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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    FILING FEES 3

    JURISDICTION 4

    SMALL CLAIMS 7

    Rule 1 9

    RULE 2 CAUSE OF ACTION 11

    RULE 3 PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS 14

    RULE 4 VENUE OF ACTIONS 23

    RULE 5 UNIFORM PROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS 26

    RULE 6 KINDS OF PLEADINGS 29

    RULE 7 PARTS OF A PLEADING 35

    RULE MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEADINGS 37

    RULE 9 EFFECT OF FAILURE TO PLEAD 4!

    RULE 1! AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS 43

    RULE 11 "#EN TO FILE RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS 46

    RULE 12 $ILL OF PARTICULARS 4

    RULE 13 FILING AND SERVICE OF PLEADINGS% JUDGMENTS AND OT#ER PAPERS5!

    RULE 14 SUMMONS 55

    RULE 15 MOTIONS 62

    RULE 16 MOTION TO DISMISS 65

    RULE 17 DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS 69

    RULE 1 PRE&TRIAL 7!

    RULE 19 INTERVENTION 74

    RULE 2! CALENDAR OF CASES 75

    RULE 21 SU$POENA 75

    RULE 22 COMPUTATION OF TIME 77

    MODES OF DISCOVER' 77

    RULE 23 DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTIONS 7

    RULE 24 DEPOSITIONS $EFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL( 4

    RULE 25 INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES 5RULE 26 ADMISSION $' ADVERSE PART' 6

    RULE 27 PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR T#INGS 7

    RULE 2 P#'SICAL AND MENTAL E)AMINATION OF PERSONS 7

    RULE 29 REFUSAL TO COMPL' "IT# MODES OF DISCOVER'

    RULE 3! TRIAL 9

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

    1

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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    RULE 31 CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE 91

    RULE 32 TRIAL $' COMMISSIONER 91

    RULE 33 DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE 93

    RULE 34 JUDGMENT ON T#E PLEADINGS 94

    RULE 35 SUMMAR' JUDGMENTS 94

    RULE 36 JUDGMENTS% FINAL ORDERS AND ENTR' T#EREOF 95

    RULE 37 NE" TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION 97

    RULE 3 RELIEF FROM JUDGMENTS% ORDERS% OR OT#ER PROCEEDINGS 99

    RULE 39 E)ECUTION% SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS 1!1

    $*+e, -.e*.+e/ -, *e0e+e 116

    APPEALS 116

    RULE 4! APPEAL FROM MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS TO T#E REGIONAL TRIAL

    COURTS 116

    RULE 41 APPEAL FROM T#E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS 117

    RULE 44 ORDINAR' APPEALED CASES PROCEDURE IN CA 121

    RULE 42 123

    PETITION FOR REVIE" FROM T#E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS TO T#E COURT OFAPPEALS 123

    123

    RULE 43 APPEALS FROM T#E COURT OF TA) APPEALS AND UASI&JUDICIAL

    AGENCIES TO T#E COURT OF APPEALS 125

    RULE 45 APPEAL $' CERTIORARI TO T#E SUPREME COURT 127

    PROCEDURE IN T#E COURT OF APPEALS 129

    RULE 46 ORIGINAL CASES 129

    RULE 4 PRELIMINAR' CONFERENCE IN T#E CA 13!

    RULE 49 ORAL ARGUMENT 13!

    RULE 5! DISMISSAL OF APPEAL 13!

    RULE 51 JUDGMENT 131

    RULE 52 MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION 133

    RULE 53 NE" TRIAL 133

    RULE 55 PU$LICATION OF JUDGMENTS AND FINAL RESOLUTION 134

    RULE 47 ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS 135

    "(is reviewer is )ased on Atty* "ran#uil alvador,s lectures- stu%% %rom Atty* &uevarra- &lenn

    "ua.on,s )rilliant lecture notes- cases- and /eria01oc(e,s )ook* $1o Riano since I le%t it in mylocker'

    &ood luck

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

    2

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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    FILING FEES

    Important: Payment o% docket %ees is not only mandatory- )ut 3RI5IC"I61AL*

    7now t(e true nature o% t(e action )ecause it will determine t(e docket %ees* o take note o% t(e

    %acts o% eac( case*

    o It may seem like a cancellation o% deed o% sale- )ut it can ultimately )e one %or t(erecovery o% property- making it a real action* $Ru)y (elter v /ormaran III- 28'

    /or e9ample: i% t(e action is %or t(e cancellation o% a deed o% sale and t(e titles(ave already )een trans%erred to anot(er party- t(at,s a real action )ecause t(eultimate purpose is t(e recovery o% real property* $t(at,s w(at (appened in Ru)y(elter'

    I% t(e titles (ave not yet )een trans%erred- it can )e considered as a

    personal action* $Spouses de Leoncited in Ru)y (elter'

    5ocket %ees to )e paid:

    o Real action: depends on t(e /M stated in t(e current ta9 declaration or current .onal

    valuation o% t(e ;IR $w(ic(ever is (ig(er'- or i% t(ere is none- t(e stated value o% t(eproperty in litigation*!

    o Cases involving actions incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation: %lat rate

    5ocket %ees computation include interests- penalties- surc(arges- damages o% w(atever kind-

    attorney,s %ees- court e9penses* $see %ootnote !' $Proton v ;an#ue 1ationale de Paris- 2

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    &R: docket %ees must )e paid w(en you %ile t(e complaint* $clerk will look at prayer and t(en

    determine (ow muc( you (ave to pay*'o ?9ceptions:

    I% t(e damages arose A/"?R t(e %iling- t(e additional docket %ee will serve as a lienon t(e =udgment

    Like interests accruing a%ter t(e %iling o% t(e complaint $Proton v ;1P'

    I% t(e complaint is amended and new damages are alleged- t(e additional docket%ee will )e allowed to )e paid wit(in a reasona)le time wit(in t(e applica)leprescriptive period or reglementary period $"acay- cited in P(ilippine /irst'

    I% t(e clerk makes a wrong assessment- t(e %ull amount must )e paid wit(in t(eapplica)le prescriptive period or reglementary period*

    Recipients o% t(e service o% t(e 1ational Committee on Legal Aid and o% t(e Legal Aid o%%ices o% t(e

    I;P are ??MP" %rom payment o% %iling- docket %ees* $Re: Re#uest %or 1CLA- 28'o "(is e9emption does 16" apply to =uridical entities- even i% t(ese entities are %ormed %or

    c(arita)le purposes or make e9tremely delecta)le u)e =am* $Buery o% Mr Roger Prioresc(io% t(e &ood (ep(erd /oundation- AM 80080C'

    JURISDICTION

    5e%ine =urisdiction:

    o "(e power o% t(e court to (ear- try- or decide t(e case

    o A C61/?RR?5 )y law Court knows i% it (as =urisdiction )ased on t(e allegations o% t(e complaint* $illacastin v Pelae.-

    [email protected] w(ere t(e C said t(at t(e allegations o% a complaint made out an e=ectment case so t(eM"C- and not t(e 5ARA;- (ad =d over t(e case even i% t(e case was over agri land since it was notan agrarian dispute anyway*'

    "(e =urisdiction o% a court may )e #uestioned at any stage o% t(e proceedings* 1o estoppel* It is

    t(e duty o% t(e court to dismiss an action w(enever it appears t(at t(e court (as no =urisdictionover t(e su)=ect matter* $argas v Caminas- [email protected] w(ere =d was #uestioned )e%ore trial courtdecided'

    o ?C?P": lac(es $"i=am- w(ere =d was #uestioned only a%ter !< years'

    /or a court to properly e9ercise =d over a case- t(e re#uirements o% law must )e complied wit(*

    o Dence- w(en a R"C takes cogni.ance over an indirect contempt case %iled t(roug( an

    unveri%ied motion $and not t(roug( a veri%ied petition wit( a certi%icate o% non0%orums(opping as re#uired )y Rule E!'- t(e R"C (as gravely erred* 2

