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  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism




  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Copyright 1997 by Jill Morton

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmittedin any form or by any means, graphic, electronic or manual, including photocopy,digital duplication, hyper text markup language, recording, or any informationstorage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers.

    This copyright protects the right to make copies of the work.You may print one copy for your own usage.

    Please email for prices for printing multiple copies fordistribution and site licenses for installing this publication on multiple stations.

    PDF document published in 1997 by COLORCOM

    ISBN 0-9679080-0-0

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    For Kecia and Zachary

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    How to use Acrobat Reader

    Welcome to this electronic publication!

    Adobe Acrobat Reader gives you exceptionalcontrol in accessing the information in this book.

    The next two pages include some tips to help you.


  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism ii

    Viewing Options

    The publication opens with the navigation window displayed at the left. This window contains"Bookmarks" (text) and "Thumbnails" (pictures) to assist in navigation. Use the appropriate buttonson the command bar to view either Thumbnails or Bookmarks, or to collapse this window. Youmay also select these options under "Window" on the menu bar or you may click the Bookmarksor Thumbnails tabs at the top of the navigation window.

    The navigation window can be widened or contracted by dragging the two small triangles at thebottom of the right border of this window.

    Control the viewing size of the pages in this publication by selecting any one of the page buttonson the command bar. Options include full magnification, fit the page in window, and fit the visiblewidth of the page in window. As an alternative, use the viewing selections under "View" on themenu bar. The zoom-in (magnifying glass) button on the command bar can be used to zoom inand out of any area on a page.

    (These instructions apply to Acrobat Reader 4.0. Minor variations may apply to version 3.0.)

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism iii


    1. Use the triangle (arrow) buttons on the command bar to view the next page or the previouspage. You can also return to "the previous view" or go to the first or last page.

    2. The menu bar can be used to navigate. Choose View > Next Page or the destination of yourchoice.

    3. Click on any bookmark in the navigation window (at the left). Click on the sideways triangle(right facing arrow) to open the bookmark header and to view other bookmarks in this category.You may also click on any thumbnail in the navigation window.

    4. Custom red arrows have been added to the bottom of some of the pages. Click to link torelated information and/or more pages.

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    How to Find Things

    Let's assume that you want to find all the colors that are classified as "dignified." Here's how todo it:

    1. Click the find tool (binoculars) on the command bar, or choose Tools > Find on the Menu bar.

    A dialog box will appear. Enter the text to be found and click Find. When the program finds the text,the Find dialog box closes and the page containing the text is displayed with the text highlighted.This command will only locate one occurrence.

    2. If you want to find out if there are more occurrences of the text, press Ctrl (Windows and UNIX)or Command (Macintosh) +G, or on the Menu bar, Tools> Find Again. You may also reopen theFind dialog box and click Find Again. With Windows, pressing F3 also finds the next occurrence ofthe text.

    Note: You will be prompted to loop back to the beginning of the document if you start the processon any page other than the first page. Be sure to do this so that your search is complete.


  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    About Printing

    For best results, print to a postscript printer.

    WINDOWS users: When printing out the text in this publication, you'll need to direct the printerto " PRINT TRUETYPE FONTS AS GRAPHICS." The following sequence may apply: On themenu bar, select FILE > PRINT > SETUP > PROPERTIES > FONTS.Now select PRINT TRUETYPE FONTS AS GRAPHICS.

    Other users: If the printout of text is irregular, check to see if this same option is available under"Page setup" or "Print." When printing to a PCL printer, select bitmap fonts instead of outlinefonts. Consult your manual if other problems occur.

    About Color Printing

    This publication was designed for on screen viewing. Colors will appear different when printedwith a typical computer printer. The colored inks are based on the CMYK (cyan, magenta,yellow, black) system which is different from the RGB system used by computer monitors andelectronic publications.

    Also, the color swatches take up a lot of area in this publication and will consume a largequantity of ink!


  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    About Color Voodoo

    Computer Colors

    Color Models

    Design Applications

    Web Site Design Applications

    Tips for Color CommunicationGlobal Design & Web Sites


  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Like voodoo, color can sway thinking, change actions, and cause reactions.

    Red means "stop" and green means "go." Traffic lights send this universalmessage. Likewise, the colors used for a logo, business card, product,packaging, web site, interior design, architectural elements, or clothing causepowerful reactions. Color sends a subliminal message, one which plays acritical role in success or failure. It will either attract or distract, work for youor against you.

    The subliminal power of color is serious business. Consequently, theinformation in this book is presented in a methodical way. You might think thetone is a bit academic, but it will deliver clear concepts about color symbolismso that you can use it to your advantage.

    About Color Voodoo

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    This publication was designed for electronic distribution and computer viewing. All colorsrepresented in this publication are based on the 216 colors which are common to both Windowsand Macintosh computers and can be viewed on 8 bit (256 color) monitors.

    Every effort has been made to reproduce colors accurately. All illustrations were prepared ona system with full gamma correction and color synchronization. Colors may vary on differentcomputers.

    Anti-glare screens may cause color distortions.

    If you have a PC running WIN 98, WIN 95 or WIN 3.1, make sure yourcomputer system has full gamma correction. A high quality monitor isessential. A video or graphic card might be needed for accurate colorreadings.

    Macintosh computers, Silicon Graphics workstations, and machines running NeXTStep shoulddeliver highly accurate color and will not need any gamma correction. A corrected gamma of1.8 is built into these machines. Older monitors may require some adjustments.A gammacontrol panel device should be used to check and adjust the gamma.

    Computer Colors

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Monitors and printers reproduce colors differently. Monitors usethe red, green, blue (RGB) color model. Printing is based onthe cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) color model.Colors on-screen may look different when printed.

