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1 CLIMATE CHANGE INNOVATIONS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO WORLDWIDE FUND FOR NATURE UGANDA COUNTRY OFFICE DEVELOPED BY INNOVATION SYSTEMS AND CLUSTERS PROGRAM-UGANDA APRIL 2011 2 Table of Contents List of Acronyms ........................................................................................................................ 5 1 Background ............................................................................................................................. 6 1.1 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Justification ...................................................................................................................... 8 1.3 Purpose of the Research ................................................................................................... 9 1.4 Specific Objectives of the Research ............................................................................... 10 2 Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 10 2.1 Research Scope .............................................................................................................. 10 2.2 Sample Size .................................................................................................................... 10 2.3 Sampling Techniques ..................................................................................................... 11 2.4 Data Collection Tools..................................................................................................... 11 2.5 Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................. 12 3 Literature Review.................................................................................................................. 12 3.1 International Perspective ................................................................................................ 12 3.2 Development Partners Perspective ................................................................................. 14 3.3 Uganda Government Perspective ................................................................................... 16 3.3.1 Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development (MFPED) .................. 16 3.3.2 Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE).......................................................... 16 3.3.3 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development ....................................................... 19 3.4 Knowledge Institutions .................................................................................................. 21 3.5 Civil Society ................................................................................................................... 23 3.6 Private Sector ................................................................................................................. 23 4 Research Results ................................................................................................................... 25 4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 25 4.2 Government Institutions ................................................................................................. 25 4.2.1 Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) ........................ 25 4.2.2 Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE).......................................................... 30 4.2.3 Ministry of Trade and Industry ............................................................................... 31 4.3 Knowledge and Research Institutions ............................................................................ 33 4.3.1 Makerere University ............................................................................................... 33 4.3.2 Innovation System and Cluster Program (ISCP) Uganda ..................................... 38 4.3.3 Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences ............................................. 40 3 4.4 Kyambogo University .................................................................................................... 43 5 Civil Society Organizations .................................................................................................. 44 5.1 Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) ............................................................................................................................. 44 5.2 Local Underground Water Harvesting Tank By NAPE ................................................. 45 5.3 Rock to Valley Dam Water Harvesting by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) .................................................................................................................................. 47 5.4 Joint Energy and Environment Project (JEEP) .............................................................. 48 a). Energy Saving Cooking Stoves ....................................................................................... 48 b). Solar Products .................................................................................................................. 49 6 Private Sector/Climate Change Entrepreneurs...................................................................... 51 6.1 Drought Resistant Seeds Varieties by Victoria Seeds Ltd ............................................ 51 6.2 Water Harvesting and Irrigation ..................................................................................... 53 6.2.1 Kenz Engineering Services Ltd. ............................................................................. 53 6.2.2 DAVIS and SHIRTLIFF ......................................................................................... 54 6.2.3 Crest Tank ............................................................................................................... 56 6.3 Renewable Energy Businesses Enterprises .................................................................... 57 6.3.1 Konserve Consult Ltd. ............................................................................................ 57 6.3.2 Solar Energy for Africa (SEFA) ............................................................................. 60 6.4 Energy Saving and Energy Efficient Technologies ....................................................... 60 6.4.1 Prime Energy and Energy Conservation (PEES) .................................................... 60 6.5 Private Sector Foundation .............................................................................................. 66 6.6 Development Partners .................................................................................................... 68 6.6.1 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) ........................... 68 6.6.2 Uganda Cleaner Production Center ........................................................................ 69 6.6.3 GIZ .......................................................................................................................... 72 7 Financial Institutions ............................................................................................................. 74 7.1 Centenary Bank Ltd. ...................................................................................................... 74 7.2 Post Bank Ltd ................................................................................................................. 75 8 Analysis and Discussion of Results ...................................................................................... 76 9 Conclusion and Recommendations ....................................................................................... 84 9.1 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 84 9.2 Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 85 4 10 References ............................................................................................................................. 89 Appendix ....................................................................................................................................... 92 List of Respondents .................................................................................................................. 92 Table 1: CDM Regulatory Framework ..................................................................................... 95 5 List of Acronyms LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas MAIAH Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Animal Husbandry MEMD Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development MEMR Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources MFPED Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development MSI Millennium Science Initiative MWE Ministry of Water and Environment NAADS National Agriculture Advisory Services NAARI Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute NACRR National Crops Resources Research Institute NaFIRRI The National Fisheries Resources Research Institute NAPA National Adaptation Programs of Action NAPE National Association of Professional Environmentalists NARL National Agriculture Research Laboratories NCCSC National Climate Change Steering Committee NFPCC National Focal Point for Climate Change NGO Non Governmental Organizations NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology PEAP Poverty Eradication Action Plan PEM Portable Emission Measurement PETSD Promoters of Efficient Technologies for Sustainable Development PSF Private Sector Foundation PV Photovoltaic REA Rural Electrification Agency REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation SAARI Serere Animal and Agricultural Research Institute SHIP Seed Health Improvement Programme SUT Swedish University as Technology TACC Territorial Approach to Climate Change TLUD TopLit UpDraft UECCC Uganda Energy Credit Capitalization Company UN United Nations UNCST Uganda National Council for Science and Technology UNDP United Nations Development Program UNEP United Nations Environment Program UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change WAG Welsh Assembly Government WEMA Water Efficiency Maize WFP World Food Programme WWF WorldWide Fund for Nature 6 1 Background Climate change has become a global threat and its effects are being experienced by most of the countries in the world. With major Economic development being the main focus of every country, and biting poverty especially in developing countries, climate change and its effects will continue to pose danger in the world if efforts to reduce it through environmentally friendly practices are not adopted. Uganda is a land locked tropical country with an area covering 236,040 km2 and a population of over 34 million growing at a rate of 3.576% per annum. According to Uganda Bureau of Statistics, agriculture, industry and services employees 82 %, 5%, and 13% respectively of the total population with the corresponding contribution to the national GDP being 23.6%, 24.5% and 51.9%. Urban population constitutes 13% of the total population with a rate of rural-urban migration estimated at 4.8% per annum. This therefore implies that the economic and social development of Uganda largely depends on the exploitation of its environment and natural resources. However, the increasing degradation of these natural resources coupled with climate change is beginning to have serious negative impact on Ugandas social and economic development and the livelihoods of millions of its people. For example El Nino and Lanina episodes have been considered the principal causes of the most severe climate change related disasters in Uganda. The recent landslide disaster in Buduuda is yet another episode related to changes in climate. Climate change models in Uganda (Solomon et al., 2007) point to increase in the temperatures in the range of 0.7 to 1.5oC by 2020. The models predict a likely increase in the variability of rainfall and its pattern. These changes will have impact on agricultural production and food security. Employment levels particularly in the agriculture sector will be adversely affected. Regarding energy consumption (Saundry, 2009), less than 10% of the total population have access to electricity, and the remaining 90% of the population heavily rely on wood for their energy needs. This directly leads to much of the deforestation occurring in the country. 7 According to the WORLDWIDE Fund for Nature (WWF), climate change has become a prioritized challenge on the global agenda for the global policy makers, the business community, academia and NGOs. Vast efforts were invested in securing a strong, global climate agreement in Copenhagen in 2009, and climate Innovations have been identified by the WWF network as an inevitable component in societys transformation to a low-carbon economy. WWF further highlights that, the existing technology needs assessment carried out in African countries within the framework of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and findings out of the dialogue with in the African European Climate Innovation Initiative (AECII), have revealed that Africa faces special conditions, challenges and opportunities for climate innovation entrepreneurship, investment and policy making. It was noted that in Africa the institutional capacity for innovation in general and climate change in particular are largely little developed. This research was therefore commissioned by WWF to assess the current status of climate innovations and entrepreneurship in Uganda. The research targeted businesses, knowledge Institutions, Government institutions, civil society, and development partners. The research looked at the business and how government, knowledge institutions and civil society are supporting climate change innovations and entrepreneurship. Climate change innovations entrepreneurship was assessed in the selected fields of agriculture, water management, renewable energy, technology, and information dissemination. The research consisted of reviewing the existing literature, conducting interviews from stake holders, holding a workshop to share the draft report with the stake holders and then writing and producing a final report showing the situation and trends of climate innovations entrepreneurship in Uganda. 1.1 Problem Statement Climate change is a serious challenge that is expected to compound the overall vulnerability of the general population due to the resulting changes in rainfall and temperature patterns. It is therefore important to develop mitigation and adaptation innovations, to counter the effects of the climate change. Due to high dependence on subsistence agriculture and the poor farming methods employed and the cutting down of trees for fuel render the population venerable to climate change. Dry spells 8 are becoming rampart in most of parts of the country like Teso and Karamoja while floods and landslides have been noted in areas of Bududa and Kasese. Innovations both local and foreign have been developed to mitigate or adapt to climate change, and some of these have been taken up by entrepreneurs as businesses investments. Due to the positive effect of these business enterprises to changes of climate there is a need to assess their performance, the level of support they receive from stakeholders (Government, development partners, civil society organizations and knowledge institutions), marketing models they use, government policies that support their work and the challenges they face. 1.2 Justification The findings of the research will inform stakeholders, i.e. policy makers, generators of knowledge, civil society organizations and development partners the situation of climate change entrepreneurs in Uganda. The research results could be used by government to formulate favorable policies, provide capital, adequate infrastructure and any other necessary interventions. The research output should guide the research community and knowledge institutions in general to pursue research pertinent to climate change entrepreneurship. Since the civil society organizations are in direct contact with the communities, the research findings will be of value to them in optimizing the innovations so listed in the research for utilization by the respective communities they are working with. Using the research finding, the impact of climate change businesses in mitigating and adapting to the effects of climate change will be known by development partners, thereby guiding them in the areas which require funding for more research. 9 1.3 Purpose of the Research The main purpose of the research was to assess the current situation of climate change innovations entrepreneurship in Uganda. Climate change is a global concern and Uganda has started experiencing some of its effects in form of floods, landslides, increasing temperatures, drought in some parts of the country, drop in water levels in major water bodies that produce hydro electricity which is the Ugandas major source of power. The projected oil exploration in Uganda and subsequent use of its products is likely to exacerbate the change of climate, thus increase the effects of climate change. According to a Department For International Development (DFID) report on Climate Change in Uganda, Understanding the implications and appraising the response, Ugandas climate is naturally venerable and susceptible to flood and drought events which have negative socio-economic consequences. It further states that human induced climate change is likely to increase the average temperatures in Uganda by up to 1.5 C in the next 20 years and by up to 4.3 C by the 2080s. Such rates of increase are unprecedented. Changes in rainfall patterns and total annual rainfall amounts are also expected but these are less certain than changes in temperature. The climate of Uganda may become wetter on average and the increase in rainfall may be unevenly distributed and occur as more extreme or more frequent periods of intense rainfall. Regardless of changes in rainfall, changes in temperature are likely to have significant implications for water resources, food security, natural resource management, human health, settlements and infrastructure. In Uganda, as the rest of the world, there is likely to be changes in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events, such as heat waves, droughts, floods and storms. (DFID, 2008) Given the climate change situation Uganda is currently facing, and one that is predicted, it is important that more should be done regarding innovations for adaptation, mitigation and prevention of climate change effects. Climate change innovations entrepreneurship is necessary to ensure sustainability. Therefore, due to the need to manage climate change, it is important that this research is conducted to assess the situation of climate change innovations and 10 entrepreneurship in Uganda. The research findings will then inform WWF, other development partners, and government of Uganda of the situation and then appropriate strategies to increase climate change innovations and entrepreneurship will be developed. 1.4 Specific Objectives of the Research i.) To document climate innovations whose activities assist in mitigating or adapting to climate change effects. ii.) To Study existing policy frameworks and or national systems on climate if any that address issues of climate change and in particular those policies and systems that support development and dissemination of climate innovation and entrepreneurship. iii.) To assess the role of knowledge management institutions in fostering climate innovations research and its dissemination. iv.) To assess the impact of Civil Society Organizations in climate change innovations dissemination & utilization. v.) To assess climate change entrepreneurship and establish area of intervention. 2 Methodology 2.1 Research Scope Climate change affects almost all areas of life and innovations and entrepreneurship to ensure adaptation, prevention and mitigation are so many. However, the scope of this research is focusing on climate change innovations and entrepreneurship in four main areas Energy, Agriculture, Water harvesting and management Technology and climate change monitoring. These were selected because in Uganda climate change effects are being felt more in areas of water scarcity and flooding, reduced food production, the energy sources used that affect the climate. The geographical scope is climate change innovations and entrepreneurs in the whole country. 2.2 Sample Size The Research targeted climate change entrepreneurs, Knowledge and Research Institutions, relevant government agencies, Civil Society organizations, Donor agencies and Financial 11 Institutions. 34 respondents were interviewed, they came from government ministries and government research organizations, private sector, financial institutions, from Universities and civil society organizations. They were sampled basing on their involvement in climate change innovations. 