    Can t(e C create special courtsFG

    o 16* It can only designate* It can,t con%er =urisdiction- only law can do t(at* C can only

    designate w(ic( courts will )ecome special courts*

    IMP6R"A1": in determining =urisdiction- you do 16" include damages- interest- attorney,s %ees-

    etc*o 6nly limit t(e amount to t(e demand or t(e claim*

    ;ut- o% course- i% your action is %or damages- t(en t(e amount o% damages claimedis determinative*

    o "(e interest to e9clude is t(e accessory interest* 1ot t(e loan interest*

    ?9ample: "(e case is in Pampanga* "(e promissory note is %or [email protected] wit(interest o% !H per annum- w(ere do you %ile t(e collection suit %or t(isF

    In t(e R"C o% Pampanga* "(e cause o% action revolves around t(e entire

    promissory note*

    M"Co 6riginal and e9clusive

    2Rule 71, Sec 4:How proceedings commenced. Proceedings for indirect conte!t a" #e initiated motu propio#" t$e court against %$ic$ t$econte!t %as coitted #" an order or an" ot$er foral c$arge re&uiring t$e res!ondent to s$o% cause %$" $e s$ould not #e !unis$ed for

    conte!t.

    'n all ot$er cases, c$arges for indirect conte!t s$all #e coenced #" a (erified !etition %it$ su!!orting !articulars and certified true co!ies of

    docuents or !a!ers in(ol(ed t$erein, and u!on full co!liance %it$ t$e re&uireents for filing initiator" !leadings for ci(il actions in t$e courtconcerned. 'f t$e conte!t c$arges arose out of or are related to a !rinci!al action !ending in t$e court, t$e !etition for conte!t s$all allege t$at

    fact #ut said !etition s$all #e docketed, $eard and decided se!aratel", unless t$e court in its discretion orders t$e consolidation of t$e conte!t

    c$arge and t$e !rinci!al action for )oint $earing and decision. *n+3-a!les of ot$er s!ecial courts: rugs court, n(ironent court, Coercial court, 'P court

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

    4

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    6pposite o% R"C

    ?=ectmentunlaw%ul detainer

    Regardless o% value

    M"C can determine owners(ip provisionally

    R"C

    o 6riginal and ?9clusive

    Amount incapa)le o% pecuniary estimation

    Can 16" )e measured in money

    5epends on t(e nature o% t(e action

    o J(ere t(e )asic issue is somet(ing ot(er t(an t(e rig(t to recover

    a sum o% money- w(ere t(e money claim is only incidental or aconse#uence o% t(e principal relie% soug(t- t(e action is incapa)leo% pecuniary estimation* $/?;"C v (em)erg- 2- w(ere t(e C(eld t(at an action to cancel mortgage %or want o% consideration isincapa)le o% pecuniary estimation'

    o ?9amples: rescission- re%ormation o% contract- speci%ic per%ormance

    o J(at a)out e9propriationF Always wit( R"C- w(et(er personal or

    real property- regardless o% value* Law .eroes in on t(e e9ercise o%suc( rig(t*

    o J(at a)out declaratory relie%F R"C- e9cept w(en t(ere is an issue

    o% constitutionality- C can take it*o J(at a)out supportF /amily courts- regardless o% value*

    Civil actions involving title to- or possession o%- real property- or any interestt(erein- w(ere t(e A??5 value o% t(e property involved e9ceeds P2--or e9ceeds P

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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    o%%icers- etc

    uspension o% payments- etc

    o 6riginal and Concurrent $see C and CA'

    o Appellate

    Cases decided )y t(e M"C- etc

    Court o% Appeals

    o 6riginal and ?9clusive

    Annul =udgments o% t(e R"C )ased on e9trinsic %raud or lack or =urisdiction

    o Concurrent wit( t(e C

    Petitions %or t(e issuance o% writs o% certiorari- pro(i)ition and mandamus againstt(e

    1LRC- CC- R"C

    o Concurrent wit( t(e R"C and C

    Da)eas corpus- (a)eas data- writ o% amparo- #uo warranto- certiorari- mandamus-pro(i)ition vs lower courts

    In "(ornton- 24- a writ o% (a)eas corpus was %iled wit( t(e CA* "(ere

    was an argument t(at only t(e R"C could issue a writ o% (a)eas corpus*C said t(e CA can issue a writ o% (a)eas corpus especially in t(is casew(ere t(e w(erea)out o% t(e c(ild was unknown so a writ o% (a)eascorpus %rom t(e CA would )e more e%%ective t(an t(at %rom t(e R"C*

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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    )y petition %or review on certiorari $rule 4o e(idence s$all #e allo%ed during t$e $earing %$ic$ %as not attac$ed to or su#itted toget$er %it$ t$e Clai, unless good cause iss$o%n for t$e adission of additional e(idence.

    >o foral !leading, ot$er t$an t$e Stateent of Clai descri#ed in t$is Rule, is necessar" to initiate a sall clais action.

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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    I% an indigent sues- it will immediately )e re%erred to t(e e9ecutive =udge* $ee%ootnote'

    ?ven i% indigent- (e still (as to pay P!- %or t(e summons %ee*

    Can t(e court dismiss t(e case outrig(tF

    o >es!!

    I% court %inds no reason to dismiss outrig(t- it will issue summons and notice o% (earing to t(e

    de%endant*!2

    o 5e%endant (as ! days to make a veri%ied response* "(e ! days can 16" )e e9tended*!G

    I% (e %ails to respond- t(e court can render =udgment )ased on t(e tatement o%t(e Claim* "(e =udgment must )e limited to t(e amount o% t(e claim- )ut it can )elowered )y t(e court*!4

    Can t(e de%endant %ile a counterclaimF

    o >es- as long as:

    Also not e9ceeding P!k- e9clusive o% interests and costs

    Arising out o% t(e same transaction or event t(at is t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e claim

    5oes not re#uire %or ad=udication Grdparties- and

    1ot su)=ect o% a pending action*

    I% not %iled as a counterclaim- it is )arred*!otice *or 4SCC+to #ot$ !arties, directing t$e to a!!ear #efore it on a s!ecific date and tie for $earing, %it$ a

    %arning t$at no un)ustified !ost!oneent s$all #e allo%ed, as !ro(ided in Section 1< of t$is Rule.

    T$e suons and notice to #e ser(ed on t$e defendant s$all #e acco!anied #" a co!" of t$e Stateent of Clai and docuents su#itted #"

    !laintiff, and a co!" of t$e Res!onse*or 3SCC+to #e acco!lis$ed #" t$e defendant. T$e >otice s$all contain an e-!ress !ro$i#ition againstt$e filing of a otion to disiss or an" ot$er otion under Section 14 of t$is Rule.13Section 11.esponse T$e defendant s$all file %it$ t$e court and ser(e on t$e !laintiff a dul" acco!lis$ed and (erified Res!onse %it$in a

    non e-tendi#le !eriod of ten *10+ da"s fro recei!t of suons. T$e Res!onse s$all #e acco!anied #" certified !$otoco!ies of docuents, as

    %ell as affida(its of %itnesses and ot$er e(idence in su!!ort t$ereof. >o e(idence s$all #e allo%ed during t$e $earing %$ic$ %as not attac$ed to

    or su#itted toget$er %it$ t$e Res!onse, unless good cause is s$o%n for t$e adission of additional e(idence.14Section 12.!ffect of Failure to File esponse S$ould t$e defendant fail to file $is res!onse %it$in t$e re&uired !eriod, t$e court #" itself s$all

    render )udgeent as a" #e %arranted #" t$e facts alleged in t$e Stateent of clai liited to %$at is !ra"ed for. T$e court $o%e(er, a", in its

    discretion, reduce t$e aount of daages for #eing e-cessi(e or unconsciona#le1/Section 13.Counterclaims "ithin the Co#erage of this ule 'f at t$e tie t$e action is coenced, t$e defendant !ossesses a clai against

    t$e !laintiff t$at *a+ is %it$in t$e co(erage of t$is rule, e-clusi(e of interest and costs6 *#+ arises out of t$e sae transaction or e(ent t$at is t$esu#)ect atter of t$e !laintiffAs clai6 *c+ does not re&uire for its ad)udication t$e )oinder of t$ird !arties6 and *d+ is not t$e su#)ect of anot$er

    !ending action, t$e clai s$all #e filed as a counterclai in t$e res!onse6 ot$er%ise, t$e defendant s$all #e #arred fro suit on t$e counterclai.

