code-switching by kindergarten teachers in selected schools in

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UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, LEGON

CODE-SWITCHING BY KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS IN SELECTED

SCHOOLS IN THE DORMAA MUNICIPALITY.

By

ATIEMO GEORGE

10155099

THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, LEGON,

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD

OF THE

M PHIL., ENGLISH DEGREE.

JULY, 2015

University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh

i

DECLARATION

I, George Atiemo, hereby declare that apart from the acknowledged references cited,

this thesis is the result of my own research. It has neither been partly or wholly

submitted for the award of another degree elsewhere.

Candidate Date .

George Atiemo

(Candidate)

Supervisor .. Date .

Prof. J. F. Wiredu

(Supervisor)

Supervisor Date ..

Dr. Jemima Anderson

(Supervisor)

University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh

ii

DEDICATION

To my daughter, HettyYaa Atiemo, my mother AkuaAfriyie and my late father Mr.

Bitam Laar (DJ Mako Hyerawa)

University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I give glory to God for giving me dedicated and selfless supervisors to guide me

during the writing of my thesis. I wish to mention in particular, Professor J.F Wiredu,

my Principal Supervisor, who instilled the sense of discipline into my life. I thank him

for his encouragement, suggestions and the confidence he had in me. But for him I

would not have reached this far. Prof. , I ask Gods blessings in your life. I also give

special thanks to Dr. Jemima Anderson, my second supervisor, for giving this work its

present hape.

I acknowledge Mr. Kwasi Bediako, Geography tutor of Dormaa Senior High School

for devoting his time to help me go round the various schools to collect the data for

this work. I thank members of the Languages Department of Dormaa Senior High

School for helping me in diverse ways during the writing of this thesis. I wish to

mention in particular Mr. J.O.K Bronya for his constant pieces of advice.

My special thanks go to Mr. Wisdom Naninja for giving me his personal computer

when my computer broke down. I also acknowledge my wife, Patience Boahemaa for

her prayers and for showing interest in my work.

Finally, I acknowledge all those I have not mentioned but who have helped in one

way or the other in the writing of this thesis.

George Atiemo.

University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh

iv

ABSTRACT

Several studies have been conducted in educational settings in Ghana and other parts

of the world regarding the linguistic behaviour of teachers, and the implication of

such behaviour on the learning outcome of the pupils they teach. In Ghana, where

English is learned as a second language, most teachers are unaware of how and when

to use code-switching as an L1 resource in their teaching. This situation negatively

affects uniformity in instructional procedures. While the use of code switching in

academic settings is still a relatively new area of research, it must be mentioned that

such studies in Ghana have always neglected the pre-school levels of our educational

system. Since code-switching is not an acceptable practice in our schools, the goal of

this study is to find out if pre-school teachers use code-switching in their interaction

with their pupils, and if they do; their motivation for employing such code choice. The

study is conducted with the pool of 418 pupils and 25 teachers in the Dormaa

Municipality in the Brong Ahafo Region. The data were collected through responses

to questionnaire surveys and audio recordings of classroom discourse. The

Markedness model of Myers-Scotton (1993) was used to analyze the speech data.

The study revealed that teachers use code-switching to perform various functions in

their classroom interactions. Based on these results, it is argued that code-switching

between Akan (Twi) and English within the lessons enhances students understanding

of concepts in both languages and also encourages active participation among

students during lessons. The study is significant because it will enable policy makers

recognize that code-switching occurs at all levels of education and must be given the

needed attention.

University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh

v

TABLE OF CONTENT

DECLARATION...i

DEDICATION............................................................................................................... ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................... iii

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................. iv

TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................................ v

LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................... x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1

1.1 Background to the Study ................................................................................. 1

1.2 Language policy of education in Ghana: Historical overview ........................ 3

1.3 Overview of the Current Language Policy ...................................................... 5

1.4 Statement of Problem ...................................................................................... 9

1.5 Objectives of the Study ................................................................................. 10

1.6 Delimitations of the Study............................................................................. 10

1.7 Justification of the Study ............................................................................... 11

1.8 Significance of the Study .............................................................................. 12

1.9 Organization of the Study ............................................................................. 12

1.10 summary..13

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL

FRAMEWORKS......................................................................................................... 14

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 14

2.2 Historical Review .......................................................................................... 14

2.3 Some Definitions of Code-switching ............................................................ 15

2.4 Code-switching Research in Educational Settings ........................................ 21

University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh

vi

2.4.1 Code-switching in Educational Setting outside Ghana ................................. 21

2.4.2 Code-switching in the Ghanaian Classroom ................................................. 25

2.5 Terminologies in the field of code-switching .............................................. 29

2.5.1 The Relationship between Code-switching and Code-mixing .................. 29

2.5.2 Code-switching versus Borrowing ............................................................ 31

2.5.3 Metaphorical and Situational Switching.................................................... 33

2.5.4 Tag, Inter-sentential and Intra-sentential Code-switching ........................ 35

2.6 Theoretical Frameworks ................................................................................ 38

2.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 38

2.6.2 Markedness Model .................................................................................... 38

2.6.3 Communication Accommodation Theory ................................................. 42

2.6.4 The Matrix Language Frame (MLF) Model .............................................. 44

2.6.5 Justification of the Markedness Model ........................................................ 46

2.7 Summary47

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY48

3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 48

3.2 Research Design ............................................................................................ 48

3.3 Data and Sources ........................................................................................... 49

3.4 Sampling and Sampling procedure ............................................................... 50

3.5 Research Instruments .................................................................................... 51

3.5.1 Observation ................................................................................................ 51

3.5.2 The Audio Recording ................................................................................ 52

3.5.3 Questionnaire .................................................

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