COMPED9 Module 4 Network Connectivity
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Post on 19-Aug-2015
- 1. COMPUTER EDUCATION 9 MODULE 4 Network Connectivity Prepared By: Engr. Jeremy M. Flores
- 2. COMMUNICATION We live in a truly connected society. We can communicate almost instantaneously with others worldwide.
- 3. COMMUNICATION As the power and flexibility of our communication systems have expanded, the sophistication of the networks that support these systems has become increasingly critical and complex.
- 4. COMMUNICATION Computer communication is the process of sharing data, programs, and information between two or more computers.
- 5. COMMUNICATION Electronic Mail Texting and Messaging Internet Telephone Electronic Commerce
- 6. CONNECTIVITY Connectivity is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources.
- 7. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION The single most dramatic change in connectivity and communications in the past few years.
- 8. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION It refers to the widespread use of mobile devices like smartphones and tablets with wireless Internet connectivity.
- 9. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION So, whats the revolution? Todays mobile computers support E-mail, Web access, and variety of Internet applications.
- 10. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION Most experts say that the Wireless Revolution is just in its beginning phase.
- 11. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS It is an electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another, whether wired or wireless.
- 12. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Four Basic Elements Sending / Receiving Devices Connecting Devices Data Transmission Specification Communication Channel
- 13. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
- 14. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Sending / Receiving Devices These are often a computer or specialized communication devices that originate and accept messages in the form of data, information, and/or instructions.
- 15. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Connecting Devices These devices act as an interface between the sending and receiving devices and communication channel.
- 16. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Connecting Devices They convert outgoing messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel and reverse the process for incoming messages.
- 17. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Data Transmission Specification These are rules and procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by precisely defining how the message will be sent across the communication device.
- 18. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Communication Channel This is the actual connecting or transmission medium that carries the message. It can be physical wire or cable, or it can be wireless.
- 19. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Communication Channels are essential elements of every communication system. These channels carry out the data from one computer to another.
- 20. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Two Categories Physical Connection Wireless Connection
- 21. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Physical Connection It uses a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices.
- 22. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
- 23. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Twisted-Pair Cable consists of pair of copper wires that are twisted together. Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)
- 24. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Coaxial Cable, a high frequency transmission cable, replaces the multiple wires of telephone lines with a single solid-copper core.
- 25. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Fiber Optic Cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass, and rapidly replacing Twisted-Pair cable telephone lines.
- 26. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Fiber Optic Cable has over 26,000 times the transmission capacity of Twisted-Pair Cable. Compared to Coaxial Cable, it is lighter, faster, and more reliable in transmitting data.
- 27. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS They move data through the air and use radio waves to communicate.
- 28. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Bluetooth Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Microwave WiMax Long Term Evolution (LTE) Satellite
- 29. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Bluetooth is a short range communication standard that transmits data over short distances of up to approximately 33 feet.
- 30. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) uses high-frequency radio signals to transmit data. Most home and business wireless networks use Wi-Fi.
- 31. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Microwave communications uses high-frequency radio waves. It is sometimes referred to as line-of- sight communications because it can only travel in a straight line.
- 32. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS WiMax, Worldwide Interoperablity for Microwave Access, is a new standard that extends the range of Wi-Fi networks using microwave connections.
- 33. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS LTE, Long Term Evolution, the newest wireless standard, promises to provide greater speed and quality transmission in the near future.
- 34. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Satellite Communication uses satellites orbiting about 22,000 miles above the earth as microwave relay stations.
- 35. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Many of these are offered by Intelsat, the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium, owned by 114 governments and forms a worldwide communication system.
- 36. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS UPLINK is a term relating to sending data to satellite. DOWNLINK refers to receiving data from satellite.
- 37. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most interesting application of Satellite Communications.
- 38. CONNECTION DEVICES Telephones typically send and receive Analog Signals. Computers send and receive Digital Signals.
- 39. ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS
- 40. MODEMS The word MODEM is short for MOdulator-DEModulator. It enables digital microcomputers to communicate across different media.
- 41. MODEMS Modulation is the process of converting from digital to analog. Demodulation is the process of converting from analog to digital.
- 42. TRANSFER RATE This is the speed by which modems transmit data.
- 43. MODEMS Four Commonly Used Modems Telephone Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Modem Wireless Modem
- 44. MODEMS
- 45. MODEMS A Telephone Modem is used to connect a computer directly to a telephone line. It can either be internal or external.
- 46. MODEMS A Digital Subscriber Line Modem uses standard phone lines to create a high-speed connection directly to your phone companys office.
- 47. MODEMS A Cable Modem uses the same coaxial cable as your television and creates a high- speed connection.
- 48. MODEMS A Wireless Modem, also known as WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network), usually uses a small plug-in USB or ExpressCard device that provides very portable wireless connectivity.
- 49. CONNECTION SERVICES Dial-Up Service Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) Cable Service Satellite Connection Service Cellular Service
- 50. DATA TRANSMISSION Bandwidth is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communications channel. Effectively, it means how much information can move across the communication channel in a given amount of time.
