collaborating with parents and families in a culturally and linguistically diverse society

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  1. 1. 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. William L. Heward Exceptional Children An Introduction to Special Education Tenth Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 3 Collaborating with Parents and Families in a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Society
  3. 3. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Focus Questions What can a teacher learn from the family of a child with disabilities? In what ways is a childs disability likely to affect the family system and roles of parents? How can a teacher who is not the parent of a child with a disability communicate effectively and meaningfully with parents of exceptional children? How can a teacher communicate effectively and meaningfully with families from diverse cultures? What forms of homeschool communication are likely to be most effective? How much parent and family involvement is enough? 3-3
  4. 4. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Support for Family Involvement Parents and families are natural and necessary allies to educators Families know certain aspects of their children better than anyone Parents can provide extra skill practice and teach their children new skills in the home and community Parents have the greatest vested interest in seeing their children learn as they are the constant in the childs life Parents must live with the outcomes of decisions made by IEP teams all day, every day 3-4
  5. 5. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Factors Responsible for Increased Emphasis on Family Involvement Parents want to be involved in their childs education Parents were an important catalyst of PL 94-142 Educational effectiveness is enhanced when parents and families are involved Repeated research and practice demonstrates the benefits The law requires collaboration In both IDEA and NCLB, parent involvement is a key component to students academic success 3-5
  6. 6. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Benefits of Family Involvement Increased likelihood of targeting meaningful IEP goals Greater consistency and support in the childs two most important environments Increased opportunities for learning and development Greater access to expanded resources and services 3-6
  7. 7. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Understanding Families of Children with Disabilities Adjustment process includes feelings of: Shock, denial, and disbelief Anger, guilt, depression, shame, lowered self-esteem, rejection of the child, and overprotectiveness Acceptance, adaptation, and appreciation Educators should refrain from expecting parents to exhibit any kind of typical reaction 3-7
  8. 8. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Resilience Model The Resilience Model is based on the following: Parents and family members are the best source of knowledge about their child, their own strengths and needs. Parents resilience may not be immediately appreciable but should be identified and supported. Parents are engaged in a continuous adjustment process that can be facilitated by sensitive caring professionals. 3-8
  9. 9. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Five Stage Resilience Model Stage One Identification of Disability Stage Two Self-education Stage Three Reflection about Self and Family Stage Four Advocacy and Empowerment Stage Five Appreciation and Enlightenment 3-9
  10. 10. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Many Roles of the Exceptional Parent Caregiver - Additional needs of an exceptional child can cause stress Provider - Additional needs often create a financial burden Teacher - Exceptional children often need more teaching to acquire skills Counselor - Must often help their child cope with the disability 3-10
  11. 11. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Many Roles of the Exceptional Parent (cont.) Behavior Support Specialist - Some have to become skilled behavior managers Parent of Siblings Without Disabilities - Meet the needs of their other children too Marriage Partner - Having a child with disabilities can put stress on a marriage Information Specialist - Must ensure that others appropriately support their childs dignity and acceptance Advocate - Advocate for effective educational services and opportunities 3-11
  12. 12. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Principles of Effective Communication Accept parents statements Respect parents point of view Listen actively Respond to parents with interest and animation Question effectively Speak plainly and use open-ended questions Encourage Describe and show parents their childs improving performance Stay focused Focus on the childs educational program and progress 3-12
  13. 13. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Professional Roadblocks to Communication Treating parents as vulnerable clients instead of equal partners Keeping professional distance Treating parents as if they need counseling Blaming parents for their childs disability Disrespecting parents as less intelligent Treating parents as adversaries Labeling parents 3-13
  14. 14. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict Resolution Dialoging is an approach to conflict resolution in which both parties try to see each others point of view. The RERUN approach include Reflect Acknowledge the other persons thinking or feelings Explain Explain your perspective concisely Reason Explain the reason you believe or feel as you do Understand Try to understand the situation from both points of view Negotiate Brainstorm to find a mutually satisfying solution 3-14
  15. 15. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Portrait of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families Many are English-language learners Many live in low-income and poverty Although some have not finished school or cannot read, they are life educated and know their child Undocumented immigrants, are naturally fearful of interaction with anyone representing authority Many tend to be family-oriented Some may have different experiences with and views about disability including causes and treatment Many had negative educational experiences that persist through adulthood The general and special education systems may be intimidating to the family 3-15
  16. 16. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Culturally Responsive Services for Families Have native-speaking staff members make initial contacts Provide trained, culturally sensitive interpreters during parent- teacher conferences and IEP/IFSP meetings When a language interpreter is not available, use a cultural interpreter whenever possible for conferences and family interviews Conduct meetings in family-friendly settings Identify and defer to key decision makers in the family Recognize that families from diverse cultures may view time differently from the way some professionals do, and schedule meetings accordingly Provide transportation and child care to make it easier for families to attend school-based activities Work toward cultural reciprocity 3-16
  17. 17. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Home-School Communication Methods Parent-teacher conferences Preparing for the conference Establish objectives Review records of the students recent grades Select examples of the students work Prepare a graph or chart showing cumulative progress Prepare an agenda for the meeting Conducting the conference Build rapport Obtain information Provide information Summarize and follow up 3-17
  18. 18. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Home-School Communication Methods Written communication Happy Grams and Special Accomplishment Letters Two-Way Home-School Reporting forms Dialogue notebooks Home-School Contracts Class Newsletters and Websites Telephone communication Phone Calls Voice Mail Email and Text Messaging 3-18
  19. 19. Heward Exceptional Children, 10e 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Other Forms of Parent Involvement Parents as Tutors Systematically teach self-help and daily living skills to their children Parent Education and Support Groups Provide education for parenting Parent-to-Parent Groups Provide help to parents of children with special needs become reliable allies for one another Parents as Research Partners Assist researchers in knowing if their ideas and findings have validity 3-19

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