Colored Cosmetics_Lipsticks

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<p>Points to be studied?Definition Characteristics of lipsticks Composition Formulation related problems Moulding related problems Evaluation of finished products Marketed products</p> <p>DEFINITION Also called as lip cosmetics, widely used by women. It may be refer as color cosmetics. Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. There are many varieties of lipstick. Lippy is a common British word for lipstick.</p> <p>Characteristics of LipsticksShould cover lips adequately Long last effect Make lips soft Must adhere firmly to lips without being brittle &amp; tacky Good degree of quality Completely free from grittiness Non- drying Non- irritating to skin of lips Desirable degree of plasticity Should have high retention of colors intensity without any change in shades Pleasant odor &amp; flavor Free from sweating Shiny &amp; smooth appearance Easily applicable &amp; removable Stable both physically &amp; chemically</p> <p>CompositionWax mixture Oil mixture Bromo mixture Colors Preservatives Fragrance Antioxidants Surfactants &amp; other additives</p> <p>WAXESThe gloss &amp; hardness are generally depends on characteristics &amp; quantity of waxes Best characteristic is obtained by using mixture of waxes of different m.p &amp; adjusting the final m.p. by incorporating a sufficient amount of high m.p. wax.</p> <p>Various waxes used in lipstickWax Cetostearyl alcohol Cetyl alcohol Ceresin wax White beeswax Candelilla wax Carnauba wax Hard paraffin Soft paraffin M.P 42-45 45-50 60-75 62-64 65-69 80-88 50 - 57 38 56 % 2-3 2-3 5-20 5-20 5-10 1-3 1-5 1-5 Purpose Emollient Emollient Increase m.p. Bind oils &amp; higher m.p. waxes Gives smooth &amp; glossy appearance Imparts rigidity &amp; hardness Improves gloss Lubricant, increase spreadability</p> <p>OILS The oil mixture is required to blend properly with the waxes to provide a suitable film on the applied lip skin. Also acts as solvent in some formulation. Acts as dispersing agent for insoluble pigments. The ideal mixture of oil should produce the product, easily spread &amp; produce a thin film with good covering power. Examples: Castor oil Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA) &amp; esters Fatty acid alkylamides Paraffin oil Isopropyl myristate Isopropyl palmitate Butyl stearate</p> <p>BROMO MIXTURE Maintain the physical form of the formulation Also called as bromo acids Two classes: Red : gives red or reddish blue stain Orange , red : gives pink to yellowish pink stain</p> <p> About 2-3% bromo acids are used in lipstick Solvent used to be mixed with bromo acids: Castor oil &amp; butyl stearate THFA &amp; esters like acetate, stearate &amp; benzoate Glyceryl monostearate or monolaurate &amp; diethylene glycol monostearate PG or PEG</p> <p> Examples of bromo mixture: Bromo acid PG PG monomyristate : 15 gm : 200gm : 100 gm</p> <p> Procedure: Mix bromo acid solution &amp; PG (for clearing each other) Add PG monomyristate Which gives bromo acid that easily mixes with mineral oil &amp; castor oil &amp; produces a homogenous mass with waxes.</p> <p>COLORS Most important from commercial &amp; appearance point of view. In olden days, carmine was widely used, but nowadays various other are available. Color in lipstick is imparted by two ways: By staining the skin with soln of dyestuff which can penetrate the outer layer of skin ---- SOLUBLE DYES By covering the lips with a colored layer which serves to hide any skin roughness &amp; give a smooth appearance ---- INSOLUBLE DYES</p> <p> Soluble Dyes / Staining Dyes : Example: Fluorescein, Eosin</p> <p> Insoluble Dyes / Nonstaining Dyes / lake colors : Example: Lakes of Calcium, Barium, Aluminium, Strontium Used in 10 15 % concentration based on shade</p> <p> TiO2 is generally used in conc. of 1% for pink shade</p> <p>PRESERVATIVES Used to prevent microbial growth Example: 0.1% propyl parahydrohybenzoate in 0.1%</p> <p> Higher conc. of preservative can cause slightly burning sensation or allergic reaction.</p> <p>FRAGRANCE Essential component of lipstick Used to mask bad odor of fatty or wax Used to impart attractive flavor Conc. 2-4% Qualities for selection: Free from irritating effect Free from disagreeable taste Stable &amp; compatible with other ings.