Comp 2 Major Research Paper Cancer 3 APA

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<p>CANCER LOGISTICS 1</p> <p>CANCER 16</p> <p>Cancer LogisticsChristopher LeeLincoln Trail CollegeApril 29, 2014</p> <p>Cancer LogisticsNormal cells underwent cell division to reproduce and maintain health. Mutations happened when cells did not go through the checkpoints of cellular division properly. Mapping genes helped to determine future problems. Oncologists helped doctors in determining the best way to treat each type of cancer and the statistics for a survival rate after five years. Along with genetic manipulation came ethical and moral questions about whether scientists should be able to manipulate genes. Within the past couple of decades, genetic mapping and manipulation are a huge part in predicting and treating cancer. Normal Cells, Mutations, and Genetic MappingThe whole purpose of cell cycle checkpoint was to regulate cell growth and reproduction. Most damaged cells went through apoptosis, which was programmed cell death. However, when the cell cycle signaled positive regulators or lost negative regulators the cell started to reproduce at a rapid rate. With one of the mechanisms not working properly, cancer took place (Funk, 2013). Cancer started out in cell division.There were several checkpoints in cellular division. If these checkpoints are skipped or not performed correctly, cancer occurred. Two main proteins that helped with the cell cycle were oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, "The pathways regulating the cell cycle incorporate both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes..."(Funk, 2013, para. 12). These two helped prevent cancer by making sure the checkpoints were performed correctly. If the checkpoints were not done correctly the cell underwent apoptosis. An online database article described how cells turned into cancerous cells and how the cells were affected by different tumors:Normally, cells divide and replace themselves at a controlled rate. A malignant, or cancerous, tumour is a mass of abnormal cells that divide excessively quickly and do not carry out the normal functions of their tissue. These cells are often irregular in size and shape and bear little resemblance to the normal cells from which they arose. This irregular appearance is often used to diagnose cancer during microscopic examination of a small sample of tissue taken from a tumour. A tumour gradually enlarges, crowding out normal cells, pressing on nerves, and infiltrating blood and lymph vessels. It is important to distinguish a malignant tumour from a non-malignant one, because cancerous cells can spread to other parts of the body. (Cancer, 2009, para. 2)Cells that were classified as cancerous were said to have a genetic mutation. These mutations have been successfully coded and mapped.DNADeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the genetic information that was passed down from parent to offspring. In the grand scheme of everything, scientific DNA was fairly new. DNA was first discovered in 1871, and the structure was developed in 1953 (Scheurle, 2005). It was called a double helix, because there were two phosphate strands. Everything that people were, was passed on in their genes. Inheritance (2009) described genes as, "Every gene carries a 'blueprint' to make a particular product" (para. 1). Genes controlled how people look, and even how they acted (Scheurle, 2005). Genetics for cancer was not new. Dr. Aldred Scott Warthin, who was referred to as the "father of cancer genetics" started doing research in 1895 (Fields &amp; Johnston, 2010). He discovered a mutation in a family's genes, even though DNA was not discovered for another fifty years. Dr. Warthin paved the path for Gregor Mendel and a lot of future scientists who worked with genetics (Fields &amp; Johnston, 2010). Mendel was famous for his genetic testing with pea plants. Also, Mendel was the first person to explore individual genes. He became famous for cross-breeding different pea plants and then being able to predict different characteristics (Scheurle, 2005). Mendel defined genes as, "A piece of genetic information that operates independently from other pieces, that defines a specific single physical characteristic, and that is inherited in a predictable manner" (Scheurle, 2005, p. 67).MutationsMutations happened by complete chance, "There is no way to predict that a particular mutation will happen. There is no way to prevent a mutation from happening"(Scheurle, 2005, p. 67). Many mutations were not even noticed, because they were either repaired by the cell or they were in a spot that was not important to function. Three major mutations occurred and they were dominant mutation, recessive mutation, and sex-linked mutation. Mutations played a big role in the biology of an organism. Different ways of finding mutations and researching them were developed in recent years. However, it was different to test for a known mutation, than a mutation that was not discovered, yet. The difference was how the genes were tested. DNA