clean diesel handbook
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DESCRIPTIONDonaldson Clean Solutions powered by the Clean.Protect.Polish concept, deliver clean fuels for optimal engine performance and minimal equipment downtime.
- DONALDSON DELIVERS Clean Fuel and Lubricant Solutions Diesel Fuel Handbook
- 1 Prelude to Fuel This booklet is written in order to share a fair part of the knowledge that Donaldson has gathered over the years both in the field as in the laboratories around the world. By spending between 2 and 3% of Donaldsons annual turnover on Research & Development (R&D), our technology, whether it is new media development, filter package or solution positioning, stands where it is today. We strive to continue this process and to invest in knowledge about fuels & oils. Knowledge that will provide us the key to the solutions of the problems you face today and most likely tomorrow. A big impact in fuel and fuel cleanliness is not only the fuel itself, but also how it is applied in new engine platforms with advanced common rail injection systems. The better we understand this continuous change, the more reliable our solutions and your machines become. The fuel booklet is written to introduce you to the world of fuels, a world that like human society is in a continuous mode of change. A world that has a profound part of what can be described as mysterious, for those who are not breathing the science day in and day out. On the next 28 pages we will reveal part of the mystery and show you a glimpse of the near future. Niko Verhaegen Development Manager Clean Fuel & Lubricant Solutions
- 2 Table of Contents Fuel Legislation PM&NOx CO2 EN590 ISO4406/99 Worldwide Fuel Charter Types of Diesel Common Diesel Fuel Biodiesel Fuel Chain Fractional Distillation Biodiesel manufacturing process Contamination How Clean Fuel Should Be - Clear and Bright ISO4406/99 Cleanliness Level Multipass Filter Testing Single vs. Multipass Common Rail Diesel Injection CRDI Clean Solutions Offer Case Studies FAQ 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 12 14 17 19 20 21 24 26
- 3 Fuel Legislation Engines have been driving our world, whether it is the engine in your car/ truck that takes you to your next adventure or the engine of a ship, plane or train that connects you with your friends, colleagues or family. Engines have made our big blue planet smaller at each leap of technology. This technology path is mostly challenged by legislation. The engine emissions regulations, whether it is on road (Euro) or offroad (Tier), are forcing Engine manufacturers to decrease the emissions and to make better & cleaner engines. What is important to notice on above graph, is that although not properly specified, the fluid cleanliness has recently been the center of attention.
- 4 The Worldwide fuel charter (undersigned by the biggest engine manufactures) was a start, however the ISO 4406/99 standard and the ISO 18/16/13 cleanliness level that features in the charter, is just a beginning. While on one hand the industry is righteously focused on a cleaner product (engine) by using cleaner products (liquid & air), the oil and gas companies developed at the beginning of the emissions norms a separate standard EN590. Unfortunately both worlds, although closely linked by product are today not speaking the same language. PM & NOx The emission standards both on and off road generally regulate the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, particulate matter (PM) or soot, carbon monoxide (CO), or volatile hydrocarbons (see carbon dioxide equivalent). CO2 The EU Directive 2009/30/EC adopted by the European Community amends sulphur content and introduces new requirements to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of energy supplied for road transportation. As a result of this new regulation, gasoline has to be traded according to eco-friendly specifications with a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen and sulphur level. The reduction in the value of aromatic hydrocarbons and sulphur level is also applied to diesel traded into the market. Member countries of the European Union asked to fuel suppliers a reduction of 10 % of CO2 emissions for every unit of energy produced by fossil fuels before December 2020.
- 5 EN590 Before this Directive the European fuel standard EN 590:2009 has incorporated the latest fuel quality requirements. Products coming from manufacturers of fuel injection equipment may not meet the expected lifetime performances and emissions targeted, if the fuel used doesnt respect the parameters of EN590:2009. The most important features in terms of cleanliness of the EN590 standard are: up to 24mg/kg of total contamination findings 3
- 6 ISO 4406/99 The International Standard Organization (ISO) has also developed a cleanliness code that has become a standard, the ISO 4406/99. This code defines more in details the number of particles present per milliliter of fluid. For more info please read section on how clean should fuel be. Worldwide Fuel Charter On a more worldwide scale, in 1998 engine manufacturers created the Worldwide Fuel Charter to set international standards for fuels. In the preamble for the 2006 edition it stated that: advanced ultra-clean engine and vehicle technologies have begun to be introduced in some markets and will continue to be used in increasing numbers. These new technologies require the best quality to achieve their emissions and performance potential. The charter quotes a requirement for diesel fuel to meet an ISO 18/16/13 cleanliness requirement and on the other hand fuel manufacturers start working on a fuel that has to be much cleaner in order to respond to the needs of modern common rail injector needs.
