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DESCRIPTIONComprehension Strategies. Marie Kalisek EDR 343 Inquiry Presentation December 3, 2012. Common core (5 th grade). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Comprehension StrategiesMarie KalisekEDR 343Inquiry PresentationDecember 3, 2012Common core (5th grade)2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 45 text complexity band
Glces (5th grade)R.CM.03-05.01 connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of the world to themes and perspectives in text through oral and written responses.R.CM.04-05.02 retell through concise summarization grade-level narrative and informational textR.CM.05.03 analyze global themes, universal truths, and principles within and across texts to create a deeper understanding by drawing conclusions, making inferences, and synthesizing.R.CM.03-05.04 apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social studies, and mathematics texts.
ComprehensionComprehension can be described as The process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language.The process of simultaneously extracting, navigating, and constructing meaning through interaction, involvement, and critiquing the written language.Comprehension is the process in which readers construct meaning by interacting with text through the combination of prior knowledge and previous experience, information in the text, and the stance the reader takes in relationship to the text.Regardless of how you look at it, comprehension occurs when there is a transaction between the reader and the text that they are reading.
(Pardo, 2011)Teaching comprehensionYou need to model the strategy, guide the students through the strategy, and then they need to independently do the strategy.You also have to gradually release the responsibility of comprehending to the child so that in the end can do it by themselves.The student should have had plenty of instruction so that the students does not fail at the comprehension task.
(Clark & Graves, 2005)The Fab Four StrategyIt is reciprocal teaching that uses four strategies. The strategies are predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing. Each of these work together to increase comprehension Teachers have three responsibilities:Before reading, they need to activate the students prior knowledge of words or ideas that the students may come across.During reading they need to monitor, encourage, and guide the students to use the fab four.After reading they need to encourage reflection and ask the students to say which strategy was the most helpful for them.In each of the four steps there is a person that the student meets to help them to remember what to do.(Stricklin, 2011)
Step #1 - PredictingPrior to readingPredicting motivates the students to read and it also helps them to make reading purposeful.In this step, Paula is introduced. She wears a scarf, holds a crystal ball or snow globe and has a fortune teller voice.Hello, I am Paula the Predictor, and I love to make predictions about the future. I also love to make predictions about what is going to happen in books. Let me look at this book and make a prediction. I see pictures of _____, so I think I will learn _____. What do you think you will learn from this book?
(Stricklin, 2011)Step #2 Clarifying During ReadingClarifying words and ideas helps students to make connections in the text instead of simply skipping the unknown ideas or words.In this step, Clarence is introduced. He wears glasses, holds a magnifying glass and speaks in a detective voice. Good morning, I am Clarence the clarifier, and I like to solve mysteries. I look for clues that help me understand words and ideas. I see this word _____. I know I can get clues by reading before and after the word. Ah, I see that _____ so _____ must mean _____. Another important part of my job is interviewing people. Who can tell me more about a _____?
(Stricklin, 2011)Step #3 Questioning After readingQuestioning promotes comprehension because a student must understand what they have read to ask their peers quality questions.In this step, Quinn is introduced. He is a game show host and holds a microphone.Welcome to the game show Reading Is Fun, where you get the chance to ask and answer questions for a cash prize! Im your host, Quinn the Questioner. Ill ask the first question for $100. Who can answer the following what question: What is the _____? [student answers correctly] Thats right! You win $100! [hand out play money] Now, who can ask a why question for $1,000?
(Stricklin, 2011)Step #4 - summarizingAfter readingSummarizing helps the students by making them concentrate on the main idea of the story and the supporting details of the text.In this step, Sammy is introduced. He wears a cowboy hat, holds a lasso and has a country twang. Howdy, folks. I am Sammy the Summarizer. I like to lasso cows, but I also like to lasso information about a story. The information has to be short and to the point [make lasso small]. This page was about how _____. Yeehawthats it!
(Stricklin, 2011)Fab fourTo use the strategy in your classroom, first you model the strategy. Then you put the students into groups and assign jobs to the students so that everyone can participate and be someone different each time. To remind the students of the steps you can use the following:Charts around the roomHave them make bookmarksHave them make paper plate dialsUse propsHave them use sticky notesRemind them of sentence startersHave the students discuss with other students.
To check for comprehensionAllow them to use the strategy multiple times.Once they have done this you can have them:Make a four door chartA chart with four doors. Behind each door they record all of their work.Sequence the story by using strips of paperThey organize strips of paper into the correct orderWriting a clear summary (using 25 words or less)Creating a question booklet Students create a question for each page that they will read as they preview the text. When they read they answer the questions. They may also trade books with another students and answer their questions.1,2,3,4Students make a chart similar to the four door chart. The students write their prediction in the first fold, two words or ideas that they do not understand in the second, three questions in the third, and a four sentence summary in the last flap. (Stricklin, 2011)
Benefits of this approachCan be used with fiction and nonfictionAlso works with standardized testingWhen it is actively used, the reading levels increase one to two grade levels in three to six months.English learners increase comprehension and vocabulary knowledgeStudents with disabilities have a lot of success using this approachStruggling readers and disenchanted readers want to engage in reading.Advanced students increase knowledge level and comprehension.
ReferencesPardo, L. S.(May 2011). What every teacher needs to know about comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58(3), 272-280. doi:10.1598/RT.58.3.5Clark, K. F., & Graves, M. F. (March 2005). Scaffolding students comprehension of text. The Reading Journal, 58(6), 570-580. doi:10.1598/RT.58.6.6Stricklin, K. (May 2011).Hands-on reciprocal teaching: A comprehension technique. The Reading Teacher, 64(8), 620-625. doi:10.1598/RT.64.8.8