COMPED9 Module 4 Network Connectivity

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  1. 1. COMPUTER EDUCATION 9 MODULE 4 Network Connectivity Prepared By: Engr. Jeremy M. Flores
  2. 2. COMMUNICATION We live in a truly connected society. We can communicate almost instantaneously with others worldwide.
  3. 3. COMMUNICATION As the power and flexibility of our communication systems have expanded, the sophistication of the networks that support these systems has become increasingly critical and complex.
  4. 4. COMMUNICATION Computer communication is the process of sharing data, programs, and information between two or more computers.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION Electronic Mail Texting and Messaging Internet Telephone Electronic Commerce
  6. 6. CONNECTIVITY Connectivity is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources.
  7. 7. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION The single most dramatic change in connectivity and communications in the past few years.
  8. 8. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION It refers to the widespread use of mobile devices like smartphones and tablets with wireless Internet connectivity.
  9. 9. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION So, whats the revolution? Todays mobile computers support E-mail, Web access, and variety of Internet applications.
  10. 10. THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION Most experts say that the Wireless Revolution is just in its beginning phase.
  11. 11. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS It is an electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another, whether wired or wireless.
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Four Basic Elements Sending / Receiving Devices Connecting Devices Data Transmission Specification Communication Channel
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
  14. 14. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Sending / Receiving Devices These are often a computer or specialized communication devices that originate and accept messages in the form of data, information, and/or instructions.
  15. 15. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Connecting Devices These devices act as an interface between the sending and receiving devices and communication channel.
  16. 16. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Connecting Devices They convert outgoing messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel and reverse the process for incoming messages.
  17. 17. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Data Transmission Specification These are rules and procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by precisely defining how the message will be sent across the communication device.
  18. 18. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Communication Channel This is the actual connecting or transmission medium that carries the message. It can be physical wire or cable, or it can be wireless.
  19. 19. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Communication Channels are essential elements of every communication system. These channels carry out the data from one computer to another.
  20. 20. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Two Categories Physical Connection Wireless Connection
  21. 21. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Physical Connection It uses a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices.
  22. 22. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
  23. 23. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Twisted-Pair Cable consists of pair of copper wires that are twisted together. Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)
  24. 24. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Coaxial Cable, a high frequency transmission cable, replaces the multiple wires of telephone lines with a single solid-copper core.
  25. 25. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Fiber Optic Cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass, and rapidly replacing Twisted-Pair cable telephone lines.
  26. 26. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Fiber Optic Cable has over 26,000 times the transmission capacity of Twisted-Pair Cable. Compared to Coaxial Cable, it is lighter, faster, and more reliable in transmitting data.
  27. 27. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS They move data through the air and use radio waves to communicate.
  28. 28. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Bluetooth Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Microwave WiMax Long Term Evolution (LTE) Satellite
  29. 29. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Bluetooth is a short range communication standard that transmits data over short distances of up to approximately 33 feet.
  30. 30. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) uses high-frequency radio signals to transmit data. Most home and business wireless networks use Wi-Fi.
  31. 31. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Microwave communications uses high-frequency radio waves. It is sometimes referred to as line-of- sight communications because it can only travel in a straight line.
  32. 32. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS WiMax, Worldwide Interoperablity for Microwave Access, is a new standard that extends the range of Wi-Fi networks using microwave connections.
  33. 33. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS LTE, Long Term Evolution, the newest wireless standard, promises to provide greater speed and quality transmission in the near future.
  34. 34. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Satellite Communication uses satellites orbiting about 22,000 miles above the earth as microwave relay stations.
  35. 35. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Many of these are offered by Intelsat, the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium, owned by 114 governments and forms a worldwide communication system.
  36. 36. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS UPLINK is a term relating to sending data to satellite. DOWNLINK refers to receiving data from satellite.
  37. 37. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most interesting application of Satellite Communications.
  38. 38. CONNECTION DEVICES Telephones typically send and receive Analog Signals. Computers send and receive Digital Signals.
  39. 39. ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS
  40. 40. MODEMS The word MODEM is short for MOdulator-DEModulator. It enables digital microcomputers to communicate across different media.
  41. 41. MODEMS Modulation is the process of converting from digital to analog. Demodulation is the process of converting from analog to digital.
  42. 42. TRANSFER RATE This is the speed by which modems transmit data.
  43. 43. MODEMS Four Commonly Used Modems Telephone Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Modem Wireless Modem
  44. 44. MODEMS
  45. 45. MODEMS A Telephone Modem is used to connect a computer directly to a telephone line. It can either be internal or external.
  46. 46. MODEMS A Digital Subscriber Line Modem uses standard phone lines to create a high-speed connection directly to your phone companys office.
  47. 47. MODEMS A Cable Modem uses the same coaxial cable as your television and creates a high- speed connection.
  48. 48. MODEMS A Wireless Modem, also known as WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network), usually uses a small plug-in USB or ExpressCard device that provides very portable wireless connectivity.
  49. 49. CONNECTION SERVICES Dial-Up Service Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) Cable Service Satellite Connection Service Cellular Service
  50. 50. DATA TRANSMISSION Bandwidth is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communications channel. Effectively, it means how much information can move across the communication channel in a given amount of time.