2.3 Sampling Techniques Both random and selective sampling techniques were used to select respondents. Some research and academic institutions were specifically selected because of the proven work they are doing. Businesses were randomly sampled but agencies like the private sector foundation an umbrella organization was selectively selected. Government Institutions specific to research scope were selectively sampled. Respondents from the civil society were randomly sampled. 2.4 Data Collection Tools Questionnaires were used to collect data, these were supported by interviews with the respondents. Existing data was also reviewed to understand what is already happening on ground about climate change, innovations and entrepreneurship. Figure 1: The Conceptual Frame work. 12 2.5 Conceptual Framework The above conceptual framework shows the model that was used in the study. The research studied the climate change innovations developed at different levels how they are translated into business. It also studied the climate change Entrepreneurs and how they are being supported by the different stake holders to expand and improve the business. The study also asses the level of awareness creation by the civil society and the level interaction among the civil society organizations and climate change entrepreneurs as well as knowledge and research institutions. 3 Literature Review This section shows exiting literature that focuses on climate change, climate change innovations and entrepreneurship. It highlights literature from international conventions and treaties that Uganda is part of, government policies, plans and projects, documents from Development partners and civil society as well as that from Knowledge and research institutions. 3.1 International Perspective Uganda is party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC, adopted in 1993) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP) that came into force in February 2006. It obliges Uganda to put in place appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures to address the cause and effects of climate change as well as undertake education and awareness programs. These treaties have been ratified but not yet domesticated. A 2008 study recommended that a statutory order should be undertaken by the Climate Change Unit in the Ministry of Water and Environment on the overall policy environment in Uganda for climate change, the study has also shown that most of the relevant sector policies have not integrated climate change. (National Development Plan, 2010/11-2014/15) According to a report from UNFCCC, Climate Change; Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptations in Developing Countries, (UNFCCC, 2007), Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The results of such changes evidenced so far include floods and droughts, landslides, deforestation etc. which events can lead to famine and widespread disruption of socio-economic well-being. For example, it is estimated that a third of African 13 people already live in drought- prone areas and about 220 million are exposed to drought each year. Factors like poverty, illiteracy, weak institutions, limited infrastructure, lack of technology and information, low levels of primary education, poor health care, poor access to resources, armed conflicts, and overexploitation of land resources contribute and compound the impacts of current climate variability in Africa and they have contributed significantly to the failure of the continent to cope with climate change. The adaptation approaches suggested by UNFCCC for developing countries are those focusing on a addressing a range of environmental stresses and factors. The report also suggests that specific interventions aimed at addressing poverty alleviation, enhancing food security and water availability, combating land degradation and reducing loss of biological diversity and ecosystem services, as well as improving adaptive capacity have to be coordinated with national strategic plans that aim at mitigating effects of climate change. The report further suggests that to ensure climate change adaption, communities need to be sensitized about the effects of climate change. This will help them build resilience, including adopting appropriate technologies while making the most of traditional knowledge, and diversifying their livelihoods to cope with current and future climate stress. The local coping strategies and traditional knowledge need to be used in synergy with government interventions. Parties to the UNFCCC which Uganda is part have all agreed to undertake national adaptation measures and cooperate in preparing for the impacts of climate change. Over 40 least developed countries Uganda Inclusive, have received funding under the Convention to prepare their National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) which draw on existing information and community-level input to prioritize adaptation plans, (UNFCC, 2007), however according to National Development Plan for Uganda for the period 2010/11-2014/15, not much progress has been made to implement the national adaptation measures Priority adaptation projects identified by UNFCC for the NAPAs include: i.) Improved forecasting for farming, extreme events and disaster management ii.) Improved water management for drinking and agriculture through understanding water 14 flows and water quality, improved rainwater harvesting and water storage and diversification of irrigation techniques; iii.) Improved food security through crop diversification, developing and introducing drought, flood and saline-tolerant crops, improving livestock and fisheries breeding and farming techniques, developing local food banks for people and livestock, and improving local food preservation; iv.) Better land and land use management through erosion control and soil conservation measures, agro forestry and forestry techniques, forest fire management and finding alternative energy sources to wood and charcoal, as well as better town planning; v.) Capacity-building to integrate climate change into sectoral development plans, involving local communities in adaptation activities, raising public awareness and education on climate change, and enabling representation at international meetings. 3.2 Development Partners Perspective According to the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) Pilot project on territorial approach to climate change Mbale region-2009, Uganda is widely seen as unprepared for climate change risks. However recent action has been taken and this is an opportune time for donor support to the process. The Government of Uganda has established a Climate Change Unit and developed a NAPA Plan. In addition, the Department of Meteorology in the Ministry of Water and Environment is identified as a National Focal Point for Climate Change (NFPCC). Revision of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) also raises climate change as an important development challenge. The (2008) scoping exercise on climate change in Uganda commissioned by Department For International Development (DFID)-Uganda with a focus on Mbale region, identified a need for high-level political leadership, a multi-sectoral, and a collaborative approach by development partners in dealing with climate change issues. It is further noted that integrated regional and community-level planning are very critical in designing and implementing the desired climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. 15 Mbale region is one of the major agricultural areas in Uganda. Its very prominent for coffee growing. However, the climate change impacts and human consequences affecting this region include landslides, floods, species loss, population movement due to environmental refugee influx from the semi-arid north-east and to outmigration into Kenya, and increased deforestation, as farmers shift productive activities to higher upland levels. Mbale is predicted to be one of the few parts of Uganda that remains viable for coffee production, although the coffee growing area is likely to be reduced and already coffee farmers are reporting negative impacts from climate change. Because of Mbales contribution to the economic development of Uganda, the Government of Uganda recognizes it as an important region for understanding climate change impacts and developing mitigation and adaption measures. The WAG, further states that regional governments are key players in the fight against climate change, about 50% - 80% of the decisions impacting upon carbon emissions are taken at a sub national or regional level. Regional governments are responsible for developing and implementing policy, programs, legislation and fiscal mechanisms in the areas of energy, environment, transport and land-use and also for developing policies appropriate to the specific characteristics of their region as well as communicating with the public. Worldwide, regional governments have already set emission reduction targets and successfully implemented measures including green building codes, vehicle efficiency and/or emissions standards, low-carbon fuel standards, renewable portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs, land-use policies that support smart growth, sustainable forest and agriculture practices and fiscal measures to support these initiatives. The WAG through the Pilot Project on Territorial Approach to Climate Change has built a strong partnership with the district authorities and leading NGOs of the Mbale region. This partnership was built on the success of a civil society partnership between Pontypridd and Mbale. Mbale region was chosen as one of 10 pilot regions for the Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) initiative of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and networks of regional governments. Mbale with support and engagement of UNDP was mandated to develop its own Integrated Territorial Climate Plan (ITCP) in association with the Ugandan Government. This plan was designed to be the basis for 16 applications for United Nations (UN) carbon finance funds from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), Global Environment Fund (GEF) etc. (WAG, 2007) 3.3 Uganda Government Perspective 3.3.1 Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development (MFPED) The MFPED plays a key role in the energy market. Apart from the overall national macro-economic management, development planning and measure mobilization its also in charge of budgetary allocation and disbursement. Specific funding for energy sector is channeled through the Bank of Uganda to the banks that lend to project developers and private users depending on the funding mechanism. Its programs are subject to approval by the Parliament of Uganda. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) through financing from MFPED and support development partners has been able to promote renewable energy innovations and their utilizations especially in the rural areas. It has also financed other ministries like Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE), Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Animal Husbandry (MAIAH) among others to implement the climate change mitigation and adaption interventions, however the financing is still inadequate to address the issues of climate change in the different ministries and not much priority has been focused on addressing climate change effects in terms of financing there is still need to increase research at Government level and to mainstream climate in all government ministries. 3.3.2 Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE) The Department of metrology within the Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE) coordinates climate change activities in its capacity as the National Focal Point for Climate Change (NFPCC) under the UNFCCC. The Department is massively overstretched with work, lacking both the personnel and political influence required in directing an effective response. In 2007, a National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) was launched with support from the Global Environment Fund (GEF) which presents a list of 9 priority projects. Their implementation strategy focuses on the enhancement of resilience and therefore adopts an 17 integrated/ programmatic approach to implementing interventions which include:- community tree growing, land degradation management, strengthening meteorological services, community water and sanitation, water for production, drought adaption, vectors, pests and disease control, indigenous knowledge and natural resources management, and climate change and development planning. However, limited progress has been made in implementing the NAPA due to lack of funds. (National Development Plan, 2010/11-2014/15). The MWE through the Climate Change focal institution/ Unit, co-ordinates the implementation of the NAPA. The proposed implementation arrangements for NAPA with the mentioned priority projects is budgeted to cost US $39.8 million, and to be implemented through establishment of NAPA villages in collaboration with Civil Society groups but supervised by line institutions under the coordination of a multi-sectoral National Climate Change Steering Committee (NCCSC). The basket funded Joint Water and Sanitation Sector Programme Support (JWSSPS) with a total commitment of US$ 150 million over five years is poised to deliver significant benefits for the people of Uganda and should contribute to a reduction in vulnerability to climate change. The JWSSPS itself plans for an allocation of 9% of US$ 150 million to water resource management, through the Directorate of Water Resource Management (DWRM) (National Development Plan, 2008 -2012). The International and national institutional framework has been laid to facilitate the implementation of the climate change convention; regarding the CDM. At the international level, the environmental objective of the CDM is regulated by the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB). Uganda through the Climate Change Unit (CCU) is working with the CDM-EB to disseminate information on how CDMs can benefit Uganda. CDM is a market based approach that calls for private companies in the developed world to invest in Green House Gases (GHG) mitigation projects in developing countries as a means to achieve their GHG emission reduction targets. For developing countries like Uganda CDM is a means to ensure long term sustainable and equitable development, provides a more efficient and equitable mechanism for international development, transfer of technology from North to South, and improvement of National and 18 International equity and gives Uganda an opportunity to deal with developed partners/nations on a more equal partner basis. 19 Uganda as a party to both UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol has established an institutional framework to issue Letters of Approval (LoA) and thus participate in the International emissions trading. The institutional framework in place comprises of the: Minister responsible for Environment that serve as the DNA- to facilitate projects that can earn saleable/ tradable units that can be used for compliance with Kyoto Protocol targets. Climate Change Policy Committee (CCPC) provides technical advice to Minister on climate change policy issues and CDM projects. 3.3.3 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development (MEMD) is the lead Government body responsible for energy policy development, planning and programming, guidance and implementation. The direction of the government policy now is to increase the participation of the private sector in the energy sector. Hence all the current government policies highlight private sector participation at all levels. Such policy documents include the Electricity Act (1999), the Energy policy for Uganda (2002) whose goal is to meet the energy needs of Ugandas population for social and economic development in an environmentally sustainable manner, the Renewable Energy policy for Uganda(2007) which was established and the Governments Policy Vision for Renewable Energy is to make modern renewable energy a substantial part of the national energy consumption and The Overall Policy Goal is to increase the use of modern renewable energy, from the current 4% to 61% of the total energy consumption by the year 2017. The strategies to achieve the policy goals have been translated into policy actions in the form of the following specific programmes as stated in the Renewable Energy Policy (2007):- a) Power Generation Programme 20 This programme supports public and private sector investments in renewable energy generation and consists of two approaches; one for large hydropower schemes and one for small power schemes. (i.) Large Hydropower Schemes Sites are tendered out according to the provisions of the Electricity Act, 1999 Sections 29 and 32. The developer also arranges an appropriate financing package. Tariffs are determined through negotiations, on a case by case basis. (ii.) Small Power Schemes Basic studies of the various resources and sites are being carried out followed by promotion and tendering to the private sector, followed by their development. This covers mini hydropower schemes, biomass cogeneration, wind power, peat, geothermal and solar thermal electric and limited to 20 MW installed capacity per plant. b) Rural and Urban-poor Electricity Access Programme Electricity access to rural populations and the urban poor require special packages to make connections and services affordable. The programme enhances the on-going procedures for community schemes, where the cost of connection to the community is subsidized. It also supports the development of independent grids supplied by micro and pico-hydros, biomass gasifiers (managed by communities) and solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems in dispersed remote settlements. The programme prioritizes supporting electrification for productive uses and key social services. c) Modern Energy Services Programme This programme supports renewable energy technologies such as improved wood fuel and charcoal, stoves, solar PV and solar water heaters. It also incorporates the dissemination of biogas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and kerosene for cooking as substitutes for wood energy. d) Biofuels Programme This programme supports investments in the production and use of ethanol, biodiesel, methanol and biogas. Specifically, all dealers in petroleum products are obligated to blend fossil fuels with biofuels up to 20%, as appropriate. 21 e) Energy Efficiency Programme The programme seeks to implement the Energy Efficiency Strategy (EES). The Government promotes efficient utilization of renewable energy resources, through the activities described in the Energy Efficiency Strategy for Uganda. f) Wastes for Energy Programme This covers the conversion of waste to energy through direct combustion, gasification or biological conversion to biogas. According to MEMD (Renewable Energy Policy (2007), it was realized that investment in renewable energy was not easy because of the Single Time Payment towards renewable energy technologies. Therefore several instruments have been put in place to help the investments in renewable energy i.e. solar products are imported in the country at zero tax, Private Sector Foundation (PSF) provides support to investors with proposal writing and identification of projects, there are solar loans available now and managed by Rural Electrification Agency (REA) and Post Bank, Uganda Energy Credit Capitalization Company (UECCC) also helps entrepreneurs to secure energy loans for long term financing. According to the MEMD there are various incentives and funding to stimulate innovations. The ministry is assisting those who are innovative by providing technical support and lobby for some funds. However funding is still limited in renewable energy and thats the main drawback. 3.4 Knowledge Institutions In relation to climate change adaption in the field of energy, the Department of Physic college of Natural Sciences, Makerere University has conducted research in various ways of how to install PV cells to optimize solar energy collection. (Luwalira, 1996, Mubiru, 1999, Mubiru, 2006, Karoro 2008). Since 1996 the solar group, has been engaged in measuring and modeling of solar radiation. Initially, this was at one site of Makerere, in Kampala but now equipment has been installed in three other locations namely:- Tororo in eastern, Lira in northern and Mbarara in western Uganda, all located within meteorological stations (Luwalira, 1996, Mubiru, 1999, Mubiru, 2006, Karoro 2008). Since 2004, the Ozone & UV research group has been engaged in measuring and modeling the atmospheric Ozone & UV radiation using ground and satellite measurements. (Ssenyonga et al. 2010, Steigen 2002.). The department of Physics Makerere 22 University with collaboration with the Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) are in a process of developing a solar cooker (Okello et al. (2009), Nyeinga et al, (2009). Faculty of Technology has made efforts to put in place programs that encourage climate change innovations through research and information dissemination to the community and also ensure that these innovations are adapted as businesses. Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is a centre at the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology in Makerere University. It is a research, training and consultancy organization active in four fields: bioenergy, solar PV, pico-hydro and energy management. CREEC owns a Portable Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) with which emissions from cookstoves can be measured and analyzed. The centre performs energy efficiency and safety tests for cookstoves. Furthermore, CREEC is promoting the so-called TopLit UpDraft (TLUD) gasifier for cooking purposes under a World Bank grant. CREEC is also involved in research in briquette making, biogas and gasification of biomass. Within solar PV, CREEC is establishing a testing laboratory for solar equipment. Training of technicians, teachers and students are also part of the activities of the solar PV department as well as of the pico-hydro department. Lastly, CREEC is performing energy audits and verifications under its energy management department. (CREEC, 2010) According to Uganda Industrial Research Institute (UIRI), there are different kinds of research in the process, one of the research results is a biogas digester from the poly fiber optics. This is done with the help of Swedish University Technology (SUT) transfer, UIRI facilitated this knowledge transfer, verification and approval of the biogas digester for both domestic and commercial use in the country under the Pamoja project. (UIRI,2009). At the Department of Agricultural and Bio Systems Engineering, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, research was done on the development of appropriate animal draft power technologies for increased agricultural productivity for small-scale farming. Hydrological assessment design and construction of 25 valley tanks in Luwero, Nakasongola and Masindi Districts of Uganda was also done. (Mganilwa et. al., 2005). The 23 college is also enhancing banana production through application of biotechnology: Scaling up the production of disease free tissue cultured banana plantlets in Uganda. The program is funded by Millennium Science Initiative (MSI) programme of Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST). The college is also involved in research on Urban/peri-urban crop-waste utilization for crop/livestock production systems in Lake Victoria Crescent Region, Seed Health Improvement Programme (SHIP), soybean breeding and seed systems, (Mukasa, 2010) The Innovation Systems & Clusters Program Uganda (ISCP-U) is also a program implemented at the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology, Makerere University and its focus is on improving the competitiveness of businesses. Currently its working with over 100 businesses through technology and knowledge transfer. ISCP-U is promoting business clusters engaged in climate change innovations. It is working with business clusters like the tree planting cluster, that is planting trees as a business to reduce carbon emissions, the bio fuel clusters, energy saving stoves. (ISCP-U, 2009) 3.5 Civil Society Civil society organizations play a big role in disseminating information to the community and identifying innovations which they train the community to use. According to National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE) (NAPE, 2010), there is still a major dissemination gap about climate change innovations. It is also further stated that most people are aware of climate changes, but they have not yet understood the science of it, so majority are still ignorant of how their actions affect climate change. This is also reflected in their response to climate change innovations, most prefer to continue with their traditional practices rather that embrace the new innovations, and this discourages people to invest in businesses for climate change innovations. However , NAPE and its partners have launched an awareness campaign about climate change. NAPE identifies innovations and promotes them and train the people how to use them. 3.6 Private Sector There isnt much information documented on climate change entrepreneurs, however programs like innovations systems cluster program are working with businesses. Innovations systems cluster program is working with a number of climate change entrepreneurs. 24 The ministry of Energy is also promoting and working with businesses that are Promoters of Efficient Technologies for Sustainable Development (PETSD) with products such as charcoal stoves, firewood stoves for commercial purposes. (Ministry of Energy, 2010) Some of the businesses working with Ministry Energy include:- i.) African Energy Environment Saving Stoves and Construction Limited is producing charcoal stoves, firewood stoves, fireless cookers, ovens ii.) Uganda Domestic Biogas Project/ Heifer Uganda is producing biogas stoves, portable biogas model iii.) Prime Equipment and Contractors Limited is producing charcoal stoves, institutional mobile stoves, gas cookers iv.) CHARCOLITE is producing charcoal lighters/fire starters v.) Energy Uganda Foundation is producing institutional and charcoal stoves, rocket ovens vi.) Save Energy Saving Stoves for Africa is producing institutional and charcoal stoves vii.) FK Rwashana is producing bio-fuel and institutional and charcoal stoves and rocket ovens. 25 4 Research Results 4.1 Introduction The research results show the climate change innovations that have been developed for mitigation, adaptation and prevention of climate change effects in Uganda. The results are limited to innovations in Energy, Agriculture, and Water management (water harvesting technologies, managing water scarcity and flooding) and climate change monitoring. The research also focus on the entrepreneurs and the climate change innovations they trade in, how they are being supported by different stakeholders to improve and expand their businesses as well as disseminate the information about the innovations to the community which is the client. It also shows the challenges faced by the entrepreneurs as well other stake holders i.e. civil society organizations, academia and research institutions as well as the government institutions in developing climate change innovations and promoting entrepreneurship of the innovations. The results show the market gaps that exist for entrepreneurs and areas that need intervention in order to improve and increase climate change innovations as well as strengthen their entrepreneurship. The presentation of results is done following the main stakeholders the study focused on that contribute to climate change innovations and Entrepreneurship in the country and ensure that there is continuity in utilization of these innovations. The stake holders include; Knowledge and Research institutions, Government institutions, Climate change businesses, Financial support institutions and development partners. It looks at case studies of innovations that are present at each level, how they are being translated into businesses, and how the businesses are supported to grow and have a bigger market. 4.2 Government Institutions 4.2.1 Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) This MAAIF through its research arm National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) has developed some drought resistant crops that are currently used by famers more research is still going on to develop new crop verities. The research finding by NARO are disseminates to the farmers through the National Agriculture Advisory Services (NAADS). NARO is also involved in research on different water harvesting technologies and irrigation systems that can adapt well to climate change. From the research some of the climate change innovations which the different departments in NARO have developing/developed are stated as follows:- 26 4.2.1.1 Drought and Flood Resistant Crops The innovations include; i. National Crops Resources Research Institute (NACRRI) Water Efficiency MAize (WEMA) was developed, this type of maize requires very little water to grow, it can grow well in water stressed areas. Currently its grown in Eastern Uganda, Kasese and Karamoja. Pest tolerant or resistant varieties have been developed because climate change causes more pests. Coffee that is resistant to coffee wilt, bananas that are resistant to banana bacteria wilt have been developed and research team is in the process of developing cassava resistant to cassava wilt. Bio footification, this involves making certain crops to produce micro nutrients. Currently research is going on to enhance vitamin C in the crop varieties and there is research in progress to produce yellow cassava looking like a carrot rich in Vitamin A. Under the cassava program cassava varieties that are high yielding and resistant to mosaic were developed and have been disseminated to the farmers. At the same institute Bio ethanol is produced from non food plants of cassava. Maize varieties like Longe 3H, Longe 4 and Longe5. Longe 5 and Longe 3H can yield 7 tons/ha compared to 1.8 tons/ha of local varieties. These varieties are good in ensuring food security in times of scarcity due to dry spells. Longe 5 has high quality maize compared to other varieties, and Longe 4 is early maturing and drought resistant. These are good innovations that are adaptable to droughts and long dry spells. Beans program: Under the bean program different bean varieties have been developed and all of them are disease resistant and high yielding. The climbing beans 7, 8, 9 and 10 yield two to three times more than the traditional beans. These are also good in ensuring food security At the same center drought tolerant sweet potatoes are being bred. More seed varieties that are water efficient, drought tolerant seeds/crops and emphasis on mulching to reduce water loss in gardens are being done by NARO. ii. Serere Animal and Agricultural Research Institute (SAARI) Trial drought resistant cotton is also being developed in Kasese district. Upland rice varieties have also been developed, varieties like Abilony, UK2, NP 2, NP3 have been developed for disease resistance and non-shattering All these crop varieties are good adaptation measures to climate change in food production. 27 4.2.1.2 Water Harvesting, Storage and Irrigation Technology Innovations Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Centre (AEATREC) is one of the departments in NARO responsible for designing agricultural engineering technologies including those for water harvesting, storage and irrigation. From the research findings the following water harvesting, storage and irrigation innovations were identified:- a) Sand Dam Innovation Plenty of water is lost as runoff, so if its trapped it can be used during the drier seasons. The sand dam innovation is being used in Karamoja, where a dam is dug and filled with sand. When it rains the water is not lost, instead its absorbed by the sand and stored in the dam. During the long dry seasons, a little sand is removed and the people collect water. This innovation helps in harvesting water for domestic use, animals to drink, and for watering plants. However this innovation is underutilized, commercial famers and industries that use a lot of water have not embraced it, yet its cheaper to maintain. If well developed it can work well in water stressed areas and even those that flood. Its a good water harvesting technology. b) Line water harvesting dam Figure 2: Line water harvesting dam This is a water harvesting technology that is able to harvest a lot of water for irrigation. It can last about 10 years, the initial cost of setting it up is high about UGX 7.5 million. It can facilitate commercial farming very well since during heavy rains it collects the water runoffs and the water can be used during the dry spells. 28 c) Drip and Flood Irrigation Figure 3: Drip Irrigation AEATREC is also promoting drip irrigation as water saving irrigation system. Unlike the flood irrigation, drip irrigation uses minimal water, its put on only the parts that need it. This type of irrigation is saves water and some commercial famers have adopted. However it is still expensive for small scale farmers to afford. Its effective use is also still a challenge, therefore training is seriously required to insure high adaption by a wider population d) Gap Irrigation Gap irrigation is being studied to deal with abrupt rainfall shortage. It is looking at how much extra water a famer needs to grow a crop when there is no rainfall, then a famer would be advised how much water is need to store for irrigation till the crop grows, the study is first focusing on vegetables. In general according to the Ministry of Agriculture, irrigation systems are quite expensive for the famers. Most famers cannot afford the cost of buying and setting up an irrigation system especially for commercial famers. As a way of intervention the Government of Uganda thorough the MAAIF has established partnerships with commercial famers in the private sector to set up irrigation systems on the farms. In this partnership the government handles the development of the infrastructure i.e. irrigation system. It funds the designs, develops the irrigation system, and trains the famers on how to use the irrigation system. The private famers ensure the sustainable use of the system and its maintenance. An example of such partnership is one where the government is developing a new irrigation scheme in Iganga and has partnered with Pearl Rice. 29 A swamp was identified one which has got 10,000ha. This means Pearl rice provides market and processing and the government mobilizes the farmers and provides the infrastructures. 4.2.1.3 Support and Dissemination of the Innovations to Entrepreneurs NARO a research arm of the Ministry of Agriculture animal husbandry and Industry is mandated to conduct research and the approved research is disseminated through National Agricultural Services Advisory Services (NAADS). Both NARO and NAADS are acts of parliament and they are under the ministry Agriculture. In order to promote Entrepreneurship in the new seed varieties, Ministry of agriculture through its research institutes under NARO, collaborate with seed business companies to distribute the seeds in the market. These seeds are bought by farmers, both commercial and domestic. However, according to the research institutions there is still resistance to new varieties by local famers. More sensitization and awareness are still needed to increase the demand for the researched seed/crop varieties. Ministry of Agriculture also has partnerships with manufacturing businesses, for instance the partnership with Mukwano Industries in sunflower production. The Government took the role of mobilizing farmers and provides seeds to them at a subsidized rate. Mukwano industry buys the produce and crashes the seed to oil (factory) and it provides market to the farmers. In this way the new seed varieties are utilized by the famers in large quantities. Ministry of Agriculture also collaborates with organizations like Sasakawa Global (SG, 2000), especially partnering on rice and maize and addressing the whole value chain right from seeds. Other organizations the ministry collaborates with include Brac, Mercy Corps, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP). These organizations especially the civil society organizations help to sensitize famers about the importance of using the new crop/seed varieties and this has helped to increase the market as well as utilization of the. World food program buys from famers in large quantities and this encourages them to use particular varieties. However, NAADS which is an extension agency is responsible for dissemination of the research findings but the level of dissemination is not yet strong and efficient enough. Famers still remain ignorant of the available information, therefore there is need to improve and strengthen the dissemination channels of the available research. 30 4.2.2 Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE) 4.2.2.1 National Forestry Authority Tree planning is a major climate change innovation and it has been commercialized to ensure that people plant more trees. National Forest Authority had a scheme where it partnered with commercial tree farmers to plant trees. National Forest Authority is implementing an Environmental Management Capacity building project phase 2 supported by the World Bank, one component is under NEMA and the other at National Forestry Authority. National Forestry authority has established two sites for the implementation of the project. One site is North Rwenzori central Forest Reserve and has 2000 ha of land. The plantation is aimed at selling carbon credits and its meant to hold carbon for a certain period of time then sold as timber. The rotation age is 20 years, so far 700ha have been planted. In Ruhoho there is a similar project but managed under the collaborative Forest Management (CFM) arrangement. In this arrangement NFA collaborates with registered community groups to plant trees and manage them. When the carbon is sold they the participating groups gain profits too. Ruhoho is a registered CDM project There is also a plantation site in Kasagala, the utilization approach is different. The forests planted are for sustainable charcoal production, NFA is aimed at planting 2000ha of land. The main purpose is to fix carbon using improved charcoal production technologies visa vie using traditional production methods. Good species for charcoal production are planted, the good species when burnt into charcoal using the improved methods few trees are used and the recovery is high compared to the traditional methods. The trees species good for charcoal production that are being planted by NFA includes eucalyptus paniculata. NFA is currently in the process of forming collaborative Forest Management groups that will participate in planting and management of the forests. To join CFM the community is sensitized about it, they form groups, get registered and apply to use part of the forest to plant trees for charcoal production the rotation period is 7 years and the famers have to follow that time strictly. When the trees have grown they cut and burn the charcoal strictly using the improved methods of charcoal production, famers sell their charcoal and get the profits, so far 200ha have been planted. The forests are being managed using CDM procedures because they are aimed at becoming CDM projects to sell carbon credits. The project was started in 2010 and this is the second year of its operation. NFA is in the process of building a kiln to burn some of the trees to teach people how to use the improved method of producing of charcoal. 31 4.2.3 Ministry of Trade and Industry 4.2.3.1 Uganda Industry Research Institute (UIRI) UIRI has a bamboo project and its main goal is to lock up carbon into finished products. The Institute is working to link bamboo out growers to the industry because its key objective is to strengthen the management of bamboo to ensure sustainability in supply bamboo as a raw material in making different products. UIRI is in the process of establishing 151 ha of bamboo country wide to facilitate production. UIRI is also focusing on exploiting the bamboo ecology by promoting ecotourism. It also focusing on developing the bamboo industry with high extension value but with low material consumption. Through its research UIRI has identified that bamboo has so many uses and a number of products can be developed from it and through making these products carbon is locked up for a long time. Examples of products that can be made from Bamboo include; i. Mats;- The production process and a machine that makes mats from Bamboo has been developed by UIRI and its already operational in Kabale. However it has not yet become commercial because an appropriate entrepreneur has not yet been found to go into full business. The machine developed to make mats takes 400 stems per day, therefore there is need to have sustainable bamboo growing to feed the machine. UIRI builds the machine, equip it, operationalise it and hands it over to the entrepreneur for commercial performance. ii. Tooth pick:- The technology for making toothpicks is already developed by UIRI and is already operational. One line of production is at UIRI and another is at Kabale. An individual entrepreneur has been identified to produce tooth picks for commercial purposes. iii. Bamboo shoots are addible;-UIRI is in the process of establishing a scientific process to process the shoots for food. 32 iv. UIRI is also working to extract other products out of bamboo like vinegar which is got from burnt bamboo. The acidic solution (vinegar) can be used as a pest repellant, detergent, used in cosmetics for cream and skin lotions and as a fertilizer. v. The charcoal from burnt bamboo is used is used as an extractor of fumes that are released during manufacturing. It is also used as a semi conductor, used as a water purifier. There is still need for technology identification to be able to make all those products from bamboo. Some of the recommendations from UIRI were; i. There is need to set up a bamboo out growers scheme to ensure sustainable production of bamboo. There is already technology developed for production of mats and toothpicks but the raw material is still limited it cannot sustain commercial production. ii. Bamboo is easy and cheap to grow and it does not need a lot of care like some types of trees, one stem can produce a forest of its own and it allows intercropping. UIRI is in the process of identifying potential areas where bamboo is can be grown. iii. There is need for other Institutions to collaborate and partner with UIRI to ensure that the research done and technology developed and is used sustainably for commercial production. Uganda still imports toothpicks yet the technology is already developed, but because of limited supply of raw materials not carbon cannot be locked up inform of toothpicks. It is therefore important that collaborations are established with other institutions to provide seedlings, provide land for growing bamboo, manage bamboo growing and facilitate growing of bamboo in general. iv. There are about 6.8 acres of land available for cultivation in Uganda, the country earns 31% from the that area, with introduction of bamboo products more exports can be realized. 