    Color Models

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Design Applications

    The color information and illustrations in this publication will assist in developing a successfulcolor scheme for all areas of design. Since these illustrations and color formulas are based on theRGB color model, variables may occur when using other color systems. The following providesimportant information about these variables:

    Labels, Packaging, Business Cards, Stationery and SignageThe RGB values of the colors may be used as a reference for appropriate specifications forprinting and other media.

    ProductsThe RGB values may be used as a reference for enamels, glazes, paint, textile dyes, and othercolor media.

    WardrobeThe color swatches may be used as a reference for wardrobe selections.Note: The special information about the gender based appeal of the red family of colors is especiallyuseful for color communication in wardrobes.

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Interior Design and ArchitectureThe color swatches may be used as a departure point for interior or exterior color schemes.Caution should be used in paint and wall covering selections. The colors of the swatches in thispublication will be quite different when applied to large interior or exterior surfaces. Muted colorswill wind up looking much more colorful. Some colors may turn out too pale, others, too dark.Consult with a paint representative and/or a design professional. Large brush-outs will give you abetter idea of end results. Similar caution should be used when selecting carpeting and otherelements which cover large areas.

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Web Site Design Applications

    The color information and illustrations in this publication are specifically applicable to website design. All web site graphics (gifs and jpegs), background colors, text and link colors arebased on the RGB color system. Since this is an electronic publication, the same RGB colorsystem was used for all color illustrations. What you see in this publication is an accuraterepresentation of web site colors, one which will help you develop successful colors for website design.

    The HEX code is included for each color swatch. This may be used to specify backgroundcolors, text, or link colors in html documents. The RGB values are also supplied and may beused for non-dithering colors for graphic illustrations.

    Since these illustrations and color formulas are based on the RGB color system, variablesmay occur when using other color systems. If you print this publication, the colors may deviatefrom their on screen accuracy.

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    1. Know your target market.

    As a case study, lets assume youre selecting colors for a bank. Financial institutions requirecolors which support a sense of security, trust and reliability. The color of currency also comesinto play. A risky color would be purple since many of its primary associations are related to theintangible world of creativity, spirituality, mystery and the sub-conscious. Nevertheless, if thatfinancial institution is located in Charlotte North Carolina, the home town of the famed CharlotteHornets basketball team, whose colors happen to be purple and teal, and if the membership ofthat bank is primarily female, purple combined with another color is worthy of consideration.

    As a general rule of thumb, you have a lot more flexibility in color selections for a regional business.If, on the other hand, the business intends to expand its base nationally or globally, off-beat colorselections should be avoided.

    2. Use extreme caution with global audiences.

    When designing for a global market, designers must subject their color selections to stringentcross-examination. If a colors symbolism does not support the fundamental characteristics of aproduct, service, person or place, and if it is insensitive to a specific culture, that color maycommunicate in surprising ways.

    Tips for Color Communication - Global Design & Web Sites

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    Consider again the color purple. It may work as a symbol of creativity for art and as a symbol ofthe extra-terrestrial for science fiction, but its a polarizing color. People either love it or hate it.Furthermore, its potentially hazardous on a global level. It may symbolize mourning and death inmany cultures in the same way that black does in American culture.

    A significant example of purple failure is the initial design of EuroDisneys signs. The color palettewas intended to rival Coca Colas red, but the final selection of vast amounts of purple was atragic mistake. Purple symbolizes death and the crucifixion in Catholic Europe. Its not surprisingthat visitors thought the signs were morbid. How did this happen? The CEO liked purple. [1]Personal preference and avant-garde tactics frequently cause color disasters. When the wrongcolor is used on a web site, the damage extends to a global audience.[1] Euroclash, ID Magazine, January 1992, p.61

    3. Use caution with in colors.

    Just because a certain color is a color marketers in color for the year (or next year, or thedecade) doesnt mean it will work for everything and it certainly doesnt mean that it will workglobally. The late 20th century bore witness to the popularity of yellow-green which ranged in huefrom a soft avocado-green to an acidic lime-green. It infiltrated fashion and home furnishings inAmerican culture. Print advertising, television and web sites embraced it for a cutting edge look.The more acid the hue, the more it became an in your face symbol of the avant-garde.

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    In spite of this, most shades of yellow-green do not enhance the image of baked goods, toothpaste,cosmetics or gastro-intestinal products. Consequently, this color would only add negative orconfusing associations.

    4. Dont use personal preference.

    The most common color mistake is selecting a color because you like it. Some people will arguethat they feel very comfortable with a certain color or that they like the way it looks in a certaincontext. One designer fell in love with the aqua and yellow color combination of Bahama's licenseplates. He proceeded to use these colors as the core color scheme on a web site for a papermanufacturer located in Maine. Not by any stretch of the imagination do these colors support thisproduct. They serve only to confuse the viewer, thus discouraging exploration of the web site.Surround yourself with your favorite colors but remember, color communication is a science.Objectively analyze the product or theme of your project. (Advise your client to do the same!)

    5. When in doubt, don't.

    Most people have an intuitive warning system. If you're feeling a little queasy about a colorselection, chances are it's wrong. Test it out by selecting a color one step removed such as ablue-green instead of a blue. You may be close to your mark or way off!

  • Color Voodoo #1 - A Guide to Color Symbolism

    6. When in doubt, stick to timeless symbolism.

    The timeless psychological associations and natural references of any given color should beforemost. For example, red is the color of fire and blood. Psychologically it is a dynamic energizingcolor. It is far removed from any symbolic association of serenity or dependability.(Refer to the text descriptions in this publication.)

    7. Prepare for color mutations on the web.

    Think about the last time you were in an electronics store and viewed dozens of television sets ina row. The picture was darker on some sets, the...


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