  51. 51. DATA TRANSMISSION Four Categories of Bandwidth Voiceband Medium Band Broadband Baseband
  52. 52. DATA TRANSMISSION Voiceband, also known as low bandwidth, is used for standard telephone communication.
  53. 53. DATA TRANSMISSION Medium Band is used in special leased lines to connect midrange computers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances up to a very high speed transfer rate.
  54. 54. DATA TRANSMISSION Broadband is widely used for DSL, cable, and satellite connections to the Internet. Several users san simultaneously use a single broadband connection for high- speed data transfer.
  55. 55. DATA TRANSMISSION Baseband is widely used to connect individual computers that are located close to one another. Though it is able to support high-speed transmission, it can only carry a single signal at one time.
  56. 56. PROTOCOLS Protocols are sets of communication rules for the exchange of information. HTTP and HTTPS TCP/IP
  57. 57. PROTOCOLS TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) involves identifying sending and receiving devices, and breaking information into small parts for transmission across the Internet.
  58. 58. NETWORKS A Computer Network is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources.
  59. 59. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Node / Client / Server Directory Server / Host Router / Switch Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Operating System (NOS) Network Administrator
  60. 60. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Node is any device that is connected to a network. It could be a computer, printer, or data storage device.
  61. 61. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Client is a node that requests and uses resources available from other nodes. Typically, a client is a microcomputer.
  62. 62. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Server is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Depending on the task they may be called an application server, communication server, file server, printer server, database server, or web server.
  63. 63. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Types of Server Centralized Server Dedicated Server
  64. 64. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Directory Server is a specialized or dedicated server that manages resources, such as user accounts, for an entire network.
  65. 65. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Host is any computer system that can be accessed over a network.
  66. 66. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Router a node that forwards or routes data packets from one network to their destination in another network.
  67. 67. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS Switch is a central node that coordinates the flow of data by sending messages directly between sender and receiver nodes.
  68. 68. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A hub previously filled the role of a switch by sending a received message to all connected nodes, rather than just the intended node.
  69. 69. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A Network Interface Card (NIC) is an expansion card located within the system unit that connects the computer to a network. It is sometimes referred to as LAN Adapter.
  70. 70. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A Network Operating System (NOS) controls and coordinates the activities of all computers and other devices on a network.
  71. 71. SPECIALIZED NETWORKS TERMS A Network Administrator is a computer specialist responsible for efficient network operations and implementation of new networks.
  72. 72. NETWORK TYPES Home Network Personal Area Network Local Area Network Wireless LAN Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network
  73. 73. NETWORK TYPES Home Network is commonly used by individuals in their homes and apartments and can be connected in a variety of ways.
  74. 74. NETWORK TYPES Personal Area Network is a type of wireless network that works within a very small area, such as cellphone to headset, keyboard to cellphones, PDAs to other PDAs.
  75. 75. NETWORK TYPES Local Area Network is a computer network with nodes that are in close physical proximity, within the same building for instance.
  76. 76. NETWORK TYPES Wireless LAN is a Local Area Network that typically uses radio frequencies to connect computers and other devices. All communications pass through the networks Wireless Access Point or Base Station.
  77. 77. NETWORK TYPES Metropolitan Area Network spans distances up to 100 miles and are frequently used to link between office buildings that are located throughout a city.
  78. 78. NETWORK TYPES Wide Area Network is a countrywide and worldwide network, typically spans distances greater than 100 miles, and uses microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances.
  79. 79. NETWORK TYPES The primary differences between the network types is the geographic range.
  80. 80. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Network Architecture describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared.
  81. 81. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology
  82. 82. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Bus Topology, each device is connected to a common cable called a bus or backbone, and all communications travel along this bus.
  83. 83. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Ring Topology, each device is connected to two other devices forming a ring. When a message is sent, it is passed around the ring until it reaches the intended destination.
  84. 84. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
  85. 85. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Star Topology, each device is connected directly to a central network switch. Whenever a node sends a message, it is routed to the switch, which then passes the message to the recipient.
  86. 86. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
  87. 87. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Tree Topology, each device is connected to a central node, either directly or through one or more other devices. It is also known as Hierarchical Network.
  88. 88. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
  89. 89. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE In Mesh Topology, each node is required to have more than one connection to the other nodes and does not require a specific physical layout.
  90. 90. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
  91. 91. NETWORK STRATEGIES Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Network
  92. 92. NETWORK STRATEGIES Client/Server Network uses central computers to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network.
  93. 93. NETWORK STRATEGIES
  94. 94. NETWORK STRATEGIES In a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network, nodes have equal authority and can act as both client and server.
  95. 95. ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS An Intranet is a private network within an organization that resembles the Internet. An Extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization.
  96. 96. ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS
  97. 97. NETWORK SECURITY A firewall consists of hardware and software that control access to a companys intranet and other internal networks, through a special software of computer called Proxy Server.
  98. 98. NETWORK SECURITY Intrusion Detection System (IDS) works with firewall to protect and organizations network. It can recognize signs of network attack by pattern matching and heuristics.
  99. 99. NETWORK SECURITY A Virtual Private Network (VPN) create a secure private connection between a remote user and an organizations internal network.

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