33 4.3 Knowledge and Research Institutions Eight Universities interviewed, they included 4 private and 3 government Universities. Private Universities included Mutesa 1 Royal University, Kampala International University, Nkumba University and government Universities included Makerere University, Kyambogo University, Busitema University. Specific departments were approached although some of the Universities said they had no specific climate change research or innovations and for some no response was got. The presentation below shows the innovations at the Universities that responded. 4.3.1 Makerere University 4.3.1.1 Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) 4.3.1.1.1 Energy Climate Change Innovation The Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is focusing on research, training and consultancy in the renewable energy sector, and its located at the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT, the former Faculty of Technology) within Makerere University. CREECs mission is to enhance access to modern types of energy through research, training and consultancy in East-Africa. The centre focuses on four areas: bioenergy, solar PV, pico-hydro and energy management. The clients of CREEC are very diverse: national and local government, donor organizations, NGOs, private sector students. The centre aims at application and adaptation of technologies to the specific Ugandan and local environment with an emphasis on systems with components that can be locally manufactured. Because of capacity building and knowledge transfer purposes, CREEC endeavours to use students in the projects whenever possible. 4.3.1.1.2 Bioenergy CREEC is equipped with Bioenergy Research Centre which is a laboratory for conducting practical tests, training and applied research. The laboratory was built in 2008 in cooperation with German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) (now Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)). The centre is engaged in research for improved cookstoves, biogas, 34 gasification and briquette making with the purpose of mitigating and adaptation to climate change though provision of appropriate energy sources and technology. For the financial year 2011-2012 CREEC has also been included in a program from the President of Ugandas office funding innovations at CEDAT. The centre will extend the Bioenergy Research Centre and furnish it with further research, testing and training equipment. Research findings from the bioenergy centre at CREEC include:- i.) Improved Cookstoves The aim of CREEC is to develop into an independent and internationally recognized stove testing service using globally accepted testing procedures for the (East-) African region. The centre owns a Portable Emission Monitoring System (PEMS) from Aprovecho Research Center, an American worldwide leader in cookstove technology. With this equipment emissions from cookstoves can be measured and analyzed. CREEC has already been conducting several tests (such as the water boiling test and controlled cooking test) for a number of stove manufacturers. CREEC has won a grant from the World Bank program for Biomass Energy Initiative for Africa (BEIA) to promote the TopLit UpDraft (TLUD) gasifier cookstove in Uganda. The TLUD can use fuel sources that otherwise would have been considered as agricultural waste, such as maize cobs, bundles of grass, seeds or husks, instead of using charcoal or wood. Therefore, the TLUD can contribute to less deforestation and climate change. Within the project, CREEC will promote the gasifier cookstove through creating awareness about its use and benefits, training of tinsmiths in manufacturing, training of entrepreneurs in marketing and selling and creating other business opportunities. Lastly, CREEC is a part of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, a globally active, public-private initiative to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and combat climate change by creating a thriving global market for clean and efficient household cooking solutions. The centre is a core member of the work groups Technology and Fuels and Standards and Testing. 35 CREEC is gaining more and more recognition in the global field due to its capacities, facilities and possibilities. ii.) Biogas CREEC is designing a biogas research program and aims to develop a biogas service for inspection of digesters, trouble-shooting and consultancy. iii.) Gasification CREEC possesses a gasifier from India and is currently looking into funding opportunities for installing and commencing to operate the equipment to provide a showcase for Uganda, to provide training programs to the private sector and to implement applied research for the Ugandan environment. iv.) Briquettes CREEC has studied several types of briquettes and continues to implement further research programs in the production of briquettes. The waste materials turned into briquettes can be burned in normal cookstoves or may require a special stove design. 4.3.1.1.3 Solar PV The department of solar PV designs programs to promote and implement projects using solar power, both at household level as for institutions. Small scale solar PV, or solar lamps and torches, are a simple and relatively cheap means to avoid the use of kerosene lamps. Air pollution within the household will decrease as a result of implementing this technology. Money available to be spent on other items will increase due to savings obtained from not having to buy daily fuel for the kerosene lamps. The Bioenergy Research Centre mentioned above is equipped with solar panels and fully run on this energy source. The panels were installed during a training that was organized involving various German suppliers of solar equipment. 36 Under a Memorandum of Understanding with an implementation partner for the private sector CREEC is developing a training program for technicians for companies intending to roll-out their activities to the rural areas. Next to awareness building and training, CREEC is constructing a solar PV laboratory with the use of funds provided by the President of Ugandas office. In the laboratory that will be furnished with state-of-art equipment, CREEC intends to test various types of solar PV equipment ranging from panels, through converters to lamps. This will become an independent testing and certifying laboratory for the private sector importing, marketing and selling solar PV systems. 4.3.1.1.4 Pico-hydro Specific areas in Uganda are blessed with enough water flow and height over which the water falls to install hydro power. CREEC is aiming at the lower end of the output scale for productive use by for example tourist facilities or agro-processing plants. At the CREEC premises, a test rig is installed for doing measurements at various types of hydro power turbines. Applied research and training are at the core of this test rig that was developed with the support of GTZ. CREEC wants to extend this piece of equipment to enhance and extend the centres facilities. The abovementioned Memorandum of Understanding with the implementation partner for the private sector also includes the implementation of three pico-hydro plants with CREEC basic design and project management support. The other leg of this agreement is the training of operating and maintenance personnel as well as training of trainers, such as teachers at vocational institutes. In collaboration with an American organization, CREEC is involved in a study and possible refurbishment of a hydro scheme in providing a hospital in West-Uganda with electricity. The main role of CREEC in hydro power is training, consultancy and project management. Through UNIDO the centre has facilitated training in Uganda with regard to small hydro power by various experts from abroad. 37 4.3.1.1.5 Energy Management Once again the abovementioned Memorandum of Understanding with the implementation partner for the private sector is the focus of CREECs fourth department: Energy management. Under this agreement CREEC will organize the training of a Certified Energy Manager and a number of Energy Auditors. CREEC has already done some energy audits at Ugandan companies and an institute in health care. The energy audits identify areas where the clients can save energy and advice on possible energy efficiency and saving technologies. The Memorandum of Understanding also encompasses validation of energy efficiency equipment installed by a third party. Using CREEC experience and specific measurement and analysing tools, the centre will verify energy savings and guarantees. Apart from the research, training and consultancy services as mentioned above for the specific focal areas of CREEC, the centre is also engaged in cross-cutting project. CREEC is involved in an energy study with regard to the use of renewable energy for institutions in Northern-Uganda to decrease on deforestation in protected areas. A team of researchers has visited parishes, schools and prisons in six specific areas, conducted a site survey and held a questionnaire with the people involved in energy, such as directors, cooks and accountants. A cost-benefit analysis and recommendations have been made for implementation of energy saving technologies. Another example of a cross-cutting project is the MSI project from a group of researchers of Makerere University. This project is financed by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology with funds from the World Bank and the Government of Uganda. A research program involving three PhDs focusing on GIS mapping, appropriate conversion technology and business models is being executed with the implementation of five energy pilot plants (three bioenergy, one solar and one pico-hydro). CREEC is supporting the research team in technical design and implementation of the pilot plants and project management, such as budget control and reporting. 38 CREEC has made a deliberate choice of not going into biofuels (biodiesel and ethanol), solar thermal, wind power and renewable energy from municipal solid waste for two reasons: first of all the demand for these technologies and secondly the personnel capacity of the centre. However, when demand from clients and sustainable projects arise, CREEC most certainly will dedicate resource in form of personnel, finances and time to these opportunities. 4.3.2 Innovation Systems and Clusters Program (ISCP) Uganda The Innovations Systems and Cluster program- Uganda, is an outreach project at the Faculty of technology whose aim is to increase competitiveness of businesses using the triple helix concept that allows government, academia and government to collaborate to improve the competitiveness businesses. Businesses doing similar work form cluster and work together, with a secretariat to guide and provide linkages as well as training to enable better performance. Among the 30 clusters the program has, three of them are involved in climate change business. Some are in the trading business while others are in research. The clusters include; i.) Bio ethanol cluster, it is located in Kakira, Eastern Uganda and its main stake holders include Entrepreneurs and farmers who grow the sugar cane and other entrepreneurs that manufacture sugar like Kakira sugar works, Universities like Kyambogo and Makerere University to provide Knowledge and technology transfer, Government to deal with policy issues and Development Partners who provide financial and technical support the cluster. Specifically, the farmers and entrepreneurs include; Small scale women distillers, Alcohol distributors, Sugarcane cultivators, Dealers in molasses. The objectives of the fuel cluster are to make ethanol production more competitive, diversify the production of ethanol from grown crops, produce fuel grade ethanol, produce ethanol for export, produce animal feeds from stillage, produce biogas from stillage as a way of promoting the environment, produce other products such fortified wines and spirits. So far the Ethanol cluster has demonstrated potential use of ethanol as an alternative fuel. This has been tested to run generators, motor vehicles, and it is a clean energy/environmentally friendly fuel source, however there is limited funding for large scale 39 production of bio fuel. The government of Ugandas energy policy favors fuel blending and this clusters innovation lies well in line. In addition local artisans in small column fabrication have been trained; 300 mm chain sieve tray column has been fabricated by the cluster. Some of the challenges faced by bio fuel business cluster include low quality materials used to extract bio fuels, Ethanol for fuel is not cost effective on such small scale production and yet there is limited funding for large scale production, Inadequate funding for expansion to large scale production, publicity capability and research in ethanol, propaganda that ethanol causes food insecurity and lack of expertise at community level in sugarcane growing and ethanol distillation. Some of the recommendations include the need to distribute demonstration projects all over the country and train& sensitize the local producer population on economic potential of ethanol production ii.) Seeds Cluster The seeds cluster includes various stakeholders from academia, private sector and public sector. The entrepreneurs include academic breeders who develop/breed the foundation seed/varieties with particular aspects required by the customers and sell them,then the medium enterprises who carry out multiplication of the breeder seed using their farmers or contract farmers as well as the small business owners who simply buy the seed and sell directly as they are not in position to multiply and sell on a large scale. The members deal in various seeds such as maize varieties like OPV Longe 1, 2, 4, 5 (QPM), sorghum varieties like Epurpur, Soy bean New NAM SOY and MAK SOY, as well as other seeds like tomato, egg plants, beans, sorghum, onions. These seeds are drought resistant, have a short maturation period and they are disease resistant. Challenges the seed cluster is faced with include; i. Limited funding to carry out research and for multiplication. 40 ii. There is also limited technology availability and such facilities involve large investment costs iii. The seed policy is loose and hence there are so many fake varieties on the market and this marginalizes the profits and market and general benefit of the genuine cluster businesses from their businesses. The farmers also lose out as they are sold the wrong poor varieties that do not yield much. iii.) Tree Planting Cluster The tree planting cluster includes the triple helix as stake holders i.e. business owners who include nursery operators, tree planters, timber traders, district agricultural and forestry officers, academia who include universities, among others. The cluster deals mainly in Eucalyptus and pine varieties from South Africa and Brazil, respectively. These are bought from National Forestry Authority Seed Centre in Namanve. These seed are on high demand on the market, grow faster, yield more, need less care- only weeding and need very little water- only about a week of watering once planted and no more after that till maturity. Some of the challenges this cluster is faced with among others include, transportation of the seeds is costly as farmers have to obtain them from Kampala and transport them to Masaka, the technical personnel that are to operate the nurseries are very expensive yet the local nursery operators are not adequately skilled, this affects tree planting in general. 4.3.3 Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences The Physics department, Makerere University has two major innovations, one is meant to monitor the rate of climate change and report to the necessary stakeholders as well as recommend interventions, and the other is an adaptation measure. 4.3.3.1 Measurement of Solar and UV Radiation The department has two groups, one focuses on solar radiation and albedo measurements and the other on ultraviolet and ozone measurements. The solar radiation measurements have been taken since 1996; a group of is involved in measuring and modeling solar radiation. Initially, this was at one site of Makerere, in Kampala but now equipment has been installed in three other 41 locations namely; Tororo in eastern Uganda, Lira in northern and Mbarara in western Uganda. All these sites are located within meteorological stations. The equipment used to do the measurements are CM-6B Pyranometer mounted with a CM-121B Shadow ring; CSD-1 Sunshine Duration Sensor, Pyrheliometer. Figure 4: Shows equipment used for solar measurements The group has used ground measurements and modeling to determine the distribution of solar radiation throughout the country and also has provided and still providing knowledge to solar energy device installers on how to orient the panels to obtain optimum energy. The group also investigates variations of albedo on bare soil and Indigofera Volkensii weed. 4.3.3.2 Measurement of Ultraviolet and ozone 42 Figure 5: Ozone measurements by Dobson spectrometer Since 2004 the Department of Physics Makerere University has been measuring and modeling atmospheric Ozone & UV radiation. Initially there was only one NILU-UV radiometer, but through the collaboration with University of Bergen, Norway and University of Oslo, Norway, a Dobson spectrometer has been acquired. Both instruments are installed at the Department of Physics, Makerere University and are being used in the measurement. The purpose of the investigations is: To determine the ozone & UV climatology for Uganda. To provide relevant information to the decision makers about the dangers that might arise if atmospheric ozone depletion is not reduced. To provide relevant information to the people about the levels of UV in their localities and measures they need to take to reduce the effect of excessive exposure to UV. To send data to World Metrological Organization. 4.3.3.3 Thermo Rock Heat Storage This research is in its early stages and its promising. It focuses on how solar radiation is collected from the Sun and the heat transmitted to the rock bed where it can be extracted for cooking at any given time of the day. The results got so far on the prototypes (Figure 6) are promising and the researchers hope to go for mass production of these thermo rock storages in homes. The rock bed consists of a vertical, cylindrical container made of stainless steel. The container is filled with pebbles obtained by crushing mountain rock. A concentrator is used to collect the solar energy. The solar energy is directed to the rock bed by use of a fun and the same process is used to extract the heat from the rock bed for cooking. One of the main existing challenges is poor dissemination channels to the possible entrepreneurs, the stake holders and the general community that is affected by the climate change. Majority of the population is ignorant of the climate change issues but they dont really understand what is going on yet the information is available. Scientists need to interact more with the local community and the civil society organizations to help people understand what is going on with the climate, what their contribution is to the changing climate, what the effects are and what needs to be done to mitigate and adapt to climate change. This will then increase awareness and 43 responsibility by the general population, with increased awareness then the demand for climate change innovations will increase. Figure 6: Rock bed heat storage for cooking. Limited funds to do more research, monitoring and dissemination are a serious challenge, with increased funding a lot of relevant research and its dissemination will be done. 4.4 Kyambogo University Kyambogo University has a research that was conducted on the extraction of bio fuels and its different uses. This research has been successfully adapted by different business people like sugarcane farmers and dealers in Molasses to make bio fuels. Different stake holders managed to make a bio fuel cluster where a senior researcher from Kyambogo University is the technical 44 person facilitating the cluster to make bio ethanol. The use of bio ethanol as a source of clean energy has been found relevant although there are still challenges in mass production. 