Complete blood count and its importance in dentistry
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- 1. Abasic screening test that evaluates the cells that circulate in blood.Acomplete blood count(CBC),also known asfull bloodcount(FBC) orfull bloodexam(FBE) orblood panel.
2. Screen for a wide rangeof conditions and Help diagnose various conditions, suchasanemia ,infection,diseasesinflammation,bleeding disorderorleukemia etc Monitor treatment that is known toMonitor the condition and/or affect blood cells, such aseffectiveness of treatment after chemotherapy or radiation therapya diagnosis is established 3. A CBC is a panel oftests that evaluates thethree types of cells thatcirculate in the bloodand includes thefollowing:Evaluation of white blood cellsEvaluation of red blood cellsEvaluation of platelets 4. White blood cell (WBC)count is a count of the totalnumber of white blood cells in apersons sample of blood. Allthe white cell types are given asa percentage and as an absolutenumber per litre. White blood celldifferential may or may not be included as part of the panel of tests. It identifies and counts the number of the various types of white blood cells present. The five types includeneutrophils,lymphocytes,mon ocytes,eosinophils, andbasophils. 5. WBC:4,000 10,000/cubicmmWBCDIFFERENTIAL:Neutrophil40-75%Lymphocytes 15-75%Monocytes 1-10%Eosinophils 1-6%Basophils 0-2% 6. Full examples ofexamples ofTestcauses of a lowcauses of a Name counthigh countWBCWhite Known as leukopenia Known as Blood or damage leukocytosis Cell Count infections most Autoimmune conditionscommonly Severe infectionsbacterial orviral (sepsis)Leukemia, lymphomaor othermyeloproliferativ cancer that spread to e disorders the bone marrow inflammation Diseases of immune Allergies , system (e.g.,HIV)Asthma Tissue death (trauma, burns,heart attack) Intense exercise or severe stress 7. TestFull Name examples of causes of examples of causesa low count of a high countNeu,Absoluteneutro Known as neutropeniaKnown asPMN,phil count, % Severe,over whelming neutrophiliapolys neutrophils infection (sepsis)Acute bacterialAutoimmune infectionsdisorders InflammationReaction to drugs, Tissue deathchemotherapy(necrosis) causedImmunodeficiency by trauma, heartBone marrow damage attack, burns(e.g., chemotherapy,leukemiaradiation therapy)eos Absoluteeosino not medicallyParasiticphilsignificant.infections,count, %asthma,allergiceosinophils reaction.basoAbsolutebasoph not medically bone marrowil count, % significant related conditionsbasophils such as leukemia orlymphoma 8. TEST Full Name examples ofexamples of causes of a lowcauses of a high countcountmono Absolutemonocy not medicallybacterial infection, te significant. tuberculosis, count, % malaria, monocytic monocytesleukemialympho Absolute Known as Known as Lymphocytelymphocytopenialymphocytosis count, %AutoimmuneAcute viral lymphocytes disordersinfections (e.g.,lupusrheumat (e.g.,chicken oid arthritis) pox,cytomegaloviru Infections (e.g., s (CMV),Epstein- HIV,viral hepatitis , Barr virus typhoid(EBV),herpes) fever,influenza)Certain bacterial Bone marrow infections damage (e.g.,(e.g.tuberculosis chemotherapy,Lymphocytic radiation therapy) leukemia, Corticosteroids lymphomaStress (acute) 9. Red blood cell (RBC) count is a count of the actual number of red blood cells in a persons sample of blood. Hemoglobin measures the amount of the oxygen- carrying protein in the blood. Hematocrit measures the percentage of a persons blood that consists of red blood cells. Red blood cell indices are calculations that provide information on the physical characteristics of the RBCs: (RDW), which may be included in a CBC, is acalculation of the variation in the size of RBCs.Mean corpuscular volume(MCV) is a measurement of the average size ofRBCs. Mean corpuscular hemoglobinis a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside a red blood cell. Mean corpuscular hemoglobinconcentration (MCHC) is acalculation of the average percentage of hemoglobininside a red cell. reticulocyte count which is ameasurement of the absolute count or percentage ofyoung red blood cells in blood. 10. examples of causes of examples of causes ofTest Full Namelow resulthigh resultRBCRed BloodKnown asanemia Known aspolycythemia Cell Count Acute or chronic DehydrationbleedingPulmonary diseaseRBC destructionKidney or other tumor(e.g.hemolyticthat produces excessanemia,etc.)erythropoietinNutritional deficiency Smoking(e.g., iron deficiency, Genetic causes (alteredvitamin B12 or folate oxygen sensing,deficiency) abnormality inBone marrow disordershemoglobin oxygenor damage release)Chronic inflammatorydiseaseKidney failureUsually mirrors RBCUsually mirrors RBCHb Hemoglobin results, provides addedresultsinformationUsually mirrors RBCUsually mirrors RBCHctHematocrit results; most commonresultscause is dehydration 11. examples of causes ofTest