scanning was used for unknown mutations, while diagnosing genotypes were used for known mutations (Scheurle, 2005).Some mutations were beneficial to humans, while others caused cancer (Cotton, 2013). Mutations were caused by the changes in the sequences of a person's DNA. Dr. Freddrick Sanger and a group of scientists came up with a method to code DNA, so it could be sequenced. They called it the Sanger Method. The Sanger Method was the standard method that was used for sequencing. Even though it was expensive, it led to numerous mutation discoveries since 1985 (Cotton, 2013). All methods for detecting mutations have their advantages and disadvantages. However, some features that were controlled by genes have been predicted. Some genes were controlled by the works of many different genes, and that made predicting these genes even more complicated. The only problem with inheritance was that it was not always predictable. What this meant was that mutations played a part in genetic inheritance. Different factors have cause mutations at the cellular and DNA level (Inheritance, 2009). Even though everybody's genetic makeup was 99.9% similar, there were over a few million known mutations (Fields &amp; Johnston, 2010). People reacted differently to each mutation. A mutation in one person went unnoticed, while some mutations caused cancer in another. This proved that genetic mutations were impossible to predict mutations and to be prepared for them. Also, researchers found that mutated genes were 28% to 44% longer than normal genes with no mutations. "The difference is highly significant, but the difference is small with disease genes having approximately 5% lower intron divergence than non-disease genes" (Eyre-Walker &amp; Eyre-Walker, 2014). Gene TestingWith advances in technology, scientists and doctors coded DNA and see if a person carried a gene that made them prone to a disease (Fields &amp; Johnston, 2010). Even though DNA was structurally simple, the genetic make-up was complex. DNA was composed of the bases: Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine (Fields &amp; Johnston, 2010). Adenine and thymine were always paired together, while cytosine was paired with guanine. If one of these bases were incorrect, it was called a mutation. Gene mutations have caused a numerous amount of health problems. Even though genetic mapping looked bleak, the future was where genetic mapping will flourish. Along with The Human Genome Project was The Cancer Genome Atlas (Strausberg, 2013). The Cancer Genome Atlas allowed scientists to study cancer cells and see how and why the normal cell turned into a cancerous cell. With the help of genetic testing and The Cancer Genome Atlas, doctors have supplied people with the proper medicine and treatment options for their cancer. Genetic testing and mapping have been made for more than 3,000 diseases. However, despite the advances in genetic testing, scientists have only found the genetic makeup for a small amount of the diseases. A lot of testing was based on speculation, and could be invalid. InheritanceScientists have determined if the parents have a dominant trait for cancer, then the likelihood was the offspring would get cancer. They were able to do this by the use of a Punnett Square. Two squares for each parent and one square for each chromosome, dominant and recessive. To change a trait, in this case cancer, treatment was involved before and after fertilization occurred. The Cancer Sourcebook described hereditary cancer as complex, and causes that are not understood (Bellenir, 2011). According to the Bellenir (2011) "Recent advances in cancer genetics have led to the identification of genes that, when altered, create a significantly increased risk for certain cancers" (p. 85). The most common cancer passed through heredity was breast cancer (Bellenir, 2011). One in 8 women in their lifetime would be diagnosed with breast cancer, that is about 200,000 cases a year (Bellenir, 2011). Angelina Jolie did not even have breast cancer, and she had a double mastectomy performed to reduce her risk for breast cancer. Jolie did this because she favored the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes were passed down from her mom to her, and codes for breast cancer. Jolie believed in early detection and was screened for the two breast cancer genes, because of familial occurrence. With early detection cancer was easier to treat and, hopefully, cure . The two screenings for breast cancer were mammograms and a clinical breast examination. A mammogram was a low powered x-ray of the breast. Even though it was a rare occurrence, breast cancer could also be found in males (Bellenir, 2011). In some instances the cancerous traits could not be detected, because they arouse from both genetics and the environment. Some people would not even know that they have a genetic problem until a doctor runs through the family's pedigree. Pedigrees determine the traits or diseases that pass on through inheritance. If the doctor found a mutation, it came to shock some people. However, it gave