    T$e defendant a" also elect to t$e file a counterclai against t$e !laintiff t$at does not arise out of t$e sae transaction or occurrence ,

    !ro(ided t$at t$e aount and nature t$ereof are %it$in t$e co(erage of t$is Rule and t$e !rescri#ed docket and t$e ot$er legal fees are !aid.1Section 14.Prohibited Pleadings and $otions T$e follo%ing !leadings, otions, and !etitions s$all not #e allo%ed in t$e cases co(ered #"t$is Rule:

    *a+ otion to disiss t$e co!liant e-ce!t on t$e ground of lack of )urisdiction6

    *#+ otion for a #ill of !articulars6

    *c+ otion for ne% trial, or for reconsideration of a )udgeent, or for reo!ening of trial6

    *d+ Petiton for relief fro )udgeent6*e+ otion for e-tension of tie to file !leadings, affida(its, or an" ot$er !a!er6

    *f+ eoranda6

    *g+ Petition for certiorari, andaus, or !ro$i#ition against an" interlocutor" order issued #" t$e court6

    *$+ otion to declare t$e defendant in default6*i+ ilator" otions for !ost!oneent6

    *)+ Re!l"6

    *k+ T$ird!art" co!laints6 and

    *l+ 'nter(entions.

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

    =

    http://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_2-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_2-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_4-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_4-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_3-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_3-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_2-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_4-scc.pdfhttp://www.lawphil.net/forms/form_3-scc.pdf
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    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    o 1o* Lawyers are 1??R allowed* $unless t(ey are t(e ones claiming'!E

    J(at (appens i% a party is a)sent %rom t(e (earingF

    o Plainti%%: dismissal o% case

    5e%endant w(o appears s(all )e allowed to recover %rom (is permissivecounterclaim

    Compare to normal cases w(ere claim is dismissed $counterclaims-

    regardless o% nature- survive* 1ot sure i% t(is was an oversig(t only- )utt(at,s w(at t(e codal says'

    o 5e%endant: as i% (e didn,t %ile a response

    o ;ot(: dismissal o% claim and [email protected]

    Are postponements allowedF

    o >es-

    6nly 61C? per party- and

    pon proo% o% p(ysical disa)ility to appear in court*!8

    /or =udgments and e9ecution- see %ootnote*2

    Rule 1Sect!" 1# Ttle !$ t%e RuleT%e&e Rule& &%'ll e "!*" '"+ cte+ '& t%e Rule& !$ C!ut#

    Sec# 2# I" *%'t c!ut& 'lc'le#T%e&e Rule& &%'ll 'l. " 'll t%e c!ut&, e/cet '& !t%e*&e !+e+ . t%e Suee C!ut#

    Sec# # C'&e& 3!e"e+#T%e&e Rule& &%'ll 3!e" t%e !ce+ue t! e !&ee+ " 'ct!"&, cl ! c"'l, '"+ &ec'l!cee+"3(') A cl 'ct!" & !"e . *%c% ' 't. &ue& '"!t%e $! t%e e"$!cee"t ! !tect!" !$ ' 3%t, !t%e ee"t!" ! e+e&& !$ ' *!"3#

    A cl 'ct!" '. et%e e !+"'. ! &ec'l# 4!t% 'e 3!e"e+ . t%e ule& $! !+"'. cl'ct!"&, &u5ect t! t%e &ec$c ule& e&ce+ $! ' &ec'l cl 'ct!"#() A c"'l 'ct!" & !"e . *%c% t%e St'te !&ecute& ' e&!" $! '" 'ct ! !&&!" u"&%'le. l'*#(c) A &ec'l !cee+"3 & ' ee+. . *%c% ' 't. &ee& t! e&t'l&% ' &t'tu&, ' 3%t, ! ''tcul' $'ct#

    J(at is an actionF

    o /ormal demand o% one,s legal rig(ts in a court o% =ustice in t(e manner prescri)ed )y t(e

    court or )y t(e law*o Met(od o% applying legal remedies according to de%inite esta)lis(ed rules*

    7inds o% actions:

    o Civil

    Protection or en%orcement o% a rig(t- or prevention or redress o% a wrong

    Can )e ordinary or special $sca'

    o Criminal

    6nce t(e in%ormation is %iled in court- it )ecomes a criminal action*

    o pecial proceeding

    17Section 17.Appearance of Attorneys Not Allowed. >o attorne" s$all a!!ear in #e$alf of or re!resent a !art" at t$e $earing, unless t$e attorne"

    is t$e !laintiff or defendant.

    'f t$e court deterines t$at a !art" cannot !ro!erl" !resent $is?$er clai or defense and needs assistance, t$e court a", in its discretion, allo%anot$er indi(idual %$o is not an attorne" to assist t$at !art" u!on t$e latterAs consent.1=Section 18.Non%appearance of Parties. ailure of t$e !laintiff to a!!ear s$all #e cause for t$e disissal of t$e clai %it$out !re)udice. T$e

    defendant %$o a!!ears s$all #e entitled to )udgeent on a !erissi(e counterclai.

    ailure of t$e defendant to a!!ear s$all $a(e t$e sae effect as failure to file a Res!onse under Section 12 of t$is Rule. T$is s$all not a!!l" %$ere

    one of t%o or ore defendants %$o are sued under a coon cause of action and $a(e !leaded a coon defense a!!ears at t$e $earing.ailure of #ot$ !arties to a!!ear s$all cause t$e disissal %it$ !re)udice of #ot$ t$e clai and counterclai.1

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    Application or proceeding to esta)lis(:

    t(e status o% a party- or

    t(e rig(t o% a party- or

    a particular %act*

    ?9amples are petition %or adoption- petition %or (ospitali.ation o% an insane person-settlement o% estate o% a deceased person

    Sec# 6# I" *%'t c'&e& "!t 'lc'le#T%e&e Rule& &%'ll "!t 'l. t! elect!" c'&e&, l'"+ e3&t't!", c'+'&t'l, "'tu'l't!" '"+ "&!le"c.!cee+"3&, '"+ !t%e c'&e& "!t %ee" !+e+ $!, e/cet . '"'l!3. ! " ' &ulet!. c%''cte'"+ *%e"ee 'ctc'le '"+ c!"e"e"t#

    Sec# # C!e"cee"t !$ 'ct!"#A cl 'ct!" & c!e"ce+ . t%e $l"3 !$ t%e !3"'l c!l'"t " c!ut# I$ '" '++t!"'l +e$e"+'"t &le'+e+ " ' l'te le'+"3, t%e 'ct!" & c!e"ce+ *t% e3'+ t! % !" t%e +'te !$ t%e $l"3 !$&uc% l'te le'+"3, e&ecte !$ *%et%e t%e !t!" $! t& '+&&!", $ "ece&&'., & +e"e+ . t%ec!ut#

    "(e commencement o% an action interrupts t(e period o% prescription as to all t(e parties to t(e

    action*

    J(en does an action commenceF

    o pon %iling o% t(e original complaint in t(e court Jit( respect to an additional de%endant- w(en does it commenceF

    o "(e present rule provides t(at it is t(e date o% t(e %iling o% t(e amended complaint =oining

    t(e additional de%endant w(ic( is t(e date o% t(e commencement o% t(e action wit( regardto suc( additional de%endant*