5 Civil Society Organizations Civil Society organizations were interviewed as major stakeholders who facilitate dissemination of climate change innovations since they interact with the people on the ground. The profiled civil society organizations support local communities including commercial farmers in developing water harvesting technologies as well as utilization. Others are engaged in energy saving innovations while others train people in the use of biogas innovations in their homes and businesses. Below are the climate Change innovations promoted by civil society organizations. 5.1 Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) ASARECA) is a sub regional, Intergovernmental not for profit organization whose mission is to enhance regional collective action in agricultural research for development, extension, training and education to promote economic growth, fight poverty, eradicate hunger and enhance sustainable use of resources in Eastern and Central Africa (ECA). ASARECA has seven new programmes, through which climate change innovations in agriculture are developed and promoted and these are; Staple Crops Programme, High Value Non-Staple Crops Programme, Livestock and Fisheries Programme, Agro-Biodiversity and Biotechnology Programme, Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Programme, Policy Analysis and Advocacy Programme and Knowledge Management and Up-scaling Programme. ASARECA supports Agricultural research in Research institutions through which climate change agricultural innovations are developed that adapt to climate change effects. Research is still on going to develop varieties that can withstand heavy rain fall and floods. Through its collaboration with research institutions in Africa Water sufficient sorghum and Maize grows well in water stressed areas was innovated. These seed varieties are drought resistant and they require minimal water to grow. The research on the drought resistant sorghum was done in Tanzania and Northern Uganda and drought resistant maize research was done in Kenya in the 45 semi arid areas. The research on Sorghum is supported by the Staple Crops Programme. North and north Eastern Uganda (Karamoja region) has benefited by growing the sorghum and maize. Research Institutions ASARECA is collaborating with on climate change research include; National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), Faculty of Agriculture Makerere University, Uganda Famers Federation, Eco-Trust, Nature Harness Initiative, Mbarara University, Kawanda Research centers, Namulonge Research center. ASARECA partners with private sector to market the approved innovations for instance the approved sorghum and maize is currently distributed in the market and sold by the seed business people all over the country. 5.2 Local Underground Water Harvesting Tank By NAPE National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAPE) is an NGO with a focus on environment protection through awareness creation, lobbying and advocacy. NAPE through its climate change programme is supporting famers in adoption of water harvesting technologies that preserve water to be used during dry seasons. In Buyikwe Naminya, there is an underground water harvesting technology that is used by famers to irrigate their crops during the dry spells and they use the water for domestic use. Famers were trained on how to construct it and use it, the tanks are now being utilized by the farmers during water scarcity seasons. Figure 7: Shows an underground water harvesting technology 46 The tank was developed by digging 7 feet deep, then put thick sacks at the bottom, followed by a big thick Polythene paper, they are sewn on together about 70 meters and are laid at the bottom of the pit. On the sides of the polythene soil is put to hold it firmly and support it. Then logs are put across the pit with an opening at the top to allow water to be drawn from it. A water path is created following the direction you want the water flow and it ends at the pit flowing in. On top of the logs polythene can be laid and soil put on top. Greens and vegetables can be grown, even beans and other simple crops. During the dry seasons, the water is used for irrigation, its also used for domestic use. The famers plant moringa tree around tank, the seeds are crushed and put in water they purifies and cleans the water. The water is whitened and its used for domestic use and for animals to drink. The famers said that this particular one is not well built but if well developed it can stock water for years. The respondents said that there is a similar technology in Masaka, Busensa at St Jude Agricultural Center. This one is more advanced and bigger and it has outlets that flow in the garden and it doesnt require manual irrigation. This technology is good for water harvest in areas that get dry spells but have some seasons of rainfall, and also in areas where flooding occurs and after the weather becomes dry, like Teso region. This technology can be used domestically in gardens and even in commercial agriculture, but currently its not yet widely used probably because of lack of awareness. If promoted and well developed it is a good water harvesting and storage innovation. NAPE also gave households in Naminya water tanks that collect water from the roof, these tanks are promoted as clean and good water harvesting technologies. In Luwero, Nalongo village big tanks were built to collect water from the roof and water is collected and is being used during water stressed seasons. 47 Figure 8: Roof water harvesting tank 5.3 Rock to Valley Dam Water Harvesting by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) Figure 9: Water harvesting from rock to valley dam The Kinkiizi community water harvesting project was constructed by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) for the community of Kinkiizi Luwero district. The innovation collects water from a rock. There is a very big rock at Kinkiizi, boarders were built around the rock to prevent water from going to waste. There are three corners where the water flows to, at these corners pipes were put through which the water flows into a small underground tank where its sieved. It then flows through another long pipe that takes it to a big underground tank were its collected. The big underground tank is well build and a bore hole is put on top pump the water 48 out protected. This water is used by the community for domestic use, for their animals to drink and to water their gardens during dry season. This is an adaptation measure that can work well in hilly and rocky areas and in areas with the terrain that allows easy water collection. It can also be used in areas that flood to collect water that can later be used by the community. However the innovation needs to be studied well and modified to suit different terrains. Otherwise its a very relevant technology for water harvesting in both dry and flood areas like Teso region. This technology is capital intensive and so far has not been embraced yet by commercial famers. Awareness also still needs to be done to make commercial farmers aware of its utilization. 5.4 Joint Energy and Environment Project (JEEP) JEEP is a non government organization which offers Environment awareness and training as well as research services to NGOs, CBOs and other institutions. JEEP offers training to communities in the areas of energy conservation and alternate fuels to address the needs of people using firewood as a source of energy for cooking. It also promotes the use of energy saving cook stoves which save up to 30% of fuels and energy saving fish smoking kilns. The main beneficiaries are people in the rural areas who use firewood for domestic cooking and Institutions like schools. JEEP Folkecentre was upgraded to become a solar energy centre in late 2007 and in 2008 JEEP started implementing solar energy activities Some of the climate change energy innovations promoted by the JEEP include; a). Energy Saving Cooking Stoves i. Institutional fire wood energy saving stoves These stoves save up to 30% of the firewood, people in the community are trained to build them and some have taken them on as a business although majority make them for their domestic use. Schools and institutions are encouraged to use the stoves because their energy saving abilities which saves a lot firewood. The demand for the institutional stoves is growing and JEEP builds stoves for those that demand them, however more 49 awareness still needs to be done to help heads of institutions understand the cost benefit situation. ii) Domestic fire wood energy saving stoves The domestic firewood stoves are built using different materials like mud, bricks and concrete. All the stoves are energy efficient and they save up to 30% of the energy and reduce the amount of emissions into the environment since they release very little smoke. The makeup of the stove allows complete combustion and prevents heat loss, in doing so little firewood is required to cook. They cook faster compared to the traditional three stone fire wood stove and this reduces the rate at which the trees are cut for firewood. These stoves have been promoted in over 15 districts in Uganda, they are designed for both baking and cooking. JEEP has worked with Prime Energy & Environment Savers (PEES)to train groups of people to make the stoves. i) Stoves that use saw dust, coffee husks and cotton husks are also promoted by JEEP. They provide an alternative to using firewood, they also save energy and are fast in cooking. Table 2 showing the number of Energy Saving stoves sold by JEEP since 2007. Type of stove Number Domestic Energy saving stove 8833 Institutional stoves 149 b). Solar Products JEEP also promotes the use of Solar for energy as an alternative for generators, kerosene and for people and companies that desire to reduce on the consumption of electricity. Some of the Solar products promoted by JEEP include; i.) Solar Lanterns The Solar Lanterns are good substitutes for the kerosene lamps commonly used in the villages and places with no electricity. The lanterns reduce on the emissions from a kerosene lamp since their source of light the sun is clean and has no emissions. Nordic Folkecenter partners with JEEP to subsidize the cost of solar lanterns so that people in the villages can afford them. This partnership has enabled many people to acquire them. 50 ii.) Solar charging systems iii.) Solar Central Lighting in markets iv.) A solar fridge is also being promoted by JEEP and its used in health centers v.) Solar Water heaters; These are assembled and sold to the people especially companies. Table 3 showing the type and number of solar systems since 2007 Type of system Number Task lights 5369 Ambient lamps 10 Energy shops / Information centers 7 Central lights 4 Light in Schools 3 Battery charging station 1 Solar Home Systems 21 Energy shops / information centers are places where charging facilities are located. Such facilities include phone charging, lantern charging and all other devices that can be charged by grid. These centers are community managed systems and community members get information about solar energy from these sites These Solar Systems are designed and assembled by JEEP technical team, they buy hardware but the design and assembling of the solar system is done by JEEP staff. JEEP offers consultancy, installation and training of the community in the use the solar systems. However the interaction with commercial entrepreneurs to disseminate the information for investment in the technology is still very poor. There is need to develop a link with business people who can manufacture more of the researched solar products, this will then lead to increased production. JEEP is supported by donor agencies and the MEMD supports it through invitation to participate in exhibitions like the energy week. Some of the challenges JEEP is facing is the awareness gap that still exists among the people in the community about the energy saving technologies. According to the respondent majority of the people are not yet aware of climate change and they cannot relate the change in climate to 51 their activities, this also makes it difficult to promote the energy saving technologies. Inadequate funding to create awareness about climate change and promote technologies that reduce it is also still a big challenge to the civil society organizations. 6 Private Sector/Climate Change Entrepreneurs Private climate change entrepreneurs were interviewed and their climate change technologies profiled. Their marketing models, challenges and recommendations were also stated. Collaborations with other stakeholders were also highlighted. Private sector Foundation Uganda, an umbrella organization that brings together all private businesses was interviewed, through it private businesses are supported. The private businesses interviewed and their innovations are listed below; 6.1 Drought Resistant Seeds Varieties by Victoria Seeds Ltd Figure 10: Some of the drought tolerant seeds Victoria seeds Ltd is a seed company that sells seeds for agriculture, its main focus is on drought tolerant varieties that can withstand biotic stress. Victoria seeds Limited has not yet come up with seed varieties that are flood resistant instead they encourage farmers to plant fruit trees that can withstand flood when they come. Victoria seeds engages in research to develop drought resistant seeds, its research is supported by Research institutions like Kenya Agricultural Research Institute to develop relevant seed varieties. Other funders that support Victoria Seeds Ltd in the research for drought resistant seeds includes partners like Buffet Foundation, Melinda gates Foundation, AGRA among others. 52 Victoria Seeds Ltd has so far developed 70 drought resistant seed varieties and are well distributed in markets and used by famers. The categories of seed varieties are; Vegetable seeds, Cereal Seeds, Legume seeds, Oil seeds, Forage seeds. An example of a cereal seed is the Maize hybrid-Yara 41, its water sufficient and it yields three times in a year. It is growing well in the water stressed areas of Northern Uganda and Karamoja region. The other cereal varieties include millet, sorghum, Rice. According to the Victoria seeds, the market for the drought resistant seeds is relatively developed, the seed market has been growing for the last 9 years. According to Victoria seeds Ltd., all seed produces annually is sold off. Climate change brings crop diseases and some of these diseases become resistant, Victoria seeds are still conducting research to develop pest sides that can curb the crop diseases. Some of these include Fungicides; INDOFIL M-45 (Mancozeb 80%), UGONALL 580. Victoria seeds in collaboration with their partners provide technical support to famers to learn how to use the seeds and pesticides effectively and to practice good farming methods and post handling methods. The drought resistant seeds grow even when the climate is dry and this sustains food production even in times of no rainfall. 53 Table 4 showing the quantity of seeds sold by Victoria seeds Ltd in the year 2010 Type of seeds Quantity (kilograms) Beans 199,210.60 Groundnuts 56,920.75 Maize 435,917 Rice 33,828 Vegetables (cabbages, tomatoes, onions etc) 18,875.046 Sorghum 157,637 Millet 3020 Soya beans 32,727 Cawo Peas 73,334 Simsim 1180 Sunflower 6903 Pasteur seed 3815.50 Passion fruits 4080 Green Gram 5600 Total 1,033,048 6.2 Water Harvesting and Irrigation Some of the companies have a mixture of products that include water harvesting technologies and solar. Below are the companies that responded to the research interview. 6.2.1 Kenz Engineering Services Ltd. Kenz engineering services limited designs and makes solar powered irrigation pumps used to irrigate crop farms and to draw water for animals to drink at dairy farms. Kenz also designs and makes solar powered water pumps, these are used to pump water for both domestic and commercial use. The solar power is an appropriate alternative for generators that are often used for water pumping. 54 The solar powered irrigation system is slowly being embraced by commercial famers, but a lot needs to be done to increase demand and utilization. According to Kenz Construction Services Ltd in a year about two installations are done for the irrigation system and for water pumps. This is still low partly because most people in the affected areas are not aware of the innovations so they dont demand them, its also because of the cost to involve. Setting up the system is not so expensive but most famers cannot afford it, there is need to assist in co financing especially for small and medium scale famers in areas like Kasawo in Mukono district where dry spells affect farms and the floods also destroy the crops. Kenz Engineering Services Ltd received financial support from Danida for training in systems management and installation and Private sector foundation supported the company in developing business skills. 6.2.2 DAVIS and SHIRTLIFF Davis & Shirtliff trades in energy and water harvesting and irrigation products, Its product range for climate change technologies include; Solar products include; Solar lanterns, solar batteries, phone chargers, solar panels for lighting, solar panels for water pumping, solar water heaters. Solar water heaters are mostly bought by companies because they are expensive. Water harvesting products include; Water pumps powered by solar, water pumps powered by electricity, manual pumps mainly used by small famers and Borehole drilling Government and NGOs are their main clients they sponsor communities to install water pumps to do irrigation especially in Eastern and Northern Uganda. Government and NGOs are also the main clients for solar especially the lanterns and solar panels, they sponsor communities that have no electricity. Davis& Shirtliff designs and manufactures some of its products and it does not receive funding from any agency, it conducts its own research and its consulted by Universities on technical issues. According to the company, people are buying and are starting to understand 55 the available climate change innovations. The demand for solar is improving especially for water pumps, but in general people are still ignorant of what they innovations are and what they are about. Serious awareness is still needed to make people appreciate them and view them as very important technologies that help them and the environment. Challenges: i. People think solar should be cheap, therefore they feel they are being cheated when its sold expensively. Solar is sold expensively because it requires different components to make a system and each material is bought differently and therefore taxed differently. This makes it expensive to the people. ii. Some people think that a solar system can do all things that electricity can do, so its still confusing and complicated to the people Recommendations: i. Developments partners need to increase funding through community organizations to enable those who cannot afford the technologies access them especially the rural poor. ii. Government should reduce taxes on all solar components so that prices are lower. There is also need to reduce taxes on all climate change innovations. iii. Government needs to increase it funding for research in climate change innovations to Universities and other research institutions and businesses. iv. Government needs to develop a training course or institute that trains people in renewable energy especially solar. Uganda has very few technical people to handle solar and more research is needed in this area to improve the existing products in order to needs of the people in Uganda. 56 6.2.3 Crest Tank Figure 11: Poly fiber water harvesting tank Crest Tank is a company that makes water harvesting tanks in Uganda, these tanks are very popular and most homes have these tanks. Crest tank makes different types of tanks with different water harvesting technologies. It makes tanks that harvest only rainwater, those that harvest rainwater and Shallow Well Water and those that harvest Rainwater and Surface Water, those harvesting Rainwater and Mains Connection and ones that harvest Rainwater and Borehole. These tanks have different capacities, they range from 5000L to 45,000 L. The tanks are a bit expensive for an average person, however because homes and businesses need constant supply of water, crest tank has collaboration with Centenary bank through which people access finance to acquire the tanks. Crestanks Limited by proposal requested Centenary Bank to avail financial assistance to its suitable customers under a collaborative sanitation solution credit scheme through which customers can purchase water and sanitation products under the Bank's Home Improvement Loan. This has increased has improved water harvesting and storage capacity for domestic and commercial use. It helps to harvest rain water and the people are able to use the water even when there is scarcity. 