them genetic information about the chronic health problem (Scheurle, 2005). With the information that was gathered from the pedigree, the person would be aware about future offspring. According to Scheurle (2005), "An embryo can come to have a dominant mutation in one of two ways: inheritance from a parent, or a new mutation in the sperm or egg" (p. 52). Even though genetic testing and mapping were somewhat new, it still helped scientists predict cancer rates. Since 2008, cancer caused 30% of deaths worldwide, so it was no joke and was a major focus point for all health organizations (Teckle, 2013). Mapping genes required a type of tissue from the body. These tissues could be blood or anything that contained DNA. In The Bucket List, Carter Chambers (Morgan Freeman) had a genetic test done (Reiner &amp; Reiner, 2007). Chambers was at work one day when he got a phone call saying he had been diagnosed with cancer. The doctor asked if anyone in Chambers' family had cancer and Chambers said that his dad had cancer before it killed him. The genetic test was accurate enough to predict the Chambers had a heightened chance at getting cancer, but it was not good enough to cure it. </p> <p>Oncology and Statistics Oncology was the study of cancer (Longo, 2014). Scientists were focused on 5 areas of oncology and they were: etiology, prevention, biology, diagnosis, and treatment (Longo, 2014). Oncology was described as, "The approach to the study of cancer is multidisciplinary because cancer is a fundamental problem in biology. Oncology has led to major progress in the understanding not only of cancer but also of normal biology" (Longo, 2014, para. 1). Oncology had three basic treatment options. The first option was surgery, which allowed doctors to remove the tumor or cancerous cells. Next, radiotherapy used isotopes and radiation to kill the cancer cells. The final option was chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was an important and successful way to treat some forms of leukemia and lymphoma (Longo, 2014). TreatmentTo determine what treatment option should be used, there were six steps to determine the seriousness of the cancer. They were: duration of exposure, level of exposure, timing of exposure, sensitivity, mechanism of teratogenicity and for pregnant women, the metabolism of the mother or how well her body could protect the fetus (Scheurle, 2005). The only downfall to teratology is the vaccines were rare, and doctors would not give the vaccines to pregnant women (Scheurle, 2005). Vaccines used chemicals that have a specific toxic effect on the cancerous cells.Substances that caused cancer in people and birth defects in children were called teratogens. Teratogens were outside agents that cause pregnant women to give birth to children with birth defects and cancer. Scheurle (2005) defined teratology as, "The study of birth defects caused by such things is teratology" (p. 45). Common teratogens were substances like: radiation, alcohol, lead, and mercury (Scheurle, 2005). With all of the different types of teratogens and carcinogens in the world experts have agreed that smoking was the leading cause of cancer and birth defects (Bellenir, 2011). Some staggering numbers were that one fourth of all cancer deaths were caused by smoking and 50% of smokers would die if they continued to smoke (Bellenir, 2011). Tobacco was so dangerous that, "...scientists estimate that tobacco will kill about one billion people in the twenty-first century (Bellenir, 2011, p. 52). SmokingThe people that were at the highest risk for lung cancer were people that smoked and people who breathed second hand smoke (Bellenir, 2011). Smoking would also make people develop cancer of the bladder and cervix, leukemia, and many other types of cancers (Bellenir, 2011). Most types of cancers related to smoking could be prevented. Studies showed that even people who quit smoking later in life would gain years back and cut down on the risk of cancer. Second hand smoke would elevate the risk for cancer in both adults and children (Bellenir, 2011). Smoking harmed people that never even smoked. One study showed that spouses to people that smoke were 27% more likely to get lung cancer (Bellenir, 2011). Results from a study of 300,000 people showed that children who were exposed to second hand smoke were more likely to get lung cancer as adults, even if they never smoked (Bellenir, 2011). Pregnant women that smoked would affect the overall health of the baby, and cause the baby to get cancer. Women who were exposed to second hand smoke during pregnancy can also affect the overall health of the baby (Bellenir, 2011).Alcohol The American Institute for Cancer Research said that even the smallest amount of alcohol increases a person's risk for cancer. Having alcohol on a daily basis increased the risk for liver cancer (Bellenir, 2011). Bellenir (2011) said, "The risk increases with the amount of alcohol that a person drinks" (p. 390). In order to cut down on liver cancer risks, the person s...</p>


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