Comprehension Questions Tutorial (Literal, Inferential, Applied)
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Submit by 11:59 p.m. Sunday of Week 7, March 6, 2015. Please use the required template
Submit by 11:59 p.m. Sunday of Week 7, March 6, 2015. Please use the required template.COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS TUTORIAL
CREATING: LITERALINFERENTIAL, & APPLIEDQUESTIONS
LIST 4373SPRING 2015Dr. Peggy Semingson
Prior to completing thisassignment, please read thistutorial in its entirety.
Overview of the book and authorBackground of comprehension questions.Examples of each type of question: literal, inferential, and applied.Tips for completing this assignment.
Overview of the Book andAuthor
This book is written in the form of a poem. It was written in 2014 by the award-winning author, Jacqueline Woodson.Please Google the book and author to explore a bit about the book itself. Be sure to read the Authors Note at the end of the text itself. Consider the key themes of the text prior to starting to write comprehension questions.
Optional: Discuss the book and your thoughts on the book with 1 or more classmates.
Directions:The purpose of the assignment is to develop your skills at constructing a variety of comprehension questions at various levels. Using the book Brown Girl Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson, come up with your own original comprehension questions (literal, inferential, and applied) using the required template. The scenario would be if you were to use this book as a read- aloud or for guided reading in an upper-grade (4th-6th grade) classroom.
StepsRead Brown Girl Dreaming closely and carefully. Optional: discuss it with one more people. Consider reading reviews on goodreads and/or Amazon. (https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/20821284-brown- girl-dreaming)Read through the entire Comprehension Questions Tutorial PowerPoint prior to completing this assignment. Read it closely and carefully.Create your questions. Remember, you are creatingquestions that you would potentially pose to students in a4th-6th grade class. You must come up with your own original questions!As you create questions, they should be from the beginning(first 1/3), middle (second 1/3) and end (last 1/3) of the book.Hint: Remember to avoid yes/no questions.
Balanced Literacy: Comprehension questionscan be asked primarily during the I do and we do components of balanced literacy
Read Aloud (I do, teacher modeling)Shared Reading(I do, teacher modeling)Guided Reading (We do, guided practice)
Literature Circles/Book Club-students can learn to ask one another questions during book club. This is primarily done in upper-grades.
Gradual release of responsibility*(Pearson & Gallagher, 1983)
Questions can be asked before, during, and after reading. In the classroom, try not to ask too many questions during the reading. Asking too many questions also is to be avoided as it can interfere with experience with the text itself.
Read-aloud, shared reading, and guided reading are typically when comprehension questions are used.
Questions should be carefully constructed to maximize reflection and dialogue.
Chunking the Text for Scaffolding andMonitoring of ComprehensionChunk the texts at strategic stopping points to discuss whats happening, ask open-ended comprehension questions to check for understanding and to set a purpose and revisit the teaching focus often.Model the type of comprehension conversation you wouldlike them to have.Encourage students to come up with comprehension questions, as well.Help parents/caretakers to make a habit of weaving in comprehension questions when reading text with students at home.
Questioning should be a mix of literal,inferential, and applied questions.Make them as authentic as possible, allow wait time for response, be equitable in turn-taking, actively listen to students, chart their responses, if possible and time permitting, and build on their ideas.Keep instruction student-centered and engaging!
Comprehension and posing questionsdemonstration and practice.
There are three key types of questionsLiteralInferentialApplied***Lets read through and explore each type of question.*The Three level question guide is a technique developed by Herber in 1978. Source: Herber, H. (1978). Teaching reading in the contentareas. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.The three level reading guide is the technique we will be practicing in this tutorial and in the assignment. Feel free to Google three level reading guide for more information if you wish.
Designing Questions to Foster OralConversation and Authentic DialogueYou are designing questions as if you were using them during either a read-aloud, shared reading, or guided reading with this book.The goal is to foster oral conversation; therefore, the questions should be written as if you were intending to foster conversation with either a small group of students or as a whole class.Questions should be authentic. Please make them interesting.