</p> <p>ANTIOXIDANTS Incorporated to prevent rancidification of oily base</p> <p>during storage. Generally used in combination Example: BHA, BHT, Propyl gallate, Citric acid</p> <p>SURFACTANTS &amp; OTHER ADDITIVES</p> <p>:Used to promote wetting &amp; stabilize the dispersion of insoluble pigments in lipstick baseSURFACTANTS ADDITIVES:</p> <p>used for various purposes</p> <p> Oil - soluble sunscreen: filter the sunrays &amp; protect lip skin from sun burn. Silicon fluid: used as fixative &amp; prevent colors, from bleeding on lips. PVP: (conc. 0.5 1%) film former on lips &amp; reduce allergic reaction of other ings. in lipstick. Isopropyl linoleate: prevent drying effect.</p> <p>Formula &amp; ProcedureIngredients Carnauba Wax Lanolin Cetyl Alcohol Castor Oil Bromo Acid Colour Pigment (FeO + TiO2) Perfume Bees Wax Quantity Given 10 5 5 65 2% of base weight 5% of base weight q.s. 15</p> <p>General Manufacturing Process Steps involved: Melting and mixing Molding Labeling and packaging</p> <p>Defects in lipstick Formulation related Sweating Bleeding Blooming Streaking Seams Mould related Laddering Deformation Catering Mushy Failure</p> <p>FORMULATION RELATED PROBLEMS Sweating: Most common problem. Caused due to high oil content or inferior oil-blending capacity of the wax composition. It may arise in any climate or temp. range</p> <p>FORMULATION RELATED PROBLEMS Bleeding: Separation of coloured liquids from the waxy base. It leads to extremely uneven color distribution</p> <p>FORMULATION RELATED PROBLEMS Blooming: When the surface of the lipstick appears dull instead of desired gloss is called as the problem of blooming. It is chiefly due to higher percentage of cetyl alcohol (&gt; 5%)</p> <p>FORMULATION RELATED PROBLEMS Streaking: A thin line or band of different color or substances appears to the surface of finished products. Problem arise due to separation of suspended particles.</p> <p>FORMULATION RELATED PROBLEMS Seams: Marks left on the lipsticks when split moulds are used. They are caused either due to brittle masses or due to faulty cooling technique.</p> <p>MOULDING RELATED PROBLEMS Laddering: Product has a ladder like appearance It does not look smooth or homogeneous after congealing &amp; setting but instead a multilayered appearance. Occur due to either mould is kept at a very low temperature or when bulk formulation is not hot enough or filling rate is slow.</p> <p>MOULDING RELATED PROBLEMS Deformation: The shape of the lipstick looks deformed. It is most noticeable in softer formulae. Can appear on side of the lipstick or on both the sides.</p> <p>MOULDING RELATED PROBLEMS Catering: This effect is mostly found in split mouldings. It shows up in flaming when the stick develops dimples (spots). The main cause is the presence of trace amounts of silicone oils or machinery lubrication oil from manufacturing mixtures or the dispenser mixture.</p> <p>MOULDING RELATED PROBLEMS Mushy Failure: The central core of the stick lacks structure &amp; breaks. The problem is not related to particular formula or particular shade. The granularity caused by carnauba wax could be the reason for this problem.</p> <p>Quality control of Lipsticks QC procedures are strict The only cosmetic ingested, because of this strict controls on ingredients &amp; manufacturing processes, are imposed. Mixed and processed in a controlled environment so it will be free of contamination. Incoming material is tested to ensure that it meets required specifications. Samples of every batch produced are saved and stored at room temperature for the life of the product</p> <p>EVALUATION OF FINISHED PRODUCTS</p> <p>Color control Determination of Melting Point (Heat Test ) Softening Point Microbial Testing Rancidity Rupture Test Breaking Load Test.</p> <p>Color control Color control of lipstick is critical, and one only has to see the range of colors available from a manufacturer to be aware of this. The dispersion of the pigment is checked stringently when a new batch is manufactured, and the color must be carefully controlled when the lipstick mass is reheated. Colorimetric equipment is used to provide some control on the shades of lipstick. This equipment gives a numerical reading of the shade, when mixed, so it can identically match previous batches. Matching of reheated batches is done visually, so careful time and environment controls are placed on lipstick mass when it is not immediately used.