Colonial Rebellion Colonial Meeting Colonial Flags

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Colonial Rebellion </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Colonial Meeting </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Colonial Flags </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Mad Scramble for Africa </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Colonial Reach </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Colonialism The establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Postcolonialism The study that analyzes, explains, and responds to the cultural legacies of colonialism and the human consequences of controlling a country. An awareness of the social, psychological, and cultural inferiority enforced by being in a colonized state </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Neocolonialism The use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Colonialism Portrayed in the colonizing country as bringing benefits for the colony. increased standard of living, benefits of Christianity, improved health and education, establishing law and order, etc. Sincerity was, at the very least, questionable. Many now-independent colonies have not yet recovered from the psychological trauma of colonialism. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Postcolonialism Broadly: An awareness of the social, psychological, and cultural inferiority enforced by being in a colonized state the struggle for ethnic, cultural, and political autonomy a growing awareness of cultural overlap and hybridity </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Race A classification system based on biological or observable physical traits. Man made system. First used to denote national affiliation or common linguistics, but in the 17 th century, shifted to observable physical traits. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Ethnicity Socially defined categories of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experiences. Manifests symbolic systems such as religion, cuisine, dress, holidays, physical appearance. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Nationality A legal relationship between you and a state. Belonging to a particular nation. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Cry, the beloved country, for the unborn child thats the inheritor of our fear. Let him not love the earth too deeply. Let him not laugh too gladly when the water runs through his fingers, nor stand too silent when the setting sun makes red the veld with fire. Let him not be too moved when the birds of his land are singing. Nor give too much of his heart to a mountain or a valley. For fear will rob him if he gives too much. Alan Paton, Cry, the Beloved Country (1948) </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> South African colonization The Dutch colonize South Africa in 1652. Wanted it just as a base for ships traveling around the cape to Asia no desire to colonize. Eventually, Dutch Boers (farmers) settle in South Africa as a plan to take over the land. Lowest class. Fight and conquer multiple tribes. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> The British are AComing. The British get greedy and want more coloniesespecially in the scramble for Africa. Take control of the Cape in 1795 and start to march east. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Boer Wars White v. White Anglo Africans (British) Afrikaners (Dutch) The British fight the Dutch multiple times and eventually retain control of South Africa in 1902. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 1948 Election Dutch National Party wins power. Institutes system of Apartheid Apart hood State of being apart </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Population Registration Act - 1950 Required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified into a certain racial group. Office for Racial Classification formed to judge people. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> White South Africans Account for 9% of the South African population. Anglo African White Africans of British descent. Afrikaner people Germanic ethnic group Dutch, French and German. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Coloured South Africans Accounts for 9% of the South African population. Mixed race descendents of slaves from East and Central Asia and Khoisan and Bantu tribes. 2001 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Asian/Indians Account for 2.5% of the South African population. Indentured servants brought from Asia and India in the 19 th century. 2001 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Black South Africans Accounts for 79.5% of the South African population. Not homogenous. Many ethnic groups: Zulu Xhosa </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Black South Africans Black South Africans are also called: Natives Bantu Kaffir (EXTREMELY derogatory. Like the N work in the US) </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Homework White Paper Proposal is due on WEDNESDAY. Approx. 1 page double spaced. Must include: What is the SPECIFIC issue you are looking at? What region/country/place are you focusing on? What resources or organizations do you expect to use/have you found? Why do you want to research this issue? What do you think is going to be most difficult about researching this issue? </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Statistical Analysis Grab a sheet of stats regarding South African population groups. Goal to become comfortable using math and statistical analysis in humanities as a learning tool. Use the page of data information and write THREE analytic statements about what you patterns/interesting things you see. Suggested terminology: Ratio, correlation, population increase/decrease, probability of, indicates. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Natives Land Act of 1913 1. Only a certain percentage of land was set aside as reserves to accommodate the natives only 7.3% </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Group Areas Act of 1950 Racial groups can only live in certain places in cities. Government will forcefully relocate black spots if white South Africans want to live there. Move all African natives to Bantustans (also called homelands) </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 2001 Ethnic Group Mapping Red = Black African Green = Coloured Blue = Indian and Asian Yellow = white Purple = none dominant </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> /Google Tour of South Africa You will be sharing a laptop and taking a google tour of South Africa. Look at the following areas of South Africa today and note what you see. Sandton (designated for whites) Soweto (designated for Black Africans) Lenasia (designated for Indians) Newclare (designated for Coloureds) Cape Town Johannesburg </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> African National Congress (ANC) - 1923 Largely inactive in the 1920s/30s. Was a liberation movementNOT intended to be a political party in South Africa. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> The Freedom Charter - 1955 Core principles of the ANC and its allies. 50,000 volunteers were sent out to collect freedom demands Approved at Congress of the People, despite police breaking up the event repeatedly Mandela barely escaped police. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> The Freedom Charter Afrikaner Government declared the Freedom Charter a communist document and the congress a government treason. ANC declared illegal in 1960. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Interesting to Note Because they were deemed terrorists under Apartheid The ANC and its leadership including former President Mandela were on the US Terrorist watch list until 2008. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Pass Laws All black South Africans were required to carry passes that noted where and when they were allowed to go places. Designed to limit black African movement. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Sharpeville Massacre March 21, 1960 5,000 7,000 people offer themselves in arrest for not carrying passes at Sharpeville police station. Scuffle ensues. 69 people shot and killed. Mostly in back. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Ramifications of Sharpeville ANC military wing founded: Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) or Spear of the Nation Leaders believe violence is NEEDED to combat the Apartheid government means are justified by the end goal. Committed a number of acts of terrorism, killing both civilians and members of the military. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> From our friend Verwoerd Native Education should be controlled in such a way that it should be in accord with the policy of the stateIf the native in South Africa today in any kind of school in existence is being taught to expect that he will live his adult life under a policy of equal rights, he is making a big mistake. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> South African Education Government control of education system to control Black student enrollment increases Many young black men go to reformatories instead of regular schools. Safer for the public Afrikaans Medium Decree of 1974 Black schools MUST teach in English and Afrikaans (language of the oppressor). </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Soweto Facts June 16 th, 1976 A peaceful protest organized by older students A white police officer, responding to rocks being thrown, fired the first shot, which caused mass panic and confusing. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Soweto Aftermath Estimated deaths in the disturbance and subsequent uprisings: 176 as high as 700(government original claimed only 23 deaths) Over 4000 people injured. Brought international attention and outrage. Now a national holiday, Youth Day, in South Africa </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Homework Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe read and blog on the ideas of violence v. nonviolence. Map quiz over course material until now. </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Steve Biko ANC banned / leaders (including Mandela) are jailed/exiled Steve Biko, a young black South African medical student, developed and led the BCM in South Africa. </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Black Consciousness Black liberation will come from a psychological change of blacks to find value in their blackness. Asked whites to support, but not to take leadership roles in the BCM. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Biko Seen as a huge threat by the Afrikaner Government for his vocal advocacy of black rights. Arrested August 18, 1977 under a South African terrorism act. Tortured for almost 24 hours by white policemen </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> A month later, he was loaded into a car and transported to a prison hospital 600 miles away. Died upon arrival. Government insisted it was a hunger strike. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Write and Think I have cherished the ideal of a free and democratic society in which all persons live together in harmony. It is an ideal for which I hope to live for and to see realized but, my Lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die -Nelson Mandela (Treason Trial 1960) Are there ideals you would be prepared to die for? </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Read and digest to start class The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. There are now 193 member states in the UN. The United Nations has 4 main purposes: 1.To keep peace throughout the world; 2.To develop friendly relations among nations 3.To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each others rights and freedoms; 4.To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals. The Union of South Africa was one of the original, founding members of the UN. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> United Nations takes action 1967: General Assembly creates a Special Committee on Apartheid. Issues information exposing/denouncing apartheid policy. a crime against humanity </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Global Response Apartheid takes hold during a tumultuous time globally. World War II has just ended Cold War is just starting. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Downfalls to Apartheid Demographics of SA Struggling economy needs foreign $, no oil Interdependency of whites and blacks Worldwide move toward democracy following fall of the Soviet Union </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Botha and F.W. de Klerk President Botha (all talk, no walk) has a massive stroke in 1989 and loses Presidency in revolt. F.W. de Klerk elected Staunch conservative Minister of education and fan of segregated universities. BUT, much younger than previous presidents. </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> De Klerk Once elected, has a massive political/religious conversion and realizes peace and non-racist policies are needed to stabilize SA. SHOCKS the world by immediately releasing Mandela and unbanning ANC. Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) opens in late 1991 to write a new SA Constitution. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Pre 1994 Post 1994 </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Elections of 1994 After five years of negotiation, violence, compromise and concession, SA holds first democratic elections from April 26-29 th, 1994. Flawed. No voters role/census. Few qualified pollsters. ANC majority party in 7 of 9 provinces. Mandela elected president. Under sunset clause de Klerk is second deputy president. </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> US Responses through Apartheid Eisenhower (1953-1961): US continues to treat SA as an ally. CIA/Pentagon have contracts with SA military NASA uses SA as base for tracking devices </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> US Reponses through Apartheid Kennedy and Johnson (1961- 1969) Supported arms embargo, but rejected economic sanctions. Vietnam war/ Cuban Missile Crisis/domestic civil rights overshadowed South Africa. </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> US Reponses through Apartheid Nixon and Ford (1969-1977) Minimal concern for black South Africans. The whites are here [that is, in Southern Africa] to stay and the only way that constructive change can happen is through them. There is no hope for the black to gain the political rights they seek through violence, which will only lead to chaos and increased opportunities for the communists. -Nixon NSA policy excerpt </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> US Reponses through Apartheid Carter (1977-1981) Went the total opposite way: South Africa is a liability, not an ally Future lies with Black Nationalists and US interests lie with them. </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> US Reponses through Apartheid Reagan (1981-1989) Adamantly opposed sanctions and ignored anti- apartheid movement in the US. Reagan in favor of whites. In 1985 he said that South Africa had eliminated the segregation we once had in our own country </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> US Response through Apartheid 1986: Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act Banned US investments and bank loans Prohibiting South African imports Will cut off military aid to allies breaching arms embargo. Reagan vetoes the Act. His veto is overridden by Congress. </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> US Reponses through Apartheid H.W. Bush...</li></ul>