.5% 6.6%

    36.4%27.3% 26.3%

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    Drink beer, wine, or liquor(alcohol) regularly

    (n=77)

    Smoke Cigarettes(n=77)

    Smoke Marijuana(n=76)

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    Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use Perceived risk responses are coded on a Likert scale from ”no risk” to ”great risk.” Individual perceptions of risk either:

    1) improved, which means that their reported perception of risk of harm from using alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana moved up the scale from pre-test to post-test towards “great risk,” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent felt alcohol use posed “no risk” at pre-test and “moderate risk” at post-test);

    2) maintained +, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were unfavorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (that use posed “moderate risk” or “great risk”);

    3) maintained –, which means that the pre- and post-test responses remained the same and were favorable toward alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use (that use posed “slight risk” or “no risk”); or

    4) worsened, meaning that their reported perception of risk of harm moved down the scale from pre-test to post-test away from “great risk,” from any point on the scale (e.g., respondent reported that marijuana use posed “moderate risk” of harm at pre-test and “slight risk” at post-test).

    Maintaining a response from pre-test to post-test that use poses “moderate risk” or “great risk,” or moving up the scale towards “great risk” from any point on the scale is considered a positive outcome. Desired outcomes for these questions are improvement in (“improved”) or positive maintenance (“maintained +”) perceived risk toward substance use. Figure 20 presents data on the change in perception of risk of harm from alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use from pre-test to post-test for Diversion program participants. The change values presented in the figures do not necessarily indicate statistically significant differences from pre-test to post-test. The number in parentheses after each program in the figures is the number of respondents answering the question on the pre-test and the post-test. Figure 20: Change in Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use: Diversion Program

    25.0%

    10.4%

    42.9%

    56.6%80.5%

    40.3%

    6.6%

    3.9%11.7%

    11.8%5.2% 5.2%

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    Drink 3 or more drinks every day (n=76)

    Smoke cigarettes once a week (n=77)

    Smoke marijuana once a week (n=77)

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    CONCLUSION

    Project Evaluation Questions

    Has alcohol/tobacco/marijuana usage changed in the target population?

    Answer: Yes, for Comprehensive Prevention combined There was a statistically significant increase from pre-test to post-test in alcohol use for Comprehensive Prevention participants (excluding Diversion program participants) and the year one LifeSkills Training group. There was no evidence of change from pre-test to post-test for binge drinking, cigarette, or marijuana use in the combined middle school and high school Comprehensive Prevention participant group or individual program groups. There was no evidence of change from pre-test to post-test for alcohol, binge drinking, cigarette, or marijuana use for Diversion. However, no change also means that use of those showed no evidence of increasing as would be expected due to maturation.

    Has the percentage of the target population who indicate desirable attitudes (i.e., that it is wrong to use substances) at baseline (pre-test) maintained or increased after the intervention (post-test)?

    Answer: Yes Tables 4, 5, and 6 present positive outcome percentages for attitudes toward alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use for all Comprehensive Prevention participants in each program level and by individual programs. Eighty-five percent or more of participants across all regular programs (excluding Diversion) maintained or increased positive attitudes regarding substance use (maintained a response from pre-test to post-test that use is “wrong” or “very wrong”). Ninety-five percent or more of Younger Youth participants maintained or increased positive attitudes, and 50.7% or more of Diversion participants maintained or increased positive attitudes. In all groups, the percentage of students who believe regular cigarette and marijuana use is wrong is higher than the percentage of students who believe regular alcohol use is wrong. In all groups except year two middle and high school youth, the percentage of participants who believe marijuana use is wrong is higher than alcohol and cigarettes. Table 4: Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use by School Group

    Average Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use

    Participant Group Alcohol Cigarettes Marijuana

    Middle and High School Youth in Single-Year and Year One Programs

    85.0% 89.4% 90.3%

    Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    85.7% 92.2% 87.8%

    Elementary School Youth in Single-Year and Year One Programs

    95.3% 97.4% 98.2%

    Diversion 50.7% 66.2% 67.1%

  • 27

    Table 5: Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use by Regular Programs

    Average Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use

    Regular Programs Alcohol Cigarettes Marijuana

    LifeSkills - Year 1 85.6% 90.0% 91.4%

    LifeSkills – Year 2 81.0% 89.4% 89.7%

    Project ALERT - Year 1 87.6% 91.5% 93.7%

    Project ALERT - Year 2 86.4% 93.9% 87.4%

    Too Good for Drugs 83.3% 90.0% 89.5%

    Prime for Life 77.7% 82.5% 80.0%

    Project Northland 90.9% 91.6% 95.5%

    Brain Power 81.0% 93.0% 92.8%

    Table 6: Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use by Younger Youth Programs

    Average Positive Outcome Percentages for Attitudes Toward Substance Use

    Younger Youth Programs Alcohol Cigarettes Marijuana

    Too Good for Drugs 94.0% 96.4% 97.3%

    Brain Power 97.1% 98.2% 98.8%

    LifeSkills – Year 1 97.7% 98.8% 100%

    Project Northland 94.9% 98.3% 98.3%

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    Has perception of risk of harm from alcohol/tobacco/marijuana use maintained a positive response or increased from pre-test to post-test?