- 7 Types of Diesel Common Diesel Fuel It is obtained through the fractional distillation of petroleum fuel oil and it is generally simpler to refine than gasoline. It contains hydrocarbons and has a boiling point in the range of 180-360C (360-680F). Diesel derived from petroleum has a composition of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons. The chemical formula for this type of fuel is normally C12 H23 and goes from C10 H20 to C15 H28 . Because of recent changes in fuel quality regulations, additional refining is required to remove sulfur, this has led to the production of ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel) fuel. If the level of sulfur is high this is harmful for the environment because sulfur prevents the control of particulate emissions through catalytic diesel particulate filters, but not only: also innovative technologies like nitrogen oxide (NOx) absorbers are unable to reduce emissions. Another effect of the lowering of sulfur in diesel is the reduction of fuel lubricity that provokes the increase in the usage of additives in the fuel to improve lubrication.
- 8 Biodiesel Biodiesel is the name of a clean- burning alternative fuel that does not contain petroleum. It is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats for use in diesel engines. Biodiesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel. The most present in the market is the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). Biodiesel blends are denoted as, BXX with XX representing the percentage of biodiesel contained in the blend (ie: B20 is 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel). First generation of biodiesel fuels Vegetable oil - diesel (Methyl ester PME) Vegetable oil (f.i. Rapeseed, coconut, soybean, fried fat) Animal fat (Oil of poultry or other) Second and future generations Algae and other organic raw materials Effects on filtration of Biodiesel Cleaning effect - Increase wear Water Dissolvence Micro-organisms in water
- 9 Fuel Chain Fractional Distillation Biodiesel manufacturing process Source: Understanding Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Performance By: J.M. Weiksner Sr. P.E., Stephen L. Crump Ph.D., and Thomas L. White Ph.D. Source: BBC - Bitesize
- 10 Contamination Types of contaminants Particulate: silica, fibres, dust, rust, metal, drop outs, gel Water (Free or Dissolved) Air (Free or Dissolved) Where contamination comes from Added with New Fluid Ingressed from outside the system during operation (breather, transportation, poor filling routines etc) Induced by maintenance procedures Built-in during manufacturing assembly processes Breakdown of Rubber and Elastomers particles from hoses seals, etc, due to temperature, time, fluid stream In-Operation main sources are pump, motors, precombustion, . High water Based fluids get biological growth and organic contamination Replacement of Failed Components there could be big particles down stream Effects of particulate contamination: 0-5m: System components failure over time (injector wear, over consumption, loss of power) >5m: Immediate Catastrophic failure (fuel pomp failure, injector blockage) Typical particle size range in fuels is between 1-50m
- 11 Effects of water contamination: Contributes to Fuel & Additive Drop Out Problems Promotes Rust, Corrosion, Deposits, Acid Formation and Algae Growth Reduces Fuel Lubricity (when emulsified) and Flow (when freezes) Plugs Injector Nozzles and can reduce Injector Life by up to 10x Promotes microbial growth : Most Bacteria Require Free Water ULSD Made Worse Sulfur slowed growth Biodiesel = Food Difficult to Remove Effects of air contamination: Loss of transmitted power Reduced pump output Loss of lubrication Increased of operating temperature Reservoir fluid foaming Chemical reactions
- 12 How Clean Fuel Should Be Clear and Bright What is a micron? A Micron is a unit of measurement, it represents 1 Millionth of a Meter (micrometer) or 0.000039, the international symbol is but also often referred to as m (micrometer). The human eye can only see down to 40m, so to conduct a visual test of how clear and bright your fluid is, is not correct and therefore a so-called patch test is required. The patch test is a test where a sample of 25 ml of the fluid to be tested is poured through a membrane with porosities of up to 0.8m, causing any par
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