Example: The Hundred DressesThis book is about a group of girls who bully another girl, Wanda, because they feel she is inventing that she has a hundred dresses at home. The books key theme is bullying, social class (Wanda is poor while the girls who tease predominantly are not), friendship, and character study.Most of the inferential questions get at ethical dilemmas.This book is appropriate for upper-grades, with a focus on 4th/5th graders.
Examples using The Hundred Dresses byEleanor EstesExamples of Literal Questions:Who are the main characters?Who wrote the book?Where does the story take place?What are some of the settings of the story?
Literal Questions (can easily be answered by locating and retrieving directly from the text with little to no interpretation). They are lower-level and align with the knowledge level of Blooms Taxonomy. However, they help the teacher to assess basic understanding of the text. In the classroom, do not spend too much time here, unless students (usually in a small group) are facing challenges with basic comprehension.
Inferential QuestionsInferential Questions (involves making inferences or drawing conclusions based on the readers prior knowledge and schema).Answers must be sought from multiple places in the text; they cannot simply be retrieved from one place.These answers require students to read within thetext, however, they must use clues inside the text.Questions are not students opinions; they MUST use clues from inside the text to form their answer. Help students to revisit the text to find clues for their answer.
Try to use the language of inferencing inyour questions.What can we conclude about the character whenthe author states ?What clues tell us about the main character, ?
Other terms to weave into inferential questions might include:-clues-conclude/conclusions-predictions [making predictions is a type of inference]
More on the language of inferencingImportant: Try to weave some or most of these terms into your inferential questions. Memorize these terms for your future teaching. I suggest writing them on an index card to review often!
inference, infer, conclusion, conclude, determine,implied, implication, not stated, authors message,text evidence, clues, background knowledge
Examples: What evidence in text tells you..; What background knowledge can you draw upon to infer what the character is feeling about ?
*Source: Austin ISD http://curriculum.austinisd.org/la/resources/documents/Biography_Infe rences.pdf
Examples of Inferential Questions..Inferential Questions (Notice when I do ask yes/no questions they are always followed up with a prompt asking for supporting evidence.)
What kind of person is Wanda? What are words to describe Wanda and why?Is Wanda lying when she says she has a hundred dresses? Why orwhy not? Use text evidence to support your answer.Is anyone a bully in this book? How so? What makes someone a bully in the story? Is Maddie a bully? What in the text tells you that?Why does Maddie not speak up even though she struggles with the bullying of Wanda?Why does Maddie constantly envision defending Wanda? What doesthis mean about Maddie? Why doesnt she say anything?How are Maddie and Wanda alike? How are they different?What do you think happened to Wanda? Why do you think so?
Applied Questions (Beyond the text)Applied questions are mainly opinion questions that work beyond the text. They are more difficult to assess because one could really ask them without having read the text. They are harder to use to assess students understanding of the text.Use applied questions, but focus more on inferential questioning in your classroom. However, applied questions can be very engaging for students and teacher to discuss!Applied questions connect to the real-world and help students to make connections between the text, their own opinions, and scenarios.
Applied (real-world) questions [opinion-seeking; scenarios]Applied QuestionsWho is your favorite character and why? Who is your leastfavorite character and why?Are you reminded of another book, movie, or real-life scenario from this book?Why do you think the author wrote this book? Do you think it would make a difference to a child after reading this book in their behavior, either about bullying or standing up to bullies?Did you like the book? Why or why not?Would this book appeal to boys, as well? Why or why not?
Applied Questions (real world questions that involve application to an invented scenario, interpretation of the text, inclusion of the readers judgment, opinion, and personal response)
Placement of Questions
Before Reading: Activate Schema, Set Purpose, Guide Reader
During Reading: Help Reader Process Text
After Reading: Help Reader Organize & Summarize
Embedded Questions: Foster Ongoing Summarizing