Clinical Medical Assisting

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Clinical Medical Assisting. Chapter 9: Respiratory System. Objectives. Identify key terms and root words related to the respiratory system and their role in the formation of medical terms Define the structures and functions of the respiratory system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Clinical Medical AssistingChapter 9: Respiratory SystemObjectivesIdentify key terms and root words related to the respiratory system and their role in the formation of medical terms

Define the structures and functions of the respiratory system

List common upper-respiratory diseases and breathing disorders and their treatment

Identify diagnostic procedures of the respiratory systemBriefly discuss the role of the medical assistant during peak flow and pulse oximetry

Explain oxygen administration using a nasal cannula

Describe how to perform a nasal irrigation

Identify patient education information for sputum collections

Describe how to perform a throat culture

Objectives (cont)Chapter OverviewThe primary function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. The goal is to maintain normal pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the arteries. This is accomplished by taking in oxygen from inspired air and removing carbon dioxide though expired air. This process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide is known as respiration. Respiration is divided into two distinct but simultaneous processes: inspiration (breathing air in) and expiration (exhaling air out). Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory SystemThe respiratory system is a combination of organs that perform the mechanical and chemical processes of respiration.

StructureThe respiratory system is divided into two sections: the upper and lower respiratory tracts.

Upper Respiratory TractThe upper respiratory tract includes the nose, sinus cavities, and the pharynx.Lower Respiratory TractThe lower respiratory tract includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Muscles of the Respiratory SystemThe thoracic cavity is a closed system that is shaped by the ribs.FunctionThe three main functions of the respiratory system are to support ventilation and the mechanics of breathing, transfer and transport gases, and control breathing.Diseases and Disorders of the Respiratory TractRespiratory disorders are among the most common conditions for which people seek medical attention.

CoughInfectious organisms, environmental factors, and chronic respiratory conditions can induce cough.

Signs and Symptoms of CoughCoughs are classified as productive or non-productive.Treatment of CoughThe goals of cough treatment are to relieve the symptoms of cough and improve patient comfort.

AsthmaAsthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways.Signs and Symptoms of AsthmaDue to the broad definition of asthma, the diseases presentation can vary widely among individuals.Treatment of AsthmaThe goal of asthma treatment is to prevent symptom onset.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)One of the most common lung diseases

Signs and Symptoms of COPDPatients with chronic bronchitis present with a productive cough that contains pus or blood and experience shortness of breath and excess mucus production .Treatment of COPDCOPD cannot be curedPneumoniaPneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs.Signs and Symptoms of PneumoniaCough is the most persistent symptom associated with pneumonia.Treatment of PneumoniaThe goal of pneumonia treatment is to alleviate symptoms and cure the infection. Cystic FibrosisCystic fibrosis is a genetic disease characterized by thick, filmy secretions that build up in the respiratory and digestive tracts.Signs and Symptoms of Cystic FibrosisIn newborns, cystic fibrosis is often evidenced by delayed growth, no bowel movement in the first 24 to 48 hours of life, and salty skin.Treatment of Cystic FibrosisThere is no cure for cystic fibrosis.Tuberculosis (TB)A contagious bacterial disease that causes an infection in the lining of the lungsSigns and Symptoms of TuberculosisPatients with TB experience weight loss, a productive cough, fever, and night sweats.Treatment of TuberculosisThe goal of TB treatment is to alleviate the symptoms of infection and eradicate the causative organism.The Common Cold and Other Infectious ConditionsInfectious microorganisms cause many common ailments of the respiratory system.Signs and Symptoms of the Common Cold and Other Infectious ConditionsThe common cold is caused by one of hundreds of viruses.Treatment of the Common Cold and Other Infectious ConditionsThe goals of treatment of infectious diseases of the respiratory system are to eradicate the infection, if possible, and improve the patients symptoms.

EpistaxisEpistaxis, or a nosebleed, can occur as the result of trauma to the nose, chemical irritants, a nasal infection, or the drying of the mucus membranes of the nose.Signs and Symptoms of EpistaxisA nosebleed leads to blood loss from the nose.Treatment of EpistaxisTo stop a nosebleed, patients should sit comfortably and pinch the nostrils together gently.Skills for the Medical Assistant As a medical assistant, you will have the opportunity to assist with respiratory examinations and procedures.Administering OxygenSupplemental oxygen may be required to assist a patient with breathing.

Equipment NeededPortable oxygen tankDisposable nasal cannula or facemask with tubingFlow meterPressure regulator

StepsThere are nine steps to administer oxygen.

Performing Pulse Oximetry TestingPulse oximetry is a simple, noninvasive test that measures the oxygen saturation levels of a persons blood.

Equipment NeededPulse oximeterAlcohol wipes

StepsThere are seven steps in performing pulse oximetry testing.Administering Nebulizer TreatmentNebulizers are used to deliver medication as a fine mist directly into the lungs.

Equipment NeededNebulizerTubingMouthpiece or facemaskMedication

StepsThere are 11 steps to administer a nebulizer treatment.

Instructing Patients on the Use of an MDIAn MDI delivers a specific amount of medication in an aerosol form.

Equipment NeededInhalerSpacer

Using a Peak Flow MeterA peak flow meter measures the PEF of expired air.

Obtaining a Throat Culture A throat culture can be used to identify the organism causing an infection of the nasopharynx area or tonsils.

SummaryThe primary function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. During respiration, oxygen is removed from inspired air and carbon dioxide is exhaled as a waste product in expired air. The respiratory system is highly integrated with other body systems and must be a continuous process.


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