    Answer: Yes Tables 7, 8, and 9 present positive outcome percentages for perceived risk toward alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use for all Comprehensive Prevention participants in each program level and by individual programs. More than 73.6% of participants across all regular programs (excluding Diversion) maintained or increased their perception of risk regarding substance use (maintained a response from pre-test to post-test that use poses “moderate risk” or “great risk”). More than 69.4% of Younger Youth participants maintained or increased their perception of risk, and at least 81.6% of Diversion participants maintained or increased their perception of risk. In all groups combined (excluding Diversion), a higher percentage of participants believe regular marijuana use is less risky than the percentage of participants who believe that regular use of alcohol and cigarettes are risky. Diversion has a higher percentage of youth who believe alcohol is less risky than marijuana. All groups have a higher percentage of youth who believe that cigarette use is riskier than alcohol or marijuana use. It is noteworthy that 43% of Diversion participants moved up the scale (further toward “great risk”) for marijuana use and 25% moved up the scale for alcohol use. Table 7: Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use by School Group

    Average Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk Toward Substance Use

    Participant Group Alcohol Cigarettes Marijuana

    Middle and High School Youth in Single-Year and Year One Programs

    80.7% 86.8% 76.5%

    Middle and High School Youth in Year Two of Multi-Year Programs

    75.1% 86.2% 73.6%

    Elementary School Youth in Single-Year and Year One Programs

    84.3% 89.4% 69.4%

    Diversion 81.6% 90.9% 83.2%

  • 29

    Table 8: Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use by Regular Programs

    Average Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk Toward Substance Use

    Program Alcohol Cigarettes Marijuana

    LifeSkills - Year 1 81.4% 87.8% 77.8%

    LifeSkills – Year 2 74.1% 86.2% 68.9%

    Project ALERT - Year 1 81.6% 86.7% 78.3%

    Project ALERT – Year 2 73.4% 85.7% 73.3%

    Too Good for Drugs 81.7% 88.7% 72.7%

    Prime for Life 75.0% 86.3% 79.0%

    Project Northland 79.4% 81.7% 75.6%

    Brain Power 79.0% 83.9% 70.2%

    Table 9: Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk of Harm from Substance Use by Younger Youth Programs

    Average Positive Outcome Percentages for Perceived Risk Toward Substance Use

    Younger Youth Programs Alcohol Cigarettes Marijuana

    Too Good for Drugs 85.1% 88.1% 68.8%

    Brain Power 81.1% 88.6% 66.0%

    LifeSkills – Year 1 85.6% 94.3% 76.9%

    Project Northland 93.1% 91.2% 70.7%

    Considering positive attitude outcomes for all first year regular programming, Project Northland

    has the highest percentage of students who believe alcohol and marijuana are wrong, while

    Brain Power has the highest percentage of students who believe cigarettes are wrong. For all

    YY programming, LifeSkills has the highest percentage of students who believe alcohol,

    cigarettes, and marijuana are wrong.

    Considering perceived risk of harm for all first year regular programming, Too Good for Drugs

    has the highest percentage of students who perceive alcohol and cigarettes as risky, while

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    Prime for Life has the highest percentage of students who perceive marijuana as risky. For all

    YY programming, LifeSkills has the highest percentage of students who perceive cigarettes and

    marijuana as risky, while Project Northland has the highest percentage of students who

    perceive alcohol as less risky.

    It is noteworthy that Diversion program participants think alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana are

    more risky than wrong. As opposed to the findings of regular and YY programming (with the

    exception of Brain Power) that these substances are more wrong than risky.

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    APPENDIX

    Institute of Medicine Categories of Populations Served by Agency and Program

    Institute of Medicine Population Categories by Agency and Program

    AGENCY PROGRAM POPULATION SERVED (IOM CATEGORY)

    Alcohol and Drug Dependency Services of Southeast Iowa

    LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct

    Project ALERT Universal-Direct

    Area Substance Abuse Council, Area 6

    Families and Schools Together

    Selective

    LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct

    Prime for Life Universal-Direct and Indicated

    Project Towards No Drug Abuse

    Selective

    Curriculum-Based Support Group

    Selective

    Area Substance Abuse Council, Area 8

    Curriculum-Based Support Group

    Selective

    Center for Alcohol and Drug Services

    Too Good for Drugs Universal-Direct

    Community and Family Resources Prime for Life Indicated

    Too Good for Drugs Universal-Direct

    Compass Pointe

    Diversion (Juvenile Alcohol & Drug Education)

    Indicated

    Project Northland Universal-Direct

    Prime for Life Universal-Direct

    Employee and Family Resources, Area 13

    Too Good for Drugs

    Universal-Direct LifeSkills Training

    Employee and Family Resources, Area 16

    Too Good for Drugs Universal-Direct

    LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct and Selective

    Employee and Family Resources, Area 20

    Too Good for Drugs Universal-Direct

    Zion Recovery Area 9 (Data submitted late)

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    (Data submitted late)

    Zion Recovery Area 10 (Data submitted late)

    Helping Services for Youth & Families

    (No data submitted this year)

    Jackson Recovery Centers (No data submitted this year)

    Prelude Behavioral Services LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct

    New Opportunities LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct

    Pathways Behavioral Services, Inc.

    LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct

    Strengthening Families Program

    Selective

    Prairie Ridge Integrated Behavioral Healthcare

    Diversion (Prime for Life) Selective and Indicated

    Southern Iowa Economic Development Association

    Brain Power Universal-Direct

    Substance Abuse Services for Clayton County, Inc.

    All Stars Universal-Direct

    Substance Abuse Treatment Unit of Central Iowa

    Juvenile Education Groups Indicated

    New Horizons

    LifeSkills Training Universal-Direct

    Project ALERT

    Project Towards No Drug Abuse

    Indicated

    Youth and Shelter Services, Inc., Area 1

    Project ALERT Universal-Direct

    Too Good For Drugs

    Youth and Shelter Services, Inc., Area 2

    Project ALERT Universal-Direct