    >ou only %ile a motion %or t(e admission o% suc( amended complaint w(en t(en(ere (as )een an answer served on t(e plainti%%*

    In cases w(ere t(e amended complaint is attac(ed to t(e motion %or its admission-t(e date o% %iling t(ereo% is t(e date o% t(e commencement o% t(e action wit(regard to t(e additional de%endant- irrespective o% t(e action o% t(e court on t(emotion*

    5oes t(e %iling alone vest t(e court wit( =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matterF

    o

    1o* >ou (ave to !' %ile and 2' pay t(e docket %ees*o It is important to remem)er t(at it is not simply t(e %iling o% t(e complaint or appropriate

    initiatory pleading )ut also t(e payment o% t(e prescri)ed docket %ee t(at vests a trialcourt wit( =urisdiction over t(e su)=ect matter or nature o% t(e action*

    o Jit(out t(e payment o% t(e docket %ees- no original complaint or pleading is considered*

    o I% t(e complete amount o% t(e docket %ee is not paid- t(e prescriptive period continues to

    run as t(e complaint is deemed not %iled*

    Sec# 9# C!"&tuct!"#T%e&e Rule& &%'ll e le'll. c!"&tue+ " !+e t! !!te t%e !5ecte !$ &ecu"3 ' 5u&t, &ee+.'"+ "e/e"&e +&!&t!" !$ ee. 'ct!" '"+ !cee+"3#

    RULE 2 CAUSE OF ACTIONSect!" 1# O+"'. cl 'ct!"&, '&& !$#

    Ee. !+"'. cl 'ct!" u&t e '&e+ !" ' c'u&e !$ 'ct!"#

    Sec# 2# C'u&e !$ 'ct!", +e$"e+#A c'u&e !$ 'ct!" & t%e 'ct ! !&&!" . *%c% ' 't. !l'te& ' 3%t !$ '"!t%e#

    J(at is a cause o% actionF

    o It is an act or omission o% one party in violation o% t(e legal rig(t or rig(ts o% t(e ot(er*

    o Its essential elements are:

    Legal rig(t o% t(e plainti%%

    Correlative o)ligation o% t(e de%endant

    Act or omission o% t(e de%endant in violation o% t(e plainti%%,s said legal rig(t*

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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    ?9ample K Mario doesn,t pay Luigi as agreed upon in a de)t contract*

    o Luigi (as t(e legal rig(t to )e paid and Mario (as t(e o)ligation to pay- arising %rom t(e

    contract*o "(e non0payment o% de)t is t(e actomission or t(e cause o% action*

    J(en must t(e cause o% action e9istF

    o At t(e time t(e complaint is %iled*

    Dence- a complaint w(ose cause o% action (as not yet accrued cannot )e cured )yan amended or supplemental pleading alleging t(e e9istence or accrual o% a causeo% action during t(e pendency o% t(e action* $"urner v Loren.o (ipping- 2!- acorp case involving rig(t o% appraisal'

    ?ven i% t(ere is an e9isting contract- a tort can still )e t(e cause o% action i% w(at )reaks t(e

    contract is a tortious act* $Mindanao "erminal v P(oeni9- 28'

    Sec# # O"e &ut $! ' &"3le c'u&e !$ 'ct!"#A 't. '. "!t "&ttute !e t%'" !"e &ut $! ' &"3le c'u&e !$ 'ct!"#

    Sec# 6# Sltt"3 ' &"3le c'u&e !$ 'ct!": e$$ect !$#I$ t*! ! !e &ut& 'e "&ttute+ !" t%e '&& !$ t%e &'e c'u&e !$ 'ct!", t%e $l"3 !$ !"e ! '5u+3e"t u!" t%e et& " '". !"e & ''l'le '& ' 3!u"+ $! t%e +&&&'l !$ t%e !t%e

    "(e purpose o% t(is rule is to prevent repeated litigation*

    "(e rule applies not only to complaints )ut also to counterclaims and cross0claims* I% two or more complaints are )roug(t %or di%%erent parts o% a single cause o% action- t(e %iling o%

    t(e %irst may )e pleaded in a)atement o% t(e ot(er* It can )e set up eit(er )y means o%:o A motion to dismiss or an a%%irmative de%ense in t(e answer*

    J(at groundF Res =udicata or litis pendentia*

    plitting a cause o% action is not a ground*

    J(ere t(ere is only one delict or wrong- t(ere is only one cause o% action regardless o% t(e

    num)er o% rig(ts t(at may (ave )een violated )elonging to one person*

    o ame cause o% action )ut di%%erent prayers N splitting*

    >ou can,t splitO

    o Recovery o% property and damages

    o Annulment o% %oreclosure sale and damages $C(ua v M;"C- 28'

    o Recovery o% owners(ip o% and income %rom same land

    o Installments due and unpaid

    o 1on0payment o% de)t secured )y a mortgage $you can,t split it to payment o% de)t and

    %oreclosure o% mortgage- you (ave to c(oose one'

    o "otal )reac( o% entire contract

    As a general rule- a contract to do several t(ings at several times is divisi)le- anda =udgment %or a single )reac( o% a continuing contract is not a )ar to a suit %or asu)se#uent )reac(*

    ;ut w(ere t(e contract is entire- and t(e )reac( total- t(ere can )e only

    one action in w(ic( plainti%% must recover all damages*

    Can you consolidate split causes o% actionF

    o 1o* o t(e two pending cases can,t )e consolidated* 6ne $or )ot(' will )e dismissed %or

    %orum s(opping* $see Rule and cases on consolidation- particularly Megaland v C?'

    Sec# # J!"+e !$ c'u&e& !$ 'ct!"#

    A 't. '. " !"e le'+"3 '&&et, " t%e 'lte"'te ! !t%e*&e, '& '". c'u&e& !$ 'ct!" '& %e '.%'e '3'"&t '" !!&"3 't., &u5ect t! t%e $!ll!*"3 c!"+t!"&;(') T%e 't. 5!""3 t%e c'u&e& !$ 'ct!" &%'ll c!l. *t% t%e ule& !" 5!"+e !$ 'te&:() T%e 5!"+e &%'ll "!t "clu+e &ec'l cl 'ct!"& ! 'ct!"& 3!e"e+ . &ec'l ule&:(c)

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    Yoshi, etc

    >ou do t(is w(en t(ere,s ! case )ut several causes o% action*

    o /or every )reac(- t(ere is one cause o% action*

    I% t(ere is a claim o% money and t(ere are claims o% damages $moral- e9emplary'arising %rom t(e claim o% money- t(ere is only one cause o% action* "(e claims %ordamages are mere incidents o% t(e )reac( $%ailure to pay'

    I% t(ere are several promissory notes- )ut only one loan- and no payment on allnotes- t(ere are several causes o% action $since )ased on P1s'*

    >ou can even do a =oinder o% AL"?R1A"I? causes o% action*

    o ?9ample: s(ipping contract* /irst cause o% action is )ased on contract* econd cause o%

    action is )ased on tort*

    Can you do alternative causes o% action against multipledi%%erent partiesF

    >es* Rule G- ec *2!