57 6.3 Renewable Energy Businesses Enterprises Three companies operating renewable energy businesses were interviewed. The companies conduct business in ether solar or energy saving technologies or both. The climate change energy innovations traded by the interviewed businesses are discussed below; 6.3.1 Konserve Consult Ltd. Konserve Consult is a consultancy company and its main focus is on solar projects, Pico Hydro projects and currently Biogas. The solar products focused on include; Solar Lanterns, Phone charging solar systems, Task Lights, Solar systems that range from those that can light one light to big ones that can light a whole house and power house hold items. Konserve Consult also has Turn Key projects, these are designed and installed by the company, anexample of a product is power backup systems. So far the company has designed and installed power backups for companies like Warid Telecom, Orange Telecom and Uganda Health Marketing Group among others. Konserve Consult Conducts Energy Audits; this involves assessment of the energy consumption of different users for instance in factories, companies and institutions. Solutions for energy efficiency are provided to the audited company and appropriate equipment and technologies are recommended that reduce on the amount of energy consumed. Companies like Maganjo grain millers, Arua district Yard, Bright Chicks Limited have been audited by Konserve consult so far and this has helped in the use of energy more efficiently. The adaptation to use of energy efficient practices and technologies as a result of energy audits does not only benefit the consumer through cost saving but also avails more energy to the Electricity distribution company to supply to other users who would otherwise have used other environmentally unfriendly energy sources like petrol, diesel and kerosene that emit dangerous gases into the environment. Contract with GIZ;- Konserve Consult is contracted by GIZ on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program (PREEP) which GIZ is implementing with the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. The program is aimed at increasing solar utilization especially in rural areas. Through this program, Konserve is contracted to ; Train people in the targeted community about solar, its importance and how to use it, they install solar systems for the 58 targeted homes and businesses and provide solar lanterns to the sponsored community. Work on this program has been done in West Nile and Lango region. Konserve is contracted by the private sector foundation to train business people on energy efficiency and use of solar. Konserve was also contracted by SNV to offer technical support in the biogas project implemented by SNV. This is a cost sharing project that SNV is implementing in partnership with Heifer International. Konserve provides support on construction and training on how the system works and should be maintained. Konserve Consult also works with solar dealers, it provides technical and business training to solar dealers. It also links people to the hardware sellers as well as financial institutions where they can get solar loans like Post Bank and Finca which have been qualified by government to offer solar loans with a government subsidy. Pico Hydro: Konserve also provides technical assistance and advice in the development of pico hydro projects especially in the rural areas. Konserve has a big presence in the whole country, it has done work in all regions of in the country and its services are being extended to many more places in the country. Through its dealers Konserve has extended its products and services to DR Congo and Southern Sudan. Konserve faces some challenges in its operation some of them are listed below; i. Funding for renewable energy projects is still very low in Uganda and this is partly hindering development of more products their utilization. Konserve engages in research, the ideas, experts and designs are present but the funds to facilitate their development and dissemination are limited. Konserve would also like to do bigger hydro projects, but with limited funds this is currently not possible. With available funds Konserve would also like to expand its focus to other renewable projects like biomass, solar, hydro and biogas. ii. There is still a lot ignorance about solar by people, and this limits demand for solar products. Some people do not understand that solar is a whole system, some think its just the panel. This makes marketing the technology challenging. Therefore there is still a 59 serious awareness gap that still needs to be filled if the utilization of solar is to increase among the people. iii. Solar products are still expensive compared to what the majority of the people can afford, this limits demand for the products. There is need to reduce taxes on the solar products in order to reduce the cost of materials needed and installation. Otherwise if solar hardware that make a solar system continue being that expensive, there are chances that the demand for it will not increase much given the income levels of the majority of the population. iv. The fake products on the market are making it difficult for the genuine solar businesses to work. Majority of the people go for the cheaper products which are usually fake, this makes businesses with genuine products appear too expensive and cheats. The fake products cause the system to break down easily which brings a bad reputation on the use of solar as a source of energy and it causes people to shun it. A lot of awareness is needed to help people understand how solar works and how to avoid fake products and installations. v. Some places are too remote, doing business with them is almost impossible unless government intervenes. 60 6.3.2 Solar Energy for Africa (SEFA) Figure 12: Some of solar energy product sold by SEFA Solar Energy For Africa Ltd (SEFA Ltd) is a private company dealing in the procurement, selling, installing, maintaining and servicing all types of solar energy/power systems, equipment and appliances in Uganda in particular, and the East African region in general. The companys only specialty is the Solar PV Business, and has had a long term leading role and experience in the development of the Solar Power Industry in Uganda. The Company has initiated and implemented several Solar PV Projects related to the use and application of Solar Power / Electricity, something that has created a strong foundation for the development of the Solar PV Industry/Business in Uganda. The companys main goal is to provide the rural communities, with relevant and reliable Solar Power Systems, and to offer a country-wide service through the Operation Network to provide the highly and critically needed local Solar PV services and technical back-up to the solar energy end-users. 6.4 Energy Saving and Energy Efficient Technologies 6.4.1 Prime Energy and Energy Conservation (PEES) PEES is a company that focuses on developing energy saving and energy efficient products. The companys main focus is biomass (technologies that save charcoal and firewood) and the main aim is to reduce carbon emissions. PEESs focus is mainly on biomass because about 80% of the population in Uganda either use charcoal or firewood as sources of fuel, and this has put pressure on the forests from which the fuel comes from. 61 PEES designs and develops and markets its products, the company engages in research to improve the efficiency, energy saving and emissions of the stoves, through research new products are continuously developed. The products developed are for users, like institutions and homes, some are fixed while others are mobile. Products developed include; i. Fixed firewood Institutional and domestic rocket stove Figure 13: Fixed firewood Institutional rocket stove This modern firewood saving stove is based on the rocket combustion technology. It saves between 60-70% of firewood compared to a traditional three stone fireplace. Its durable, cooks faster, affordable and its almost smokeless. This type of stove is also designed for domestic use. 62 ii. Mobile Institutional Rocket Figure 14: Mobile Institutional Rocket Stove This type of stove is more appropriate for institutions that do not have permanent kitchens. It can be safely moved from storage to cooking place and back. This type is designed for a fixed size saucepan, it also uses rocket combustion system and its almost smokeless. It also saves the same amount of energy as the fixed, and it cooks faster. iii. Fixed Institutional and Domestic charcoal stove Figure 15: Fixed Institutional and Domestic charcoal stove 63 This stove can work well for institutions and homes, it is efficient up to 60%-70% of firewood, its 100% smokeless and its less expensive. This is best where firewood is less available like in urban centers. iv. Saw Dust/Cow dung mobile rocket stove; This type of stove can be used well where saw dust and cow dung are available. v. Mobile domestic charcoal saving stoves: Figure 16: Domestic charcoal energy saving stove This is made out of assorted clay types stabilized to retain heat for a long time, it accommodates a saucepan of any diameter and it saves. It also uses briquettes and banana stems. This stove saves about 60-70% of charcoal and it cooks faster. vi. There is also another type of stove, the free size type of stove it is a Chinese stove, it saves up to 67% of energy, but when locally redesigned it saves up to 80% of charcoal because it allows the use of ash. This type of saves times and cooks food that takes long cook better, people in restaurants use it well. This type of stove also comes in two types, one is a free size, it allows a saucepan of any diameter, and the other is immersion. The saucepan is fitted in the stove, this one saves up to 80% of fuel but it limits the size of saucepan to be used. 64 vii. Anti hill stove This one is purely local, it works well in areas where there are small anthills. The anthill is dug out, a hole is made in the it, and small holes are put in it. This stove saves more energy than all the other stoves. viii. A fixed commercial /domestic oven Its an energy saving wood/charcoal fuel baking oven, it is almost smoke less, it also energy efficient. It can be built with over four boxes. Each box produces 148 pieces of bread I kg family size per 30 minutes. It has been built for a business in Arua and its doing so well. A mobile oven with similar features and functionality like the fixed one is also made. These ovens have no smoke at all ix. Fixed Modern Rubbish Incinerator: This one also uses the rocket combustion technology, it is well insulated, the heat inside is very high and it allows complete combustion therefore there is no smoke that comes out. Where there is complete combustion, the emissions are reduced. It can even burn plastic and no smoke is released from the incinerator. It is ideal for schools, hospitals and other institutions. There is one built at Roka Bond Compound in Juba. To sell these products, PEES conducts demonstrations in areas where they target to sell the stoves. Most people are ignorant of the importance of using the new stoves as opposed to the traditional technology they are used to. Demonstrations are used as a marketing technique; people are showed how the stoves cook faster compared to the traditional ones. Real cooking takes place and the food is timed and the firewood or charcoal used is measured, PEES stoves always cook faster and save more. In one demonstration PEES can sell up to 500 stoves in a few days compared to other people selling stoves in the same place. PEES sell better the through demonstration. 65 GIZ contracts PEES to make energy saving stoves for the communities in the upcountry. As part of its PREEP project, GIZ contracts PEES to make stoves for the community and institutions. GIZ supports PEES to test the efficiency of the stoves and ensure that they are save a reasonable amount of energy. The company has so far built institutional stoves in 35 districts, last year 114 rocket stoves were built in schools and hospitals with support from GIZ. Thousands of domestic mobile stoves been made for GIZ and are sold to the community at a subsidized cost. PEES is also contracted by NGOs to train people in community to make stoves. The company was contracted by Joint Energy and Energy Environment projects (JEEP) to train people to make energy saving stoves, how to use them and the advantage they have over other types of stoves. PEES through JEEP conducted trainings in over 15 districts in Uganda. PEES receives different support from different partners to sell its products ie. GIZ buys the products in large quantities, NGOs hire the company to make stoves for them and train the people to make them and National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) recommends the company for Jobs at the local government. Table5 showing PEES sales for the different stove for the last two years Year Fixed Institutional Rocket Stoves Mobile Institutional Rocket stoves Domestic mobile rocket stoves Fixed Rocket baking ovens Mobile Rocket baking Ovens Fixed charcoal stoves Mobile Charcoal stoves Kiln/ Incinerators Barbecue 2010 97 8 224 4 8 42 14,450 2 6 2011 8 0 43 0 1 10 3,200 0 1 In its work PEES has experience some challenges and these include; i. It is still difficult to measure carbon emissions because there is no testing lab or equipment PEES knows about. Although it can test efficiency and energy saved, Its still a challenge to measure carbon emissions. 66 ii. Changes in the prices of materials used to make the products affect the price of the stoves, when the prices keep increasing people look at them as expensive and they dont buy. iii. Currently most of the work being done is done manually, PEES lacks machinery that would increase production and the quality of its products, some of the machinery is not in Uganda. iv. Without demonstrations its difficult for people to buy because their knowledge of the energy saving stoves is still very poor. However the demonstrations require money to organize. v. PEES has never received funding , yet without enough financing it is difficult to increase the product line , buy machinery and engage in continuous research to improve and increase products and production. vi. There are many similar products on the market that are not good enough, this affects demand for the products since people think they are fake, thats why PEES uses demonstrations to prove quality of the product. 6.5 Private Sector Foundation Private sector Foundation is body that brings together different private sector players and its meant to promote private sector performance. Private sector has the BUDS -ETR Program which is meant to develop private sector capacity to start, improve and operate rural electrification. This program is a component under the ministry of energy and Mineral Resources. The program offers support for only renewable energy, supports private companies in four different ways; Business Development Services; Business development services are offered to companies that are engaged in renewable energy, but its on a cost sharing basis. Private sector contributes 50% of the cost and the company 50%.Business development services offers include; Development of feasibility studies, Writing the business plans, financial advice, Legal advice, Social Safeguard among others. This is offered to companies that apply and its implemented on a cost sharing basis. 67 Photovoltaic support: PSFU supports companies that are or have invested in solar. In addition to providing business development services companies that what to buy solar systems or invest or improve their solar businesses are supported to access finance to acquire solar loans. Private sector Foundation is currently working with Uganda Electricity Credit Capitalisation Company Ltd, which lends to financial institutions that provide financial services for solar. Through this company the government gives 30% subsidy to the solar loan. People, who get solar loans from the qualified banks, get a 30% subsidy. This makes the loan for solar less expensive. Currently only two banks have qualified for this scheme i.e Post Bank and Finca, Centenary Bank is almost getting the required qualification. All the qualified banks are widely spread in the whole country so its easier for people to access them. So far Private Sector Foundation has supported over 30 solar companies since 2002 with about 9 million dollars worth of grants. 23solar standards have been developed by the Uganda National Bureau of Standards, supported by the Private Sector Foundation. Utility Operators Performance Improvement program Private sector Foundation offers support to Utility operators in the electrification e.g, companies that are involved in setting up connection facilities. In areas where there is no electricity connection, the utility company mobilizes the people to pool money together and bring electricity connection in the area. When people have agreed, the utility company writes to Uganda Rural Electrification Authority, and then later Utility Company writes to the private sector that people are ready. Private sector supports the community members to access loans from financial institutions to pay the utility operator. This process makes it cheaper for the community to access electricity. Energy Efficiency program: This program provides output based support to Small and Medium Enterprises with demand greater than 100kva and operating at or below 0.75 power factor. The company has to improve its power factor to not below 0.89. After the company has reached that level of efficiency 50% of the money used is compensated by the private sector. 68 The activities that are supported include; Energy audits, costs of improving power factor, monitoring, verification. The BUDS-ERT program also provides funds for energy research for instance it supporting Research in solar for. BUDS-ERT program also supports mini hydro business. They are provided with business advisory services, they are supported to conduct feasibility studies and to write business plans. They are also provided with Legal advice. BUDS- ERT program has so far offered support to about 8 mini hydro businesses. The private sector Foundation has experienced some challenges and these include; The BUDS-ERT program is funded by the World Bank and it has its targets and specific focus, with more funding other renewable energies will be promoted. With more funding Private sector Foundation is in position to support many more private companies investing in renewable energies and energy saving technologies. However, private sector foundation still has to do more awareness about its program for the businesses to access that support. Although private sector Foundation has benefited many companies since its inception and efforts have been made to create awareness about private sector program, many businesses are still not aware of the available support especially for renewable energy. 6.6 Development Partners 6.6.1 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialized agency of the United Nation that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. Its mandate is to promote and accelerate sustainable industrial development in developing countries and economies in transition, and work towards improving living conditions in the world's poorest countries by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise. UNIDOs are based on two core functions: as a global forum, it generates and disseminates industry-related knowledge, as a technical cooperation 69 agency, it provides technical support and implements projects. Among others UNIDO focuses on fostering environmental sustainability in industry, and improving access to energy. 6.6.2 Uganda Cleaner Production Center Uganda Cleaner Production Centre (UCPC), hosted by Uganda Industrial Research Institute (UIRI) at Nakawa, is a joint project of the Government of Uganda and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). It was established in October 2001 with the main objective of UCPC is to introduce Cleaner Production practices to enterprises in Uganda in order to help companies reduce operating costs through increased overall efficiency, especially in the use of materials and energy. Through cleaner production, enterprises are assisted to improve their environmental performance, while at the same time, fostering improved competitiveness and profitability. The major programmes at the Centre include the Eco-Benefits Programme, CP financing, eco-design and product innovation and ISO 14001 certification. The Centre operates under the guidance of an Executive Board and an Advisory Board, whose membership is derived from key national stakeholders in private sector, government, research institutions and industrial associations are represented. Some of the areas and sectors covered include but not limited to:- i. Pulp and Paper manufacturing ii. Metal industries steel rolling mills and hoe manufacturing iii. Service sector 45 hotels in Uganda iv. Food Processing -Breweries, Fruit processors, Milk processors, Fish processors all in Uganda and some beverage companies in Rwanda, Tea processors, Poultry processors in Uganda v. Meat processing industries vi. Chemicals and Battery manufacturing Industry in Uganda vii. Textile - Phoenix Logistics (Uganda),UTEXRWA(Rwanda) viii. Introduction of cleaner production in Maseru(Lesotho) ix. Schools and hospitals. 