classification of matter states of matter physical and chemical properties physical and chemical...

Download Classification of Matter States of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes

Post on 11-Jan-2016

214 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Classification of MatterStates of MatterPhysical and Chemical PropertiesPhysical and Chemical Changes

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Classifying Matterby Physical Statematter can be classified as solid, liquid, or gas based on the characteristics it exhibits Fixed = keeps shape when placed in a container Indefinite = takes the shape of the container

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

    State

    Shape

    Volume

    Compress

    Flow

    Solid

    Fixed

    Fixed

    No

    No

    Liquid

    Indef.

    Fixed

    No

    Yes

    Gas

    Indef.

    Indef.

    Yes

    Yes

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Gasesbecause there is a lot of empty space, the particles can be squeezed closer together therefore gases are compressiblebecause the particles are not held in close contact and are moving freely, gases expand to fill and take the shape of their container, and will flow

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Classification of Matterby Compositionmade of one type of particleall samples show the same intensive propertiesmade of multiple types of particlessamples may show different intensive properties

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • *Classification of Pure Substancesmade of one type of atom (some elements found as multi-atom molecules in nature)combine together to make compoundsmade of one type of molecule, or array of ionsmolecules contain 2 or more different kinds of atoms

  • *Classification of Mixturesmade of multiple substances, but appears to be one substanceall portions of a sample have the same composition and propertiesmade of multiple substances, whose presence can be seenportions of a sample have different composition and properties

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Physical Changes in MatterThe boiling of water is a physical change. The water molecules are separated from each other, but their structure and composition do not change.

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Chemical Changes in MatterThe rusting of iron is a chemical change. The iron atoms in the nail combine with oxygen atoms from O2 in the air to make a new substance, rust, with a different composition.

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Common Physical Changesprocesses that cause changes in the matter that do not change its compositionstate changesboiling / condensingmelting / freezingsubliming

    dissolving

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Common Chemical Changesprocesses that cause changes in the matter that change its compositionrustingprocesses that release lots of energyburning

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Energy

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Energy Changes in Matterchanges in matter, both physical and chemical, result in the matter either gaining or releasing energyenergy is the capacity to do workwork is the action of a force applied across a distancea force is a push or a pull on an objectelectrostatic force is the push or pull on objects that have an electrical charge

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Energy of Matterall matter possesses energyenergy is classified as either kinetic or potentialenergy can be converted from one form to anotherwhen matter undergoes a chemical or physical change, the amount of energy in the matter changes as well

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Energy of Matter - Kinetickinetic energy is energy of motionmotion of the atoms, molecules, and subatomic particlesthermal (heat) energy is a form of kinetic energy because it is caused by molecular motion

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Energy of Matter - Potentialpotential energy is energy that is stored in the matterdue to the composition of the matter and its position in the universechemical potential energy arises from electrostatic forces between atoms, molecules, and subatomic particles

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Conversion of Energyyou can interconvert kinetic energy and potential energywhatever process you do that converts energy from one type or form to another, the total amount of energy remains the sameLaw of Conservation of Energy

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  • Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach *Potential to Kinetic Energy

    Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

    *****************

Recommended

View more >