colonisation and succession

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important terms and meaning, sampling technique, bulimia. Contributed by SAM Bestari,Subang Jaya from teacher Munirah

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COLONISATION & SUCCESSIONTERMSPECIES POPULATION COMMUNITYNICHE

MEANING

ORGANISM HAVE SIMILAR CHARACTERISTIC & SAME NICHE A GROUP OF ORGANISM OF THE SAME SPECIES LIVING IN THE SAME HABITAT AT SAME TIME. SEVERAL POPULATIONS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES LIVING IN THE SAME HABITATTHE ROLE OF AN ORGANISM IN ECOSYSTEM. ALL THE ACTIVITIES CARRIES OUT BY ORGANISM.

HABITAT ECOSYSTEM

A NATURAL ENVIRONMENT WHERE ORGANISM LIVE. A COMMUNITY OF LIVING ORGANISM INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER & WITH NON LIVING ENVIRONMENT

COLONISATION :

a process whereby plants or animal have successfully invaded occupied a new habitat.

PIONEER SPECIES :The first colonizers, normally has short cycle, when they die theirs remains add to the humus content of soil. Creating more conducive environment to other species.

SUCCESSOR SPECIES:

Species that shade out the original sp. & making more conducive to other orgs.

DOMINANT SPECIES:Species that grow faster & out compete & modify environment larger tree to grow.

SUCCESSION:Gradual process where community changes its environment so that it is replaced by another community.

COLONISATION & SUCESSION IN MANGROVE SWAMP

Avicennia sp & Sonneratia sp (pioneer sp)Extensive root system trap and collect sediment. The soil becomes more compact and firm The ground becomes higher.

Rhizophora sp. (successor sp)Replace the pioneer species The proop roots trap silt and mud The soil firmer, drier and less submerge by sea water.

Bruguiera sp. Replace Rhizophora sp , root trap more silt and mud Modify soil structure. Replace by Pandanus sp , terrestrial forest then rainforest tree.

*CLIMAX COMMUNITY A stable & mature community that undergoes little @ noChange in its species eg: Tropical rainforest

PROBLEMS FACED BY MANGROVE PLANTS SOFT MUDDY SOIL

ADAPTATIONS

FUNCTIONS

Avicennia

sp have long, branched underground cable root. Rhizophora sp have prop rootAvicennia

To

support themselvesRoots

anchor the plants to muddy soilAllow

WATERLOGGED WILL DEACREASE OXYGEN

sp has breathing root called pneumatophores Pores call lenticels found on the bark of mangrove treeThick

gaseous exchange to muddy soil.

HIGH RATE OF TRANSPIRATION (DIRECT SUNLIGHT)

layer of cuticle covers the leaves Leaves thick &succulent.

Reduce To

transpiration

store water

To ensure thr roots do cell sap of the roots cells has not lose water by THE osmosis. SURROUNDI a higher osmotic NG WATER IS pressure than the HYPERTONIC soil water surrounds them. COMPARED TO SAP CELL OF THE Have pores on Excrete the excess salt ROOT CELL the leaves called in hypertonic water which hydatodes. enter the roots. Seed has SEEDS CAN DIE IF vivipary SUBMERGE characreristic WITHIN SOFT & WATERLOGG ED SOIL Able

The

to germinate while still attached to the mothers plants. Can float horizontally on water.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE To Count Population SizeQuadrat Sampling Technique. To study & estimate the plants population size. Percentage coverage= Area coverage of all quadrat (m3) x 100 Nu of quadrats x quadrat area Density = Total num of individual sp in all quadrat num of quadrats x quadrat area Frequency = Num of quadrats containing sp num of quadrat x 100%

CAPTURE, MARK, REALEASE & RECAPTURE TECHNIQUEPopulatation size = Num of individuals 1st sample x Num of 2nd sample Num of marked individual recapture

Treatment

Early treatment through nutrition and gradual restoration of body mass can correct some of the physical symptoms. Counselling to help the patients to correct any distorted belief the patients may have about their body shape and weight, as well as to help the patients overcome their emotional distress.

Bulimia Nervosa

Warning signs!!

Anxiety Mood swings, depression Frequent trips to the bathroom after eating Hiding food in unusual places Highly self-critical Difficulties in breathing and swallowing Fainting spells Irregular menstrual periods Frequent weight fluctuations Pronounced jaw swelling from frequent vomiting

Symptoms.. Malnutrition Hormonal Influenza Kidney

imbalance

problem Cardiovascular problems Liver disease

Extra info about Bulimia Nervosa

Unlike anorexics, victims of bulimia may have a normal body mass. The victims consume huge amounts of food in a short period of time. The victims feel out of control and are unable to stop eating during a binge. They also feel guilty, ashamed, disgusted or depressed following a binge.

Treatment

Observing the patient to ensure that the person eats correctly, obtain counselling and medication.

The endBye-Bye!! See you next time. Dont forget to study!

Fatin Emalina Nurul Izzah Raden Nurhana Noor Faradzela