    ?9ample: 2 )uses collided wit( Mr* ,s car* Mr* can %ile alternative

    causes o% action against t(e two )uses*

    J(at conditions must )e met %or a proper =oinder o% causes o% actionF

    o "(e rules on =oinder o% parties must )e o)served- meaning:

    It arises %rom t(e same or series o% transactions- and

    It involves a common #uestion o% law $Rule G- ec '

    IMP6R"A1": "(is must only )e %ollowed i% t(ere are multiple de%endants*

    o I% =ust )etween two parties- no need %or t(is rule* cenario !: versus > K can =oin as many causes o%

    action- even i% totally 1R?LA"?5*

    ee Mario v Luigi a)ove* "otally unrelated causes

    o% action*

    cenario 2: versus A- ;- C- 5 $multiple' K can only =oint(e causes o% action i% it complies wit( t(e rule on =oinder-meaning series o% actions arising %rom t(e same or serieso% transactions involving a common #uestion o% law'

    een in Pantanco v tandard- $2ou can,t =oin an e=ectment case wit( money claims )ecause e=ectment cases aregoverned )y special rules on summary procedure*

    >ou can,t =oin two special civil actions eit(er*

    21Rule 3, Sec. . Perissi(e )oinder of !arties.

    ll !ersons in %$o or against %$o an" rig$t to relief in res!ect to or arising out of t$e sae transaction or series of transactions is alleged to

    e-ist, %$et$er )ointl", se(erall", or in t$e alternati(e, a", e-ce!t as ot$er%ise !ro(ided in t$ese Rules, )oin as !laintiffs or #e )oined as

    defendants in one co!laint, %$ere an" &uestion of la% or fact coon to all suc$ !laintiffs or to all suc$ defendants a" arise in t$e action6 #utt$e court a" ake suc$ orders as a" #e )ust to !re(ent an" !laintiff or defendant fro #eing e#arrassed or !ut to e-!ense in connection %it$

    an" !roceedings in %$ic$ $e a" $a(e no interest.

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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    o In cases o% di%%erent venues or =urisdiction )etween t(e AM? parties- t(e =oinder may )e

    made in t(e R"C- provided it (as =urisdiction over one o% t(e causes o% action and t(evenue lies t(erein*

    I% one cause o% action %alls wit(in t(e R"C and t(e ot(er in t(e M"C- t(e actions(ould )e %iled in t(e R"C*

    I% t(e causes o% action (ave di%%erent venues- t(ey may )e =oined in any o% t(ecourts o% proper venue*

    o- a real action and a personal action may )e =oined eit(er in t(e R"C o%t(e place w(ere t(e real property is located or w(ere t(e parties reside*

    o Case !: um o% money Gou can =oin t(ose two cases in eit(er Cavite- Makati orBC* $%or academic purposes'

    ;ut in practice- =ust severe )ecause ot(er lawyersdon,t know a)out t(is*

    o J(ere all t(e causes o% action are %or recovery o% money- t(e aggregate amount claimed

    s(all )e t(e test o% =urisdiction*

    Important: "(is totality rule will only apply i% ALL cases o% action are %or recoveryo% money*

    5oes t(is mean we can,t (ave =oinder o% real action and personal actionFo 1o* Je can still do it- using ec IL ACTIONSSect!" 1#

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    ?C?P": i% ot(er party is estopped )ecause (e )ene%itted %rom dealing wit( suc(%oreign corporation

    5oing )usiness and licensed: can sue and )e suedo ?ntities aut(ori.ed )y law $see Rule G- ec !

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    %orum0s(opping w(ic( is not allowed* $Cua v "an'

    In Cua- t(e Court noted t(at t(e indispensa)le parties were not only t(e ;oard o%5irectors- )ut also t(e ma=ority stock(olders w(o approved and rati%ied t(e actiont(at was t(e su)=ect o% t(e controversy*

    o In an action %or inspecting corporate )ooks and records- it is t(e stock(older demanding

    %or t(e inspection t(at is t(e RPI* "(e rig(t to inspect corporate )ooks is personal* $Cua v"an'

    5i%%erence )etween RPI and legal standinglocus standiio "(e concept o% RPI will only apply to private suits*

    o Locus standii usually applies to pu)lic suits %iled )y a private party*

    It pertains to government actions w(erein a person may su%%er in=ury*

    >ou can )ase your legal standing as a ta9payer- voter- Congressman- citi.enssuit22$%or environment cases K (ere- even generations yet un)orn can )e parties)ased on a citi.ens suit* In %act- plainti%%s don,t need any interest in %iling a citi.enssuit* As long as (e,s Pinoy- (e can %ile*'

    Important: w(at is t(e remedy %or impleading t(e wrong partyF $/or e9ample- Darry sues Ron-

    claiming t(at Ron owns t(e property- )ut Ron doesn,t own it and doesn,t (ave anyt(ing to do wit(Darry in t(e %irst place'

    o Motion to 5ismiss* &round: Pleading states no cause o% action

    "(is ground a)sor)s t(e situation w(erein t(e party impleaded is not t(e RPI*

    $Atty* "ran#uilRiano' 5i%%erence )etween pleading states no cause o% action and lack o% cause o%

    action will )e discussed w(en we get to Motion to 5ismiss

    J(at (appens w(en t(e action (as commenced- )ut t(e party in interest c(angesF

    o "(e original action continues- and t(e original plainti%% )ecomes t(e representative o% t(e

    trans%eree o% t(e interest* $ee ection !8'

    J(at (appens w(en t(e interest (as c(anged- and t(en t(e action commencesF

    o "(e original plainti%% is no longer t(e party in interest*

    Sec# # Ree&e"t'te& '& 'te

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    Sec# 6# S!u&e& '& '[email protected]&'"+ '"+ *$e &%'ll &ue ! e &ue+ 5!"tl., e/cet '& !+e+ . l'*#

    &eneral rule: Dus)and and wi%e s(all sue or )e sued =ointly as )ot( are co0administrators o% t(e

    community property*o ?9ceptions:

    uit o% one against t(e ot(er

    ;ased on a criminal actdelict

    3udicial separation o% property

    A)andonment

    ?9clusive property o% spouses

    uits involving t(e practice o% one,s pro%ession

    Sec# # M"! ! "c!ete"t e&!"

    A "! ! ' e&!" 'lle3e+ t! e "c!ete"t, '. &ue ! e &ue+, *t% t%e '&&&t'"ce !$ %& $'t%e,!t%e, 3u'+'", ! $ %e %'& "!"e, ' 3u'+'" '+ lte#

    Can a minor or incompetent )e a partyF

    o >es- )ut wit( t(e assistance o% (is %at(er- mot(er- guardian- or i% (e (as none- a guardian

    ad litem*

    A person need not )e =udicially declared to )e incompetent* It is enoug( t(at (e )e alleged to )e

    incompetent* $$a!a!a naman% Paano kung hindi talaga bobo&

    Sec# 9# =e&&e 5!"+e !$ 'teAll e&!"& " *%! ! '3'"&t *%! '". 3%t t! ele$ " e&ect t! ! '&"3 !ut !$ t%e &'et'"&'ct!" ! &ee& !$ t'"&'ct!"& & 'lle3e+ t! e/&t, *%et%e 5!"tl., &ee'll., ! " t%e 'lte"'te,'., e/cet '& !t%e*&e !+e+ " t%e&e Rule&, 5!" '& l'"t$$& ! e 5!"e+ '& +e$e"+'"t& " !"ec!l'"t, *%ee '". ue&t!" !$ l'* ! $'ct c!!" t! 'll &uc% l'"t$$& ! t! 'll &uc% +e$e"+'"t&'. '&e " t%e 'ct!": ut t%e c!ut '. 'e &uc% !+e& '& '. e 5u&t t! ee"t '". l'"t$$ !+e$e"+'"t $! e"3 e''&&e+ ! ut t! e/e"&e " c!""ect!" *t% '". !cee+"3& " *%c% %e'. %'e "! "tee&t#

    J(at are t(e re#uisites %or permissive =oinder o% partiesF

    o Claim arises %rom same or series o% transactions

    o Common #uestions o% law or %act in t(e action

    o Read wit( =oinder o% causes o% action

    It,s permissive in t(e standpoint o% t(e party initiating t(e cause o% action*

    ?9amples

    o Mario Luigi versus ;owser Princess

    o Mario- Luigi Princess versus ;owser

    o Mario versus Luigi- Princess ;owser

    Sec# 7# C!ul&!. 5!"+e !$ "+&e"&'le 'te='te& " "tee&t *t%!ut *%! "! $"'l +ete"'t!" c'" e %'+ !$ '" 'ct!" &%'ll e 5!"e+ et%e'& l'"t$$& ! +e$e"+'"t