- 51. DATA TRANSMISSION Four Categories of Bandwidth Voiceband Medium Band Broadband Baseband
- 52. DATA TRANSMISSION Voiceband, also known as low bandwidth, is used for standard telephone communication.
- 53. DATA TRANSMISSION Medium Band is used in special leased lines to connect midrange computers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances up to a very high speed transfer rate.
- 54. DATA TRANSMISSION Broadband is widely used for DSL, cable, and satellite connections to the Internet. Several users san simultaneously use a single broadband connection for high- speed data transfer.
- 55. DATA TRANSMISSION Baseband is widely used to connect individual computers that are located close to one another. Though it is able to support high-speed transmission, it can only carry a single signal at one time.
- 56. PROTOCOLS Protocols are sets of communication rules for the exchange of information. HTTP and HTTPS TCP/IP
- 57. PROTOCOLS TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) involves identifying sending and receiving devices, and breaking information into small parts for transmission across the Internet.
- 58. NETWORKS A Computer Network is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources.
- 59. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Node / Client / Server Directory Server / Host Router / Switch Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Operating System (NOS) Network Administrator
- 60. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Node is any device that is connected to a network. It could be a computer, printer, or data storage device.
- 61. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Client is a node that requests and uses resources available from other nodes. Typically, a client is a microcomputer.
- 62. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Server is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Depending on the task they may be called an application server, communication server, file server, printer server, database server, or web server.
- 63. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Types of Server Centralized Server Dedicated Server
- 64. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Directory Server is a specialized or dedicated server that manages resources, such as user accounts, for an entire network.
- 65. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Host is any computer system that can be accessed over a network.
- 66. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Router a node that forwards or routes data packets from one network to their destination in another network.
- 67. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Switch is a central node that coordinates the flow of data by sending messages directly between sender and receiver nodes.
- 68. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A hub previously filled the role of a switch by sending a received message to all connected nodes, rather than just the intended node.
- 69. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A Network Interface Card (NIC) is an expansion card located within the system unit that connects the computer to a network. It is sometimes referred to as LAN Adapter.
- 70. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A Network Operating System (NOS) controls and coordinates the activities of all computers and other devices on a network.
- 71. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A Network Administrator is a computer specialist responsible for efficient network operations and implementation of new networks.
- 72. NETWORK TYPES Home Network Personal Area Network Local Area Network Wireless LAN Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network
- 73. NETWORK TYPES Home Network is commonly used by individuals in their homes and apartments and can be connected in a variety of ways.
- 74. NETWORK TYPES Personal Area Network is a type of wireless network that works within a very small area, such as cellphone to headset, keyboard to cellphones, PDAs to other PDAs.
- 75. NETWORK TYPES Local Area Network is a computer network with nodes that are in close physical proximity, within the same building for instance.
- 76. NETWORK TYPES Wireless LAN is a Local Area Network that typically uses radio frequencies to connect computers and other devices. All communications pass through the networks Wireless Access Point or Base Station.
- 77. NETWORK TYPES Metropolitan Area Network spans distances up to 100 miles and are frequently used to link between office buildings that are located throughout a city.
- 78. NETWORK TYPES Wide Area Network is a countrywide and worldwide network, typically spans distances greater than 100 miles, and uses microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances.
- 79. NETWORK TYPES The primary differences between the network types is the geographic range.
- 80. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Network Architecture describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared.
- 81. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology
- 82. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Bus Topology, each device is connected to a common cable called a bus or backbone, and all communications travel along this bus.
- 83. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Ring Topology, each device is connected to two other devices forming a ring. When a message is sent, it is passed around the ring until it reaches the intended destination.
- 84. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
- 85. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Star Topology, each device is connected directly to a central network switch. Whenever a node sends a message, it is routed to the switch, which then passes the message to the recipient.
- 86. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
- 87. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Tree Topology, each device is connected to a central node, either directly or through one or more other devices. It is also known as Hierarchical Network.
- 88. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
- 89. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Mesh Topology, each node is required to have more than one connection to the other nodes and does not require a specific physical layout.
- 90. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
- 91. NETWORK STRATEGIES Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Network
- 92. NETWORK STRATEGIES Client/Server Network uses central computers to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network.
- 93. NETWORK STRATEGIES
- 94. NETWORK STRATEGIES In a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network, nodes have equal authority and can act as both client and server.
- 95. ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS An Intranet is a private network within an organization that resembles the Internet. An Extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization.
- 96. ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS
- 97. NETWORK SECURITY A firewall consists of hardware and software that control access to a companys intranet and other internal networks, through a special software of computer called Proxy Server.
- 98. NETWORK SECURITY Intrusion Detection System (IDS) works with firewall to protect and organizations network. It can recognize signs of network attack by pattern matching and heuristics.
- 99. NETWORK SECURITY A Virtual Private Network (VPN) create a secure private connection between a remote user and an organizations internal network.
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