70 The role of Uganda Cleaner Production Centre is to promote the Cleaner Production strategy in enterprises and government policies, in harmony with local conditions, and to develop local capacity to create and meet Cleaner Production demand throughout the country. UCPCs aim primarily to transfer know-how, not just to transfer technology. The Center and the Cleaner Production assessors trained by them do not deliver ready-made solutions. They train and advise their clients on how to find the best solutions for their specific problems. Other activities undertaken by the centers typically fall under the following categories: awareness raising, information exchange, education and training, commitment & partnership building, policy advice & development, technical assistance. Case Studies where cleaner production climate change innovations have been adopted; 6.6.2.1 Kakira Sugar Works Kakira Sugar works is now producing Electricity and biogas from its sugar waste. Kakira Sugar works produces a lot of bagasse a residue got from processing sugar, before it was burnt openly and released fumes that were dangerous to the environment. Cleaner production introduced to them a technology which allows them to turn the bagasse into electricity. Before it cost them $400,000 to manage bagasse, but after introducing an innovation that turns waste into clean energy Kakira is earning from the same waste 3 times more than it used to spent to dispose it off, and its now using cleaner energy that is not affecting the environment. Kakira sugar works now produces electricity and it is selling to the main grid. It has managed to reduce costs of production, increase profits and protect the environment. The bagasse is also used as a fuel to heat boilers. When the bagasse is heated it releases steam and the steam turns turbines which produce electricity. Kakira Sugar is a major success story in clean energy utilization and utilization. It is possible that it can qualify as a CDM project because its carbon, missions have reduced a great deal. Kakira Sugar works is also a member of the Innovations Systems and cluster program at the faculty of technology Makerere University. It belongs to the biofuel cluster and its a major contributor to knowledge transfer to other companies with in the same cluster. 71 6.6.2.2 Kayonza Tea Factory Kayonza Tea Factory is another company that has adopted clean energy innovations with the help of the cleaner production center. Kayonza adopted the petrotec technology that reduces emissions from the generator. By the time Cleaner production approached Kanyonza tea factory, the factory had no access to electricity from grid so they relied solely on thermo generators. The generator consumes 80Litres /hr and it worked 24 hours, so the emissions were enormous. As a mitigation measure the petrotec technology was fixed on the generators, it controls the amount of fuel that is used by the generator at a given time. With this technology fuel consumption by one generator was reduced significantly from 80L/hr to 22L/hr, it saves 499 million liters of fuel in a year. This has greatly reduced the companys carbon emissions per year. Kayonza also uses fire wood especially in drying and blowing the tea, but a wood fuel saving technology was introduced to them that increases the amount of tea produced using the same amount of wood. Before 358Kg of tea were produced per cubic meter of wood, with the introduction of the wood fuel saving innovations they now make 680Kg per cubic meter of firewood. This means more tea is made out of the same piece wood. Particular wood energy saving innovations that were adopted include; 1. The practice of wood storage was changed to ensure that all wood is used in its right time to avoid wastage. Before all wood was piped together in the same heap, the heap was always refilled leaving the wood below unused for a long time. The innovation that was introduced was more a practice of good storage. A practice of seasoning the wood was introduced. The wood is marked to show date of delivery and when it must be used up. This allows the wood to dry well and it reduces wastage of wood. When wood is well dried it burns fully and the smoke released is also reduced. 2. When the firewood is burnt they make sure that heat loss is reduced, this is done by controlling the air at the inlet where the wood is burnt from. This allows the wood fuel to burn to completely hence complete combustion. Before the air was not controlled so the firewood would not burn completely, it would waste the amount of wood used. 72 3. When the boilers are heated the hot air form the boiler is not left to go, its tapped and recycled into the inlet and it heats up again. 4. The pipes are lagged to prevent heat loss during distribution; this ensures that the steam produced at the boiler reaches the desired destination before turning into water. Steam turns the turbines better if it has more power, therefore the insulation helps it to remain strong to avoid repeating the process. This technology is similar to gasification and it can also produce electricity. 5. Before, the wood backs were thrown away as solid waste, but as a way of reducing the amount of wood used, they were well dried and used as fuel, the sawdust that was thrown away before is also used for fuel. Currently the wood is optimally used and this reduced the amount of wood needed in the production of the tea. Cleaner production center has introduced many clean energy innovations to a number of companies and this is helping to reduce carbon emissions. However, apart from the technical innovations a lot of good practice innovations are promoted by the Cleaner production. Good practices in terms of procedure, management and utilization can contribute 60% of the success in reducing carbon emissions and environment protection. It also reduces cost of production and leads to efficiency. Good technologies that lead to good manufacturing practices are also very important, for instance manufacturers using the right mortar and the right load to reduce consumption and carbon emissions. Other practices like switching off the motor when not in use are also important. 6.6.3 GIZ GIZ- Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program Uganda (PREEEP) Since August 2007, energy has been one of the three focal areas of the Ugandan Bilateral development Cooperation. Main part of the cooperation is the PREEEP, which is being implemented on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) with co-financing form the Dutch Government and ACP-EU Energy facility. It works closely with all relevant Ugandan stakeholders (the Government, NGOs, private Sector, the media, and training and research institutions) on developing sustainable energy 73 policies, improving energy efficiency and widening access to modern energy in rural areas. Along with policy advisory the program has three main components; biomass, rural electrification and energy efficiency. It is cooperating closely with KFW, DED and CIM, Agcographical focus is northern Uganda. The program supports through training, demonstration and implementation of projects the dissemination of improved stoves, micro hydro power, Solar PV systems and energy efficient measures. Significant emphasis is given to awareness raising and capacity building. As a result of the program, until mid 2009 nearly 600,000 improved stoves have been disseminated as well as about 70 institutions have been equipped with solar PV system. Overall Objective is to provide access to modern energy services and make existing energy use more sustainable. Component 1 of the Energy Policy focus on building capacity of Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development to promote the sustainable development of the energy sector. Policy reforms like; Adoption of petroleum supply Act (2003) Renewable energy policy including feed- in tariffs (2007) Efficiency of sector coordination increased through establishment of sector working group. Status: June 2009 Component Two Improved Biomass technologies. Improved access to efficient biomass technologies for households, Small Medium Enterprises and Social Institutions. Impact 600,000 households 10% of national population use improved cooking stoves, thus spend less time and money collecting or buying firewood and benefit from reduced indoor air pollution, reduced firewood consumption 900,000 t/year. Component Three: Energy Efficiency 74 Its focus is to improve access to energy efficient technologies for households, Small Medium Enterprises and social institutions. Impact so far: 50 experts capable of conducting energy audits, Increased awareness on ways of reducing energy consumption among the public industries. Energy bills of seven (7) companies and 20, SMEs reduced by 10% and 20% respectively. Component Four Rural Electrification: The objective is to have improved access to electricity for households, Small Medium Enterprises and Social Institutions. Impact so far is: 2,200 households use solar energy for lighting, phone charging and other purposes. 67 social institutions provided with solar systems improved their services. 2 micro hydropower plants built 7 Financial Institutions Some Financial institutions have established collaboration with government and some companies to give loans for acquisition of Solar products and water harvesting technologies. Below are the financial institutions and the collaboration packages explained. 7.1 Centenary Bank Ltd. Crestanks Limited by proposal requested Centenary Bank to avail financial assistance to its suitable customers under a collaborative sanitation solution credit scheme through which customers can purchase water and sanitation products under the Bank's Home Improvement 75 Loan. This loan is affordable and payment terms are favorable to the people who acquire them, this encourages people to but more tanks. 7.2 Post Bank Ltd The government of Uganda has a solar financing program where it gives 30% subsidy to the solar loan acquired for individual use or businesses. Banks have to be qualified to receive the subsidy, so far only two banks have been qualified to be part of the scheme. Post bank Ltd and FINCA Ltd are the only two banks that are qualified and Centenary bank is almost completing the qualification process to become the third bank on the scheme. All the participating banks have a good presence in most of the districts in Uganda and this makes it easier for people to access the loan. This has increased the demand for solar products but more solar focused awareness is required to interest people in using solar as a source of energy. Post bank has financed 500 solar systems since the beginning of the project in 2009. Post bank stated some challenges it has encountered in the implementation of the solar project and some include; i. People have negative perceptions about solar and no deliberate effort has been made to address this challenge. There is also general lack of knowledge of how the system works and all this is hindering the demand for solar products. ii. Solar products are expensive to be easily afforded by the poor families. The smallest solar system goes for about Ug sh600,000 this cannot easily be afforded by the bigger population, there is need to reduce the costs of the system to ensure cost effectiveness. This can be done by sourcing for cheaper but good quality solar products that can be afforded by people. Subsizing the products can also help to reduce the cost of the systems and can help to increase demand. The expensive solar systems have hindered demand for the systems. iii. There is a challenge with the auditing system, it has gaps that compromise the quality of the system supplied. The auditor can easily connive with the supplier and supply substandard products. This also causes a fall in the demand for the products. 76 iv. The fact that the solar project is being run as a project also hinders continuous supply of loans for the solar systems because of the breaks. 8 Analysis and Discussion of Results Figure 17: Knowledge institutions conducting research climate change innovations Eight Higher institutions of Learning were approached to find out whether they had climate change research going on or any that is in progress. It was discovered that only 25% of these institutions actually had climate change focused research, the remaining 75% were not involved in climate change research and had no climate innovations. Most of the research was concentrated at Makerere University where different faculties have engaged in climate change research and have come up with innovations that are helpful in climate change adaptation and mitigation. According to the research findings, the universities engaged in research are all government Universities, private universities that were targeted had no climate focused research. Therefore this shows that although climate change is has become a major threat to the world, the academia has not given it the required attention to ensure that its effects are reduced or prevented. There is need to interest the academia to get more involved in climate change research and Innovations. 77 Figure 18: Innovations done in institutions of higher learning and used for business Knowledge and Research organizations were asked how many of the climate innovations developed at the institutional level are actually disseminated to business. Results showed that only 5.30% innovations are actually disseminated to businesses and 94.7% are not. The study found out that there are a lot of climate change innovations in the areas of energy, water harvestings, seeds, pest control among others, but the challenge is that most of this research have not yet been translated into business. This is partly because of the limited collaboration that exists between businesses and Knowledge institutions. Faculty of technology at Makerere University through the Innovations Systems Cluster Program an outreach program of the faculty has developed a strong collaboration between businesses and Academia to facilitate knowledge and technology transfer. This program has helped a lot to trickle down innovations from the University to the businesses, but as stated in the research findings above, only three clusters of the 30 clusters that are part of the program are doing something related to climate change. This shows the focus on climate change innovations is still small and there is need to have focus on promoting climate change innovations and encourage businesses to get more involved in the climate change innovation businesses with the support of the Knowledge institutions. This will facilitate the flow of research findings down to businesses and then businesses will promote the products on the market. 78 Center for Energy and Energy Conservation CREEC, also at the Faculty of technology has conducted a lot of relevant research in Energy. CREEC has established a link with businesses through training people how to make and use the innovations. However, this collaboration needs to be strengthened and supported to ensure that the innovations that have been approved are being translated into business. This will help to reduce the amount innovations at institutions that are not being used by the people who need them. Figure 19: Type of support the entrepreneurs receive Climate change entrepreneurs were asked about the type of support they have received before to support their businesses. As its shown in the figure above, 23% said they have received financial support to improve their performance, only 15% have received technical support through advise and guidance, 1% received machinery, 22% received technical training, 22% have received business training and 57% have never received support to boost their businesses. This presentation shows that the level of support to climate change businesses is still low. 57% of the targeted businesses have not received support to boost their businesses. Entrepreneurship in climate change innovations is still new to Uganda, although the need is obvious, the demand for these products is still low and the materials/products are still expensive. Businesses selling climate change innovations need a lot of support to be able to stay in the market and increase 79 their market share. They need technical support, both in form of training and machinery, financial support to engage more in research and to improve performance, business skills to position their businesses better and also support in form of awareness to the communities about climate change and its effects. With increased support businesses are in position to promote climate change innovations more and interest people to use them. Increased support to businesses is highly recommended if climate change innovations are to be promoted. Government also needs to increase its support in terms of reduction on the taxes of the climate change products like irrigation systems, products that make energy saving and efficient technologies and solar products. If these products continue being expensive due to high taxes, their potential utilization in future is questioned, given the income levels of majority of the people in Uganda. Government offers some support like subsidy on solar loans and supporting famers to acquire irrigation systems, this has helped some famers but only a few can benefit at a time because of financial constraints. Reduction of taxes on the products will create a big difference in the climate innovation business. Figure 20: Form of Marketing used by businesses The Entrepreneurs were asked how they market their products to establish the most effective form of marketing for the innovations. As shown by the graph 29% market their products 80 through the internet, exhibitions and through posters and billboards. 8% use TV or radio and 5% use demonstrations. Most of companies that were interviewed at least have a website, a poster, a brochure and attend exhibitions; however two companies said they also use practical demonstration of how the product works. Although its the least form of marketing used by companies it was found to be the most effective in selling the innovations. Prime Energy and Environment Savers Limited (PEES), use this form of selling and the demand for its products is currently higher than supply. Demonstrations allow people to see the practicality of the innovation, they get convinced and then buy, but otherwise without demonstrations it is difficult to sell. Therefore, since the knowledge of the people about climate change innovations is still low, demonstrations is a good marketing strategy for businesses to sell. However, it requires support for it to be done effectively, this could be done with the help of civil society organizations who meet with community regularly. Figure 21: Collaboration 81 The graph above shows the collaboration that exists between the climate change entrepreneurs and other stakeholders. The study shows that 41.7% of businesses collaborate with government in their work, 75% have collaborations with development partners, 16.7% have collaborations with research and knowledge institutions and 8.3% have collaborations with civil society organizations. From the research findings the collaboration of businesses with government is not so good. The businesses that stated collaborations with government said the government invites them for exhibitions, recommends them for work and contracts them to do government work. The government Ministry that has most collaboration with businesses is the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. The ministry has an active collaboration with businesses and involves them in the government work. However this collaboration needs to be strengthened to include technical support and Research. The biggest collaboration is with development partners, partners like GIZ are working with businesses to promote work in renewable energy. GIZ works with a number of businesses engaged in renewable energy mainly contracting them to offer services. GIZ helps the entrepreneurs to test the stoves. UNIDO through the Uganda Cleaner Production center is supporting companies to adopt energy saving and efficient technologies to reduce emissions and cutting trees. However, there is need for development partners to support businesses to acquire machinery to increase efficiency and production, engage in the necessary research, and increase awareness for their products in order to increase demand. Collaboration with academic& Research institutions is so low at 16.7%, this shows limited flow of research from the high Institutions of learning and research institutes to the businesses. A lot of research has been done and innovations are in place but because there are poor collaborations with businesses it remains unutilized. Therefore there is need to improve collaboration of the academia & Research institutions with climate change entrepreneurs. This collaboration if strengthened will allow innovations at research level to be integrated into business, once on the market people will become more aware of them and start adopting them. The collaboration of businesses with civil society organizations is the least yet these organizations are the ones that get in touch with the community. All businesses interviewed 82 stated that there is still a knowledge gap among the people, they have not yet understood these innovations, how they work and their benefit to the people and the community. With this challenge in place, businesses cannot afford to work alone to promote the innovations. They need to develop a strong collaboration with civil society organizations to create awareness about the climate change innovations in place. Figure22: Proposed areas of intervention to businesses The climate change entrepreneurs stated a number of challenges they are faced with in conducting business. They highlighted the interventions that they need to improve their businesses which are shown in Figure 23 above. As shown above, 58.3% stated that they need automation. Most of the businesses that are into manufacturing like Prime Energy and Environment Savers (PEES) and Konserve Consult do their work manually, this affects efficiency in production and the quality of the products. Because of manual production sometimes the demand is higher than supply especially for the energy saving stoves, therefore the businesses need the relevant machinery to improve production. 