    J(o is an indispensa)le partyF

    o Parties in interest wit(out w(om no %inal determination can )e (ad*

    o Jit(out t(em- t(ere will )e no resolution o% t(e case- no =udgment at all*

    ?9amples $see /eria )ook- p* 2GG'

    o Co0owners in an action %or partion o% an undivided interest in land*o endee in an action %or annulment o% a contract o% sale*

    o "(ose wit( titled claims over t(e land in a petition %or reconstitution o% title*

    Sec# 8# Nece&&'. 't.#A "ece&&'. 't. & !"e *%! & "!t "+&e"&'le ut *%! !u3%t t! e 5!"e+ '& ' 't. $ c!leteele$ & t! e 'cc!+e+ '& t! t%!&e 'le'+. 'te&, ! $! ' c!lete +ete"'t!" ! &ettlee"t !$ t%ecl' &u5ect !$ t%e 'ct!"#

    J(o is a necessary partyF

    Party in interest is one w(o is not indispensa)le )ut w(o oug(t to )e =oined

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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    o i% complete relie% is to )e accorded as to t(ose already parties- or

    o %or a complete determination or settlement o% t(e claim su)=ect o% t(e action*

    Plainti%% may c(oose to %ile versus t(e necessary party not impleaded- )ut t(ey oug(t to )e =oined

    to avoid multiple litigation*

    ?9amples $see /eria )ook- p* 2GE'

    o Co0owners o% a promissory note in an action %or its collection

    o olidarily lia)le- eit(er is indispensa)le- and t(e ot(er is not even necessary )ecause

    complete relie% may )e o)tained %rom eit(er*o 3ointly lia)le- eit(er is indispensa)le- and t(e ot(er is necessary to accord complete relie%*

    Pro)lem

    Action %ro recovery o% title and possession* (olds title- > (as possession* "(e action is solely %or

    recovery o% title* Can you sue Fo >es- (e,s t(e proper party*

    o Can you sue > %or recovery o% title wit(out suing F 1o- > mere possessor* is (older o%

    title- (e,s t(e indispensa)le one*

    I"+&e"&'le Nece&&'.

    Jit(out w(om no %inal determination o% t(ecase can )e (adQ ine9trica)ly intertwined wit(

    t(e ot(er parties, t(at (is legal presence is ana)solute necessity

    Interest is distinct and divisi)le %rom t(einterest o% t(e ot(er partiesQ will not

    necessarily )e pre=udiced )y a =udgment w(ic(does complete =ustice to t(e parties in court

    (ould )e =oined under any and all conditions (ould )e =oined w(enever possi)leQ (ispresence would merely permit complete relie%)etween (im and t(ose already parties to t(eaction- or simply avoid multiple litigation

    ?%%ect o% %ailure to implead $important'

    I% necessary party

    o &R: %ailure to implead is non0pre=udicial

    o 1o waiver o% rig(t to implead* "(ere is no waiver 1L? t(ere is an order to implead

    %rom t(e court- and you still did not implead*

    I% indispensa)le party

    o "(e court s(ould 6R5?R t(at t(e indispensa)le party )e impleaded* $5omingo case'

    o I% despite t(e order- you still did not comply- t(e case will )e dismissed* 6n w(at groundF

    /ailure to comply wit( an order o% t(e court*2G

    o I% court did not notice t(e non0=oinder $and t(us did not order to implead t(e indispensa)le

    party'- and renders a decisionO w(at (appensF

    "(e =udgment is null and void*24

    "(e a)sence o% an indispensa)le party renders all su)se#uent actions o% t(e courtnull and void %or want o% aut(ority to act- not only as to t(e a)sent parties )ut

    even to t(ose present* $1LM706lalia v 7ei(in- 2!'

    Sec# B# N!"-5!"+e !$ "ece&&'. 'te& t! e le'+e+#

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    't.#

    J(at i% a necessary party is not =oined- w(at (appensF

    o "(e pleader s(all set %ort( (is name and s(all state w(y (e is omitted*

    J(at i% t(e court %inds t(e reason %or (is omission unmeritoriousF

    o "(e may order t(e inclusion o% t(e omitted necessary party i% =urisdiction over (is person

    may )e o)tained*

    J(en i%- a%ter t(e order- t(e pleader %ails to e9plain to t(e non0=oinder or%ails to comply- wit(out=usti%ia)le cause- wit( t(e order o% t(e courtF $&iven t(at =urisdiction over t(e person may )eo)tained'

    o "(en it will )e deemed a waiver o% t(e claim against suc( party*

    J(at i% t(e =oint o)ligor can,t )e impleaded )ecause =urisdiction over t(e person couldn,t )e

    o)tainedF

    o "(e =udgment rendered against t(e impleaded =oint o)ligor will not pre=udice t(e rig(ts o%

    t(e =oint o)ligor not impleaded*

    Sec# 10# U"*ll"3 c!-l'"t$$#I$ t%e c!"&e"t !$ '". 't. *%! &%!ul+ e 5!"e+ '& l'"t$$ c'" "!t e !t'"e+, %e '. e '+e '+e$e"+'"t '"+ t%e e'&!" t%ee$! &%'ll e &t'te+ " t%e c!l'"t#

    J(at i% t(e consent o% a party w(o should)e =oined as plainti%% can not )e o)tainedF

    o De may )e made a de%endant- and

    o "(e reason t(ere%ore s(all )e stated in t(e complaint*

    Sec# 11# M&5!"+e '"+ "!"-5!"+e !$ 'teNet%e &5!"+e "! "!"-5!"+e !$ 'te& & 3!u"+ $! +&&&'l !$ '" 'ct!"# ='te& '. e+!e+ ! '++e+ . !+e !$ t%e c!ut !" !t!" !$ '". 't. ! !" t& !*" "t'te 't '". &t'3e !$t%e 'ct!" '"+ !" &uc% te& '& 'e 5u&t# A". cl' '3'"&t ' &5!"e+ 't. '. e &eee+ '"+!cee+e+ *t% &e''tel.#

    Is mis=oinder or non0=oinder o% parties a ground %or dismissal o% an actionF

    o 1o*

    o "(e non0=oinder o% an indispensa)le or a necessary party is not ipso 'actoa ground %or t(e

    dismissal*

    "(e court s(ould order t(e =oinder o% suc( party and non0compliance wit( t(e saidorder would )e a ground %or t(e dismissal o% t(e action* $ its the non-compliance!ith the order, not the mis#oinder itsel'

    Remem)er: "(e a)sence o% an indispensa)le party renders all su)se#uent actionso% t(e court null and void %or want o% aut(ority to act- not only as to t(e a)sentparties )ut even as to t(ose present*

    Sec# 12# Cl'&& &ut#

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    o In determining t(e #uestion o% %air and ade#uate representation o% mem)ers o% a class-

    determine:

    J(et(er t(e interest o% t(e named party is coe9tensive wit( t(e interest o% t(eot(er mem)ers o% t(e class

    "(e proportion o% t(ose made a party to t(e total mem)ers(ip o% t(e class

    Any ot(er %actor )earing on t(e a)ility o% t(e named party to speak %or t(e rest o%t(e class

    3ust )ecause a person represents a num)er o% people doesn,t mean it,s a class suit* It (as to

    comply wit( t(e re#uisites*o Courts e9ercise caution )e%ore allowing a class suit- w(ic( is t(e e9ception to t(e =oinder

    o% indispensa)le parties* J(yF ;ecause i% t(e =udgment against t(e class represented isnot %avora)le- t(e represented would certainly claim denial o% due process* $MIAA vRivera'

