classical conditioning

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How classical conditioning works within human behavior.

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<ul><li> 1. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (26 September 1849 27 February 1936) Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. Devoted his life to the study of physiology and sciences. Won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904 and Copley Medal in 1914. </li></ul> <p> 2. About Ivan Pavlov Began school at age 11 Because of a childhood accident Pavlov was forced to begin school late. He attended church school and seminary school. He read Charles Darwins The Origin of the Species and decided that he was more interested in science than seminary. Pavlovs work inspired the work of John Watson and he applied it to the Behaviorist Theory in 1913. 3. A serendipitous discovery 4. Behaviourism: SR Units (Reflexes) STIMULUS(S): It is detected by an organism. RESPONSE(R): Organism emits a response. 5. What is Classical conditioning? Classical conditioning is an behaviourist learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. A process for creating new SR units from existing ones Classical conditioning is based on the famous Pavlov's dogs experiment. 6. Key elements of classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response 7. Pavlovs Dog Experiment 8. Classical Conditioning 9. Key processes in Classical conditioning Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery Stimulus generalisation Stimulus discrimination 10. John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 September 25, 1958) An American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviourism. Famous for infant research and Little Albert experiment 11. The Little Albert Experiment BEFORE CONDITIONING Baby Albert is allowed to play with a pet white rat. Albert enjoys petting the rat and does not fear it. Albert was scared of loud noises. DURING CONDITIONING When Albert tried to pet or come near the rat, Watson would make a loud noise. This scared Albert. This scaring when coming close situation was repeated many times. AFTER CONDITIONING When Albert was presented with the rat again, he became scared, cried, and tried to move away from the rat. He had become conditioned into realizing that the white rat was related to the loud noise. 12. 1. 1. Unconditional stimulus 2. Neutral stimulus 4. After condition 3. During conditining 13. Name the four components of classical conditioning. Sara is watching a storm. A bolt of lighting is followed immediately by a huge crash of thunder and makes her jump. This happens several more times. The storm starts to move away and there is a gap between the lighting bolt and the sound of thunder, yet Sara jumps at the lighting bolt. 1. UCS 2. UCR- 3. CS- 4. CR- 1. Huge crash of thunder 2. Jump 3. Bolt of lighting 4. Jump Class Activity 14. IMPLICATIONS &amp; APPLICATIONS Marketing &amp; Advertising Organization Defence &amp; Security Aversion Therapy Real Time 15. MARKETING &amp; ADVERTISING 16. Marketing &amp; Advertising Coca-Cola Happiness Machine - YouTube.htm 17. ADVERTISING 18. AVERSION THERAPY Aversion therapy is a form of behaviour therapy that applies CC principles to inhibit or discourage undesirable behaviour by associating it with an aversive stimulus. The aim of aversion therapy is to suppress or weaken undesirable behaviour. 19. When was Aversion Therapy first used? 1930s to treat alcoholism. Alcoholics were administered painful electric shocks whenever the could smell, see or taste alcohol. Today, nausea-inducing drugs are paired with alcohol consumption to make the alcoholic feel ill. Alcohol (CS) Nausea Drug (UCS) Nausea (UCR) Association becomes so strong that the person beings to anticipate nausea as an inevitable result of consuming alcohol. 20. Examples of Aversion Therapy To stop unwanted behaviour such as nail biting, we might paint our nails with a foul-tasting substance The association between nail biting and the unpleasant taste is learned quickly. 21. Applications in Organizations In many organizations like KFC,Dominos,etc employees are given the best manager of the month with appreciation and made to wear that cap for the whole month and so whenever he wears that cap it reminds to him of the appreciation and applause made for him and makes him happy and as a result his willingness to work increases. 22. Unethical Overshadowing Blocking Extinction Ignores cognitive aspects of learning Ignores Species-specific behaviour pattern Limitations and Criticism 23. Overshadowing 24. Blocking 25. Extinction 26. LEARNINGS &amp; CONCLUSION It was a learning of reflexes, and an automatic response related to the nervous system. A great part of our emotional and motivation makeup comes directly from our lifetime of experience and stimulus. People or animals can be trained (or influenced) to perform a certain task or response by providing some sort of trigger, which may be a sound, picture, phrase, etc. 27. THANK YOU Presented by- Abhilasha Jha Apoorv Tiwari Harsh Pandya Neeraj Ratan </p>