</p> <p>DETERMINATION OF M.P. The lipstick base should have a M.P. between 55 - 750C. (600 C ideal) METHOD: Sample- approx. 50 mg Melt &amp; fill into a glass capillary tube open on both the ends. Cool the capillary tube with ice for 2 hours Fasten the capillary tube to a thermometer. Place a beaker full of water on a heating plate with a magnetic stirrer. Start heating &amp; stirring at slow &amp; fixed speed. The temp at which material moves along the capillary tube is considered its M.P</p> <p>SOFTENING POINT A lipstick should withstand the range of conditions to which it will subjected in the consumers handbag. It should be resistant to varying temp &amp; be just as easy to apply in the hot as in cold weather. Softening point range 50-550C. Method: Ring and Ball method Second Method</p> <p>SOFTENING POINT Ring &amp; Ball Method A ring or support orifice is taken &amp; the lipstick to be tested is inserted into it. Extra mass above &amp; below the orifice is removed using a sharp blade leaving a tablet of lipstick fitted into the ring. This is placed in refrigerator (60C) for about 10 min. Ring is tied onto a stand or bar.</p> <p>SOFTENING POINT Ring &amp; Ball Method A beaker containing 500 ml water at room temp. is placed on a hot plate having a magnetic stirrer. A steel ball is delicately placed on the lipstick tablet. The bar is with support is then inserted into the beaker till it submerges into it. Heating &amp; slow agitation is then begun. Temp is monitored using a thermometer. The temp at which the lipstick mass &amp; steel balls are loosened &amp; falls to the bottom of the beaker is the S.P.</p> <p>SOFTENING POINT Another method The whole lipstick along with its stand is kept in a long flat bottom tube. Care should be taken that the lipstick is in a protruded position &amp; the bulb of the thermometer just touches the lipstick mass. Place this setup in a 1 liter beaker filled with water to a level 1 cm above the upper up of the protruding lipstick. Start heating water very slowly (@1-20C/min). The temp at which the lipstick start bending &amp; deforming from its shape is the S.P.</p> <p>MICROBIAL TESTING Contamination from raw materials, moulds, storage kettles or lipstick container can lead to microbial growth. Microbial testing is suggested in IS:9875:1990, The test consists of plating a known mass of the sample on two selected culture media specifically suitable for the growth of bacteria &amp; fungi &amp; incubating them for a specified period to permit the development of visual colonies for counting. The limit is, not more than 100 o/gm.</p> <p>RANCIDITY Rancidification is the decomposition of fats, oils and other lipids by hydrolysis or oxidation. Is the oxidation of castor oil or other waxy or lipoidal ingredients. It leads to obnoxious odor, bad taste &amp; sticky product &amp; sometimes change of color of the product. Testing of rancidity can be done by determining its peroxide number.</p> <p>BREAKING LOAD TEST The test is to find out the value of maximum load that a lipstick can withstand before it breaks. The protruded lipstick salve is subjected to a number of weights hanging from it. The weight at which the lipsticks breaks is its Breaking Load.</p> <p>BREAKING LOAD TEST Weights can be replaced by using increasing increments of water from a burette.</p> <p>Rupture TestIn the Rupture Test, the lipstick is placed in two holders, in the extended position. Weight is added to the holder on the lipstick portion at 30-second intervals until the lipstick ruptures. The pressure required to rupture the lipstick is then checked against the manufacturer's standards. Since there are no industry standards for these tests, each manufacturer sets its own parameters.</p> <p>Marketed Products Lakme ELE- 18</p> <p>References Cosmetics: P.P.Sharma Harrys cosmetics Cosmetics: Vimladevi BIS Guidelines: Govt. of India</p>