examples of causes of Full Name low result high result Indicates RBCs areIndicates RBCs are smaller than normal larger than normal Mean (microcytic); caused(macrocytic), forMCVCorpuscul byiron deficiencyexample inanemia ar Volume anemia orthalassemia,caused by folate or vit for example.B12 deficiency Mean Mirrors MCV results; Corpuscul Mirrors MCV results; macrocytic RBCs areMCHarsmall red cells would large so tend to have a Hemoglobi have a lower value. higher MCH. n Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions MeanMay be low when MCV is where the hemoglobin Corpuscul low; decreased MCHC is more concentrated arvalues (hypochromia) inside the red cells,MCHC Hemoglobi are seen in conditions such as autoimmune n such as iron deficiency hemolytic anemia, in Concentra anemia and burn patients, and tionthalassemia. hereditary spherocytosis, a rare congenital disorder. 12. TestFullExamples of causes of Examples of causes ofNamelow resulthigh resultIndicates mixedpopulation of small andlarge RBCs; immatureRBCs tend to be larger.For example, in ironRBCLow value indicates deficiency anemia orDistribRDW uniformity in size of pernicious anemia,utionRBCsthere is high variationWidth(anisocytosis) in RBCsize (along withvariation in shape poikilocytosis), causingan increase in the RDW.In the setting of anemia,In the setting of anemia,a high reticulocytea low reticulocyte countReticul count generallyindicates a condition isocytesindicates peripheralaffecting the productionReticuloc (absolcause, such as bleedingof red blood cells, suchyte count ute or hemolysis, oras bone marrowcount response to treatmentdisorder or damage, or aor %) (e.g., ironnutritional deficiencysupplementation for(iron, B12 or folate)iron deficiency anemia) 13. The platelet countis the number of platelets in a persons sample of blood.Mean platelet volume (MPV) may be reported with a CBC. It is a calculation of the average size of platelets.Platelet distribution width (PDW) may also be reported with a CBC. It is a measurement of the variation of platelet size. 14. Platelet count :140,000 to450,000 /cubic mm Mean plateletvolume: 7.5 11.5 fL Plateletdistribution width:10% -17.9% 15. Full examples of causes of examples of causes ofTest Name low resulthigh resultpltPlatelet Known asKnow as Countthrombocytopenia: thrombocytosis:Viral infectionCancer (lung,(mononucleosis,hepatiti gastrointestinal,lymps)homa)Rocky mountain spotted Rheumatoid arthritis,fever inflammatory bowelPlatelet autoantibodydisease, lupusDrugs (acetaminophen,Iron deficiencyquinidine, sulfa drugs) anemiacirrhosisHemolytic anemiaAutoimmune disorders MyeloproliferativeSepsis disorder (e.g.,Leukemia, lymphoma essentialMyelodysplasia thrombocythemia)Chemo or radiationtherapy 16. Test Full Examples of causes Examples of causes of high Name of low resultresultIndicates averagesize of platelets is small; olderplatelets are Indicates a high numbergenerally of larger, younger plateletssmaller than Mean in the blood; this may beyounger onesMPVPlateletdue to the bone marrow and a low MPV may Volumeproducing and releasingmean platelets rapidly intothat a condition iscirculation.affecting the production ofplatelets by the bone marrow.Indicates uniformity Indicates increased Platelet in variation in the size of the Distrib size of plateletsPDWplatelets, which may mean ution that a condition is present Width that is affecting platelets 17. Reviewing clinical laboratory test results about a patients condition can provide valuable information forDiagnosis and management of orofacial conditionsGuidance on assessing the patients ability to tolerate the proposed dental treatmentA prognosis based on a particular treatment 18. EVALUATION OF WBC when a patient is being treated with amedication that suppresses WBCproduction (such as antineoplasticagents), the patient is at a greaterrisk for postoperative infection, anddental treatment should be deferreduntil the WBC result is back tonormal. Forinvasive dental treatment,perioperative antibiotics areindicated in patients with ANCless than 1,000 cells/mm3inorder to minimize the risk ofinfection. When the ANC fallsbelow 500 cells/mm3,intravenous antimicrobialtherapy may be necessary toprevent sepsis resulting frominvasive dental treatment. 19. EVALUATION OF RBC Patients with polycythemiamay experience orthopnea inthe dental chair, dizziness,headache, red facial coloring,and dyspnea. Hgb and Hct are necessaryparts of the assessment foranemias and in patients withburning mouth disorders andaphthous stomatitis. Differ routine dentaltreatment in Patient withsevere anemia 20. EVALUATION OFPLATELETS Bleeding disorders or bonemarrow diseases, suchhealthcare provider todetermine as leukemia,require the dental thenumber of plateletspresent and/or theirability to functioncorrectly prior to invasivesurgery. Minor dentistry: countsshould be greater than50,000/cubicmm