    5i%%erentiate derivative suit %rom a class suit in t(e conte9t o% corporations

    o 5erivative suits are t(ose instituted )y an individual stock(older on )e(al% o% t(e

    corporation in order to protect or vindicate corporate rig(ts* sually %iled w(en t(ere is anallegation o% mismanagement or wrong%ul acts committed )y t(e directors or trustees* "(ewrong (ere is done to t(e corporation itsel%*

    o Class suits are t(ose instituted w(en t(e wrong is done to a group o%- let,s say-

    stock(olders* An e9ample would )e a violation o% t(e rig(ts o% pre%erred stock(olders* "(e

    wrong (ere is done to t(e a certain group or class* &ive an e9ample o% a class suit t(at (as prospered*

    o 6posa v /actoran*

    Practical tip 'rom *tty uevara I% a =udge denies t(e class suit- go %or a permissive =oinder o%

    parties* "(e t(ing (ere is t(at t(ose not pleaded will not )e a%%ected )y t(e =udgment $ascompared to (aving a class suit w(ere all will get a%%ected'

    Sec# 1# Alte"'te +e$e"+'"t

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    +ut. !$ %& c!u"&el t! "$! t%e c!ut *t%" t%t. (0) +'.& '$te &uc% +e't% !$ t%e $'ct t%ee!$, '"+t! 3e t%e "'e '"+ '++e&& !$ %& le3'l ee&e"t'te ! ee&e"t'te F'lue !$ c!u"&el t!c!l. *t% t%& +ut. &%'ll e ' 3!u"+ $! +&cl"'. 'ct!"#

    T%e %e& !$ t%e +ece'&e+ '. e 'll!*e+ t! e &u&ttute+ $! t%e +ece'&e+, *t%!ut eu"3t%e '!"te"t !$ '" e/ecut! ! '+"&t't! '"+ t%e c!ut '. '!"t ' 3u'+'" '+ lte $! t%e"! %e

    T%e c!ut &%'ll $!t%*t% !+e &'+ le3'l ee&e"t'te ! ee&e"t'te& t! 'e' '"+ e&u&ttute+ *t%" ' e!+ !$ t%t. (0) +'.& $! "!tce# I$ "! le3'l ee&e"t'te & "'e+ .

    t%e c!u"&el $! t%e +ece'&e+ 't., ! $ t%e !"e &! "'e+ &%'ll $'l t! 'e' *t%" t%e &ec$e+e!+, t%e c!ut '. !+e t%e !!&"3 't., *t%" ' &ec$e+ te, t! !cue t%e '!"te"t !$'" e/ecut! ! '+"&t't! $! t%e e&t'te !$ t%e +ece'&e+ '"+ t%e l'tte &%'ll e+'tel. 'e' $!'"+ !" e%'l$ !$ t%e +ece'&e+# T%e c!ut c%'3e& " !cu"3 &uc% '!"te"t, $ +e$'.e+ . t%e!!&"3 't., '. e ec!ee+ '& c!&t

    "(is provision applies w(en:

    o ?it(er party dies- and

    o "(e action survives

    J(at,s t(e test to determine w(et(er t(e action survives or notF

    o I% t(e wrong complained o% a%%ects primarily and principally property or property rig(ts- t(e

    action will survive- t(e in=uries to t(e person )eing merely incidental*

    Money claims

    o I% t(e in=ury complained o% is to t(e person and t(e in=uries to t(e property are incidental-

    t(en t(e action will notsurvive*

    Annulment o% marriage- legal separation K even i% it involves c(anges in t(eproperty relations

    J(at s(ould t(e lawyer doF $716J "DI'

    o De s(ould- wit(in G days a%ter t(e deat(- in%orm t(e court t(ereo%*

    Period: G days a%ter /AC" o% deat(* 1ot knowledge o% suc(*

    o &ive t(e name and address o% t(e legal representative o% t(e deceased*

    o "(e court will order:

    t(e representative to appear and

    )e su)stituted wit(in G days %rom notice*

    o pon %ailure to o% t(e legal rep to appear- t(e court may order t(e opposing party- wit(in a

    given period- to procure t(e appointment o% an e9ecutor or administrator w(o s(allimmediately appear %or t(e estate o% t(e deceased*

    J(o s(ould t(e su)stitutes )eF

    o "(ose w(o are aut(ori.ed )y law- meaning "(e legal (eirs- wit(out re#uiring t(e appointment o% an e9ecutor or administrator

    "(e administrator

    "(e e9ecutor- or

    "(e guardian $umal=ag v Literato- [email protected] w(erein t(e court said t(e su)stitutiono% someone w(o does not %all into t(is list is an invalid su)stitution'

    J(at (appens i% t(ere is no valid su)stitution )ecause o% eit(er t(e %ault o% t(e counsel or t(e

    %ailure o% t(e court to order a su)stitutionFo It will not invalidate t(e proceedings and t(e =udgment rendered t(ereon*

    o Mere %ailure to su)stitute a deceased party is 16" su%%icient ground to nulli%y a court,s

    decision* "(e party alleging nullity must prove t(at t(ere was an undenia)le violation o%due process*

    o "ag line: "(e rule on su)stitution o% (eirs is not a matter o% =urisdiction- )ut a

    R?BIR?M?1" 6/ 5? PR6C?* Dence- %ormal su)stitution )y (eirs is not necessary w(en t(ey t(emselves

    voluntarily appear- participate in t(e case- and present evidence in t(e de%ense o%t(e deceased* $1apere v ;ar)arona- [email protected]'

    Sec# 17# De't% ! &e''t!" !$ ' 't. *%! & ' ulc !$$ce#

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    c!"t"u"3 ! '"t'""3 t '"+ t%'t t%e &ucce&&! '+!t& ! c!"t"ue& ! t%e'te"& t! '+!t !c!"t"ue t%e 'ct!" !$ %& e+ece&&!# 4e$!e ' &u&ttut!" & '+e, t%e 't. ! !$$ce t! e '$$ecte+,u"le&& e/e&&l. '&&e"t"3 t%eet!, &%'ll e 3e" e'&!"'le "!tce !$ t%e 'lc't!" t%ee$! '"+'cc!+e+ '" !!tu"t. t! e %e'+#

    Re#uisites:

    o Removaldeat( o% pu)lic o%%icer and appointment o% successor wit(in G days unless

    ot(erwise providedo uccessor adopts- continues- or t(reatens to continue t(e action sued againsto "(ere is su)stantial need to continue t(e action

    u)stitution is 16" automatic* "(e court must:

    o &ive notice to t(e new pu)lic o%%icer- and

    o &ive (im an opportunity to )e (eard

    Mere %act t(at (e is inclined to continue t(e action o% t(e predecessor is notenoug(

    Sec# 18# I"c!ete"c. ! "c''ct.#I$ ' 't. ec!e& "c!ete"t ! "c''ct'te+, t%e c!ut, u!" !t!" *t% "!tce, '.