83 83.3% said they need funds for research, some of these businesses engage in research to improve their products and to come with new products. Companies like Davis and Shirtliff, PEES, Konserve consult, Victoria Seeds, Crest tanks among others engage in research but their research is constrained by limited funds especially for the small businesses. There is need for development partners and government to fund their research in order to improve the products. It is important to support research by climate change entrepreneurs because they are on the ground, they easily identify the research needs and they get feedback from the people they sell to. Therefore their research is focused on the real needs of the community and the innovations they develop are relevant to the current needs. 100% of the climate change entrepreneurs said that they need intervention in awareness creation about climate change, its effects and how the climate change innovations help to improve the environment. The biggest challenge all the entrepreneurs face is that majority of the population has not yet understood the concept of climate change therefore they dont see why they need to adapt to climate change innovations. Climate change entrepreneurs believe when the people are sensitized and made aware of climate change effects and the technologies available for utilization, then they will find reason to buy the innovations. But without people understanding the concept of climate change, how it is affecting their livelihood, how the use of some traditional methods contributes to increased climate change effects, it will take a long time before people find the climate change innovations relevant. 83.3% of the respondents said that they need reduction in taxes. Taxes on the climate change materials and products are still very high. Taxes on solar components are high this makes solar system and products expensive to the public. This explains why the major clients for solar businesses are the development partners, government and civil society organizations. In addition to inadequate awareness about solar, most people cannot afford the systems so they avoid them. Most of the people who have acquired solar products especially in the rural areas have been supported by development partners, government and civil society organizations, but this has no business sustainability. There is need to reduce taxes, and increase awareness so that people buy these products. 84 The materials used for making energy efficient stoves are also expensive and this makes the final products expensive. The irrigation systems are also expensive for small and medium famers to acquire yet government cannot support all due to limited resources. Therefore there is need to reduce taxes on the climate change products and the materials that make them so that locally made products and the imported ones are affordable. 75% of the respondents want business skills to improve their ability to run their businesses, have proper financial management systems as well as improve marketing of their products. Private sector Foundation has a scheme that provides business skills training; more funding is needed to target more businesses. 9 Conclusion and Recommendations 9.1 Conclusion (i) The study concluded that all the climate innovations surveyed do assist in adapting to climate change effects for example drought resistant seed and crop varieties, water harvesting and irrigation and energy, tree planting and climate change monitoring. (ii) Uganda has a lot of climate change innovations both local and foreign but most of the people who are supposed to use them have not yet understood their relevance and this has affected their demand. (iii)Although policy frameworks do exist like the renewable energy Policy they have not been fully implemented and therefore do not adequately address the issues of climatic change innovations, support and dissemination of climate change innovations at entrepreneurship level. There is no climate change policy in place yet, therefore there is no policy framework through which the National Adaptation Plans are being implemented and this affects entrepreneurs. (iv) Several knowledge institutions have documented research in different areas that mitigate and adapt to climate change like energy efficiency and energy saving technologies, water efficient seed/crop varieties, water harvesting technologies and irrigation systems, but have not successfully disseminated their finding and therefore have not been able to successfully transform their innovations into business. 85 (v) Some climate change innovations like energy saving technologies have been promoted by civil society organizations but very few of these organizations are working with businesses to promote the innovations in place. The collaboration between businesses and civil society organizations is still very weak yet if strengthened can facilitate the sale of the climate change innovations. (vi) It was also concluded that support to climate change entrepreneurs i.e., technological support, marketing, financial support for research is still very minimal yet this entrepreneurial focus is still young. The entrepreneurs are struggling to break through in the market, and to be sustainable. The marketing models are still not well established, most of them are relying more on the development partners, government and civil society clientele yet this is not sustainable. They need to develop sustainable marketing models that are not dependent on support organizations but those that directly attract individual customers. Therefore a lot of work needs to be done in this area to ensure business sustainability of climate change entrepreneurs. This involves models that interest and lure the general public to demand for the innovations, but they need support in this area for it to be realized. (vii) In Uganda, the issue of climate change in general has not been given the due focus it deserves. Its effects are so bad but compared to other issues like HIV/AIDS, climate change has not been well prioritized yet its effects are very devastating and not discriminative, they affect everyone. 9.2 Recommendations From the conclusions discussed below are the recommendations; (i.) There is need to strengthen the link between the business and research & Knowledge institutions in order to transfer the innovations developed at research level form the Institutions to the businesses. This link is very important because climate change innovations are technical and scientific in nature therefore not everyone can engage without proper knowledge of how they operate, otherwise the products come out fake. Due to the technical nature of the business the link is very important and development partners can facilitate this process. This way the quality of the products will be assured 86 and with proper quality the people get the confidence to buy. This will eventually increase demand. (ii.) It is highly recommended that awareness about climate change is strongly created. People have not yet understood climate change as a concept, they see the changes in weather but they dont understand the science, they dont even know how they are contributing to the changes. It is therefore difficult to expect people to buy the climate change innovations when they have not even understood climate change as a concept. This explains why businesses are struggling to sell to individuals and mainly relying on the support organizations. Development partners, civil society organizations and businesses can work together collaboratively to create awareness about climate change and the innovations available they can use to mitigate climate change or adapt to it. People also need to understand their contribution to climate change, its effects and what they need to do to reduce the effects. After they have understood then they will find reason to buy the innovations hence increase in demand and utilization. (iii.) All stake holders including government development partners, civil society organizations, academia the private sector and individuals need to give climate change the focus and attention it deserves. (iv.) There is need for increased support to the climate change businesses in form of machinery, technical training to improve skill and quality of products, financial support for research, business skills including sustainable marketing and business models. (v.) Climate change entrepreneurs need to be supported to develop marketing models that lead to business sustainability. For most of these entrepreneurs, support organizations are their major clients as opposed to the general population. Climate change is an issue that affects everyone, therefore the entrepreneurs need to be supported to develop business and marketing models that can cause the general population to appeal their innovations. People need to be convinced that climate change innovations are a priority, and then they will buy. 87 (vi.) The entrepreneurs that responded use different marketing models, but the demonstration marketing model used by Prime Energy and Environment savers (PEES) is highly recommended as the model that can lead to business sustainability. According to the executive director of the company, the amount of sales the company makes through demonstrations are very high. People are showed how the energy saving stoves work and how they have an advantage over the traditional ones most people use. This is done practically therefore people get to see how the new stoves cook better than the other, after they are convinced majority of the people buy and they make referrals for others to buy. However, he said that without demonstrations its difficult to sell as many stoves. This marketing model can be adopted by different entrepreneurs and modified to suite different climate change innovations. Figure 23: Demonstration for institutional energy saving stove by Prime Energy and Environment Savers (vii.) The work done by the Uganda Cleaner production center, i.e. to support businesses to adopt climate innovations like energy efficient technologies and technologies that reduce carbon emissions is highly recommended. Entrepreneurs from all fields of business need to adopt the utilization of climate change innovations that increase energy efficiency reduce carbon emission and reduce tree cutting. If these 88 innovations are promoted and adapted by the businesses, it will contribute greatly to reduction of climate change effects because businesses are major contributors. (viii.) On Policy recommendations, the government should reduce on the taxes charged on climate change products and raw materials. According to the ministry of energy, there is zero tax on solar products, but some respondents stated that solar has different components but the components are taxed differently this makes solar products expensive to the public. This issue needs to be checked and clarified by government to avoid taxation on products that are supposed to be untaxed. The government has launched a scheme where it partners with financial institutions to acquire solar loans with a 30% subsidy provided by government. This scheme is good and has increased utilization of solar, but not all people who want to use solar want to get loans. Therefore reduction on taxes will reduce on the prices to allow people to acquire them. (ix.) The renewable energy policy highlights the technologies in place and the strategies to implement them. 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Project Funded By Lake Victoria Research (VICRES) Initiative. 92 Appendix List of Respondents No. Organization Type of organization Contact person Title 1 Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa: ASARECA Inter Governmental Institution Hezron Mogaka Manager, NRM Programme 2 United Nations Industrial Development Organization UN Organization Bruno Otto Head of UNIDO Operations in Uganda 3 Uganda Cleaner Production Services UNIDO Organization Ssebagala B M Silver Director 4 Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry & Fisheries Governmental Organization Okaasai. S. Opolot Director Crop Resources 5 Victoria Seeds Limited Agricultural Business Josephine Okot Managing Director 6 National Association for Professional Environmentalists Civil Society Organization Godfrey Kamesa 7 National Forestry Authority: Climate Change Unit Governmental Organization Paul Buyera Director Corporate Affair 8 National Forestry Authority Governmental Organization Rukondo Tom 9 National Forestry Authority Governmental Organization Sheila Kiconco 10 German Technical Cooperation (GTZ): RUWASS Development Partners Daniel Opwonya 11 German Technical Cooperation (GTZ): PREEP Development Partners Lucis Mayer 12 National Crops Resources Research Institute: Cassava Program Governmental Organization Nuwamanya Ephraim 13 NARL- Kawanda Research Institute Governmental Organization Komutuuga Everlie 14 Kyambogo University: Engineering University Dr. Ssengozi Bagenda Jerome Mechanical & Production Engineer 93 15 Uganda Industrial Research Institute: Technology Development Center Research Institution Emuria Stephen 16 Makerere University: Mechanical Engineering University Mr. Kyamanywa Sam 17 Makerere University Faculty of Technology: CREEC University Wim Getkate 18 NARO Governmental Organization Lamo Jimmy 19 Kenz Engineering Services Limited Business Charles Nkurukenzire 20 Center for Integrated Research & Community Development Uganda: CIRCODU MUK: Faculty of Technology Mr. Arinatwe M Joseph 21 Makerere University Department of Physics University Dr. Sseyonga Taddeo 22 NACRRI- Sweet potatoes Program Governmental Organization Niringiye Charles 23 Makerere University University Prof. Tickodre-Togboa 24 Makerere University University Prof. Banda 25 National Crops Resources Research Institute: Namulongo Governmental Organization Stanley T. Nkalubo 26 NARO: Agricultural Engineering & Appropriate Technology Research Center Governmental Organization Eng. Tobias Oker Research Officer 27 Joint Energy and Environment Projects Civil Society Organization Ruth Kiwanuka 28 Davis and Shirtliff Business Salome Mulondo Sales Engineer 29 Pirme Energy and Environment Savers Business Patrick Bisere Managing Director 30 Private Sector Foundation- BUDS ERT programme Private Sector Irene Bileni BUDS-ERT department 31 Konserve Consult Limited Business Abdallah Kyezira Managing Director 32 Solar Energy for Africa Business Mr. Iga Executive Director 33 African Medical and Research Foundation International African Organization Joshua Kyallo Country Director 94 34 Innovations Systems and Clusters Program Uganda MUK: Faculty of Technology Dr. Yasin Naku Nziraba Chairman, Senior Research Committee 35 Crest Tank Ltd Business 36 Mr. Mugisha NFA Acting Coordinator Plantation development 37 Byaruhanga Marice NFA Acting plantation manager, Katugu 38 Post Bank Financial Institution 37 FINCA LTD Financial Institution 95 Table 1: CDM Regulatory Framework Ref # Project Developer Project Name Type Project Site Total Investment Expected Volume of Credits per Year (tCO2E) Total Expected Volume of Credits (tCO2E) Project Developer Seeking for: Status of Project: UGD- 001 Bakojja New Wood Country Forest Plantation Co., Ltd. Industrial Wood Plantation of Pipe and Mixed Hardwood Species Sink Kagoma parish, Buwekula, Mubende District US$4,062,486 (equity: $888,570) 4,160 104,000 in 25 years and 206,500 in 50 years Purchasers of credits. PIN developed UDG- 002 Liberty Development Trust (est: 1995) Uganda Fruit Forest Initiative Sink Ssekanyonyi parish, Mityana, Mubende District US$3,000,000 1,160 44,000 in 25 years and 58,000 in 50 years both PDD drafted UDG- 003 Paul Mugambwa Nanga Farms Ltd. Sink Mbale Central Forest Reserve, Luwero US$ 3.5 Equity (US$ 1.0 M) 2,411 120,564 in 50 years Both PIN developed UDG004 Energy Systems Limited ESL, Kampala Uganda Solar PV based Rural Electrification in Uganda to abate / reduce accumulation of Carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Reduction of Carbondioxide into the atmosphere, Off grid Rural Community Development, Clean Water Supply, The whole of Uganda, with 20 upcountry Solar PV Branch Outlets, and rural community based solar PV Credit Scheme $6,500,000 50,000 500,000 in 20 Years 1. Partners to finance & develop the this CDM Project from PIN to PDD. 2. Purchaser PIN developed , and submitted to World Bank Carbon Finance Unit. Development of PDD to start soon. 96 Clean water supply to rural communities Education, Health, Tree Planting of Carbon Credits / Assets. 3. Need some finance to commence the project in 2007 UDG005 Hydromax Limited Hydromax Hydro Project Reduction Wambaya River, in the Hoima district, Western Uganda (Buseruka) 25 US$ million 41,000 575,000 tCO2equivalent of a period of 14 years both PIN developed UDG006 Mt. Elgon Hydro Power Company, Ltd Mt. Elgon Hydro Power Reduction Mbale and Kapchorwa Districts in Eastern Uganda 16 US$ million (Equity is US$4million) 25,750 515,000 for a period of 20 years both PDD developed UDG007 City Council of Kampala (KCC) Kampala Landfill to Energy Project Reduction The landfill is located about 10 km outside of Kampala, Uganda 1,890,000 US$ million 49,305 Up to a period of 14 years: 690,270 tCO2 equivalent both PIN developed UDG008 Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Ltd Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Ltd Cogeneration Project Reduction Kakira Village, Butembe County, Jinja District. Approximately 100 km east of Kampala City along the NairobiKampala Highway. 21.50 US$million (Equity is US$4.6 million) 35,136 491,904 tCO2 for a period of 14 years both PIN developed UDG009 Solar Energy Uganda Solar Energy in Uganda (PV) in Rural areas Reduction Plot 14 Wilson Road Kampala, Uganda Africa $8,200,000 (Equity is US$2 million) 17,048 170,475 tons over a ten year period. both PIN developed 97 UDG010 Kampala Jellitone Suppliers Ltd Kampala Jellitone Briquettes Reduction Kampala Nateete, Wakaliga Road 3,747 52,453 tons for a period of 14 years both PIN developed UDG011 NutriMix Feeds Ltd. Uganda Cattle Methane Reduction Project Reduction Plot 488 Block 246 Bukasa, Makindye Division, Kampala Purchasers of Credits PIN developed UDG012 The Environment Conservation Trust of Uganda (ECOTRUST) Plan Vivo Uganda Sink Plot 12 John Babiiha Avenue 1,000,000 Euros 90,000 900,000 tons over a ten year period Purchasers of Credits PIN Developed UDG13 Global Woods AG Timber Plantation in Kikonda Forest Reserve Sink Kikonda in Kiboga District US 78M 193,098 2,703,375 in 14 years. Purchasers of Credits PDD drafted UDG014 The new Forests Company Uganda UK Ltd The Namwasa Reforestation Project Sink Bukuya and Kassanda sub counties of Kassanda County of District. Mubende Current investment $5m. Planned further $ over the next 35 years. 20m Average over the next 25years: 153,000 tCO2E per year 3.9m tCO2E over 25 year period Purchasers of credits PDD in development UDG15 China Shan Sheng Industry (Uganda) Ltd (CSSIIL) International Kikagati 10MW Hydro Project Reduction Kagera River, Isingiro District US$ 25m 36,000 tCO2E 757,270 tCO2E over 21 years Funding and sale of credits finalized PDD developed UDG016 Active TIST Small Groups TIST Sink Plot 13 Iganga Road P. O. Box 1123 Jinja Purchasers of Credits PDD developed 98

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