    'll!* t%e 'ct!" t! e c!"t"ue+ . ! '3'"&t t%e "c!ete"t ! "c''ct'te+ e&!" '&&&te+ . %&le3'l 3u'+'" ! 3u'+'" '+ lte#

    J(at do I do i% my client )ecomes incompetent or incapacitated midwayF

    /ile a motion wit( notice asking t(e court to continue t(e case and %or t(e client to )e assisted )y

    a legal guardian or guardian ad litem*

    Sec# 1B# T'"&$e !$ "tee&t#

    I" c'&e !$ '". t'"&$e !$ "tee&t, t%e 'ct!" '. e c!"t"ue+ . ! '3'"&t t%e !3"'l 't., u"le&&t%e c!ut u!" !t!" +ect& t%e e&!" t! *%! t%e "tee&t & t'"&$ee+ t! e &u&ttute+ " t%e'ct!" ! 5!"e+ *t% t%e !3"'l 't.#

    ?9ample: Mario 'iled an action 'or replevin o' his mushroom against Luigi% .hile the case !aspending, Luigi sold the mushroom to /o!ser%

    J(at i% t(ere was a trans%er o% interestF

    o "(e action may )e continued )y or against t(e original party*

    De will t(en (old t(e %ruits o% t(e action as sort o% trustee %or t(e use and )ene%ito% (is trans%eree* In t(e same manner t(at t(e trans%eree o% t(e original de%endantis )ound )y t(e =udgment against t(e latter*

    Can t(e court order t(at ;owser )e impleadedF

    o >es- upon motion* I% t(e court merely orders (im to )e impleaded- t(ere is no su)stitution-

    ;owser is =ust =oined*o "(ere can only )e su)stitution i% t(e court orders t(e su)stitution- not t(e mere

    impleading*o Dence- t(e )ottom line is t(at t(ere must )e a court order- eit(er to implead or to

    su)stitute*

    "(e trans%ereependent elite is a proper party in t(e case )ut not an indispensa)le party* $Deritage

    Park v CIAC- [email protected]'

    "(e su)stitution must )e done

    o during t(e li%etime o% t(e trans%eror o% t(e interest and

    o w(ile t(e mani%esting counsel as still t(e e%%ective and aut(ori.ed counsel %or t(e client0

    trans%eror* It can,t )e done i% (e,s dead* $umal=ag v Literato- [email protected]'

    Sec# 20# Act!" !" c!"t'ctu'l !"e. cl'

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    )e a money claim- as long as t(e action survives'

    J(at (appens i% t(e de%endant dies in a case involving a money claimF

    o 1o su)stitution $law does not mandate any su)stitution'* It =ust continues*

    o 6nce a %inal =udgment is entered against t(e estate o% t(e deceased- it s(all )e en%orced

    as a claim wit(out need o% proving t(e same*o I% )ased on a contract- %ile money claim in pro)ate court*

    o I% )ased on tort or delict- %ile against t(e e9ecutor or administrator*

    Sec# 21# I"+3e"t 't.#A 't. '. e 'ut%!e+ t! lt3'te %& 'ct!", cl' ! +e$e"&e '& '" "+3e"t $ t%e c!ut, u!" '" e/'te 'lc't!" '"+ %e'"3, & &'t&$e+ t%'t t%e 't. & !"e *%! %'& "! !"e. ! !et. &u$$ce"t'"+ ''l'le $! $!!+, &%elte '"+ '&c "ece&&te& $! %&el$ '"+ %& $'l.#

    Suc% 'ut%!t. &%'ll "clu+e '" e/et!" $! '.e"t !$ +!cet '"+ !t%e l'*$ul $ee&, '"+ !$t'"&ct& !$ &te"!3'%c "!te& *%c% t%e c!ut '. !+e t! e $u"&%e+ %# T%e '!u"t !$ t%e+!cet '"+ !t%e l'*$ul $ee& *%c% t%e "+3e"t *'& e/ete+ $! '."3 &%'ll e ' le" !" '".5u+3e"t e"+ee+ " t%e c'&e $'!'le t! t%e "+3e"t, u"le&& t%e c!ut !t%e*&e !+e

    A". '+e&e 't. '. c!"te&t t%e 3'"t !$ &uc% 'ut%!t. 't '". te e$!e 5u+3e"t &e"+ee+ . t%e t'l c!ut# I$ t%e c!ut &%!ul+ +ete"e '$te %e'"3 t%'t t%e 't. +ecl'e+ '& '""+3e"t & " $'ct ' e&!" *t% &u$$ce"t "c!e ! !et., t%e !e +!cet '"+ !t%e l'*$ul $ee&&%'ll e '&&e&&e+ '"+ c!llecte+ . t%e cle !$ c!ut# I$ '.e"t & "!t '+e *t%" t%e te $/e+ .t%e c!ut, e/ecut!" &%'ll &&ue $! t%e '.e"t t%ee!$, *t%!ut e5u+ce t! &uc% !t%e &'"ct!"& '&t%e c!ut '. !&e#

    J(o can )e considered an indigentF *lgura v L0 o' 1aga, 2334, answers t(is )y =u9taposing t(is section wit( Rule !4!- ection 8* It

    gives a two tier test*o I% t(e indigent %its wit(in t(e parameters set out )y Rule !4!- ection 8- it is MA15A"6R>

    upon t(e court to declare (im an indigent*

    &ross income + %amily income does not e9ceed twice o% mont(ly minimum wage-and

    6wns real property w(ose /M is less or e#ual to PGk2 of ore t$an T5R $undred t$ousand *P300,000.00+ !esos s$all #e e-e!t

    fro t$e !a"ent of legal fees.

    T$e legal fees s$all #e a lien on an" )udgent rendered in t$e case fa(ora#le to t$e indigent litigant unless t$e court ot$er%ise !ro(ides.

    To #e entitled to t$e e-e!tion $erein !ro(ided, t$e litigant s$all e-ecute an affida(it t$at $e and $is iediate fail" do not earn a grossincoe a#o(eentioned, nor t$e" o%n an" real !ro!ert" %it$ t$e fair (alue aforeentioned, su!!orted #" an affida(it of a disinterested !erson

    attesting to t$e trut$ of t$e litigantDs affida(it. T$e current ta- declaration, if an", s$all #e attac$ed to t$e litigantDs affida(it.

    n" falsit" in t$e affida(it of litigant or disinterested !erson s$all #e sufficient cause to disiss t$e co!laint or action or to strike out t$e

    !leading of t$at !art", %it$out !re)udice to %$ate(er criinal lia#ilit" a" $a(e #een incurred. *1a+

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

    22

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    RULE 6 >ENUE OF ACTIONS

    In determining t(e proper venue %or an action- you must consider two t(ings

    o /irst: Is it a real or personal actionF

    se ection ! and 2 %or t(at- and our lesson in determining t(e real natureo% anaction*

    o econd: Is it covered )y a special law or )y stipulationF

    se ection 4 %or t(is*

    Remem)er: i% venue is determined )y special law or )y a particular rule in t(eR6C- you can,t stipulate on venue* "(e law takes precedence over t(e stipulation*

    Sect!" 1# >e"ue !$ e'l 'ct!"Act!"& '$$ect"3 ttle t! ! !&&e&&!" !$ e'l !et., ! "tee&t t%ee", &%'ll e c!e"ce+ '"+te+ " t%e !e c!ut *%c% %'& 5u&+ct!" !e t%e 'e' *%ee" t%e e'l !et. "!le+, ! '!t!" t%ee!$, & &tu'te+#

    F!cle e"t. '"+ +et'"e 'ct!"& &%'ll e c!e"ce+ '"+ te+ " t%e u"c'l t'l c!ut !$t%e u"c'lt. ! ct. *%ee" t%e e'l !et. "!le+, ! ' !t!" t%ee!$, & &tu'te+#

    J(at is t(e venue o% real actionsF

    o It,s t(e proper court w(ic( (as =urisdiction over t(e area w(erein t(e real property- or a

    portion t(ereo%- is situated*

    Real action

    o "(ose a%%ecting

    title to or

    possession o% real property- or

    interest t(erein*

    All else are personal actions*

    o "(e principal o)=ective or relie% soug(t is eit(er owners(ip or possession o% real property*

    o Remem)er t(e lessons in docket %ees Look %or t(e true nature o% t(e action

    o "(ese include

    Partition-

    ?9propriation

    Action %or t(e annulment or rescission o% sale o% land $)ut i% t(e title (as not yet

    passed to t(e vendee- it can)e considered a personal action K Atty* "ran#uil'*

    enue %or e=ectment caseso "(e M"C w(ere t(e property or a portion t(ereo% is situated*

    ?: i% t(ere,s a stipulation

    Jait Can t(e venue %or e=ectment cases )e stipulatedF

    o >es "(e rule governing e=ectment cases $Rule E- ec !' merely

    states t(at it s(ould )e %iled in t(e M"C- )ut it doesn,t say w(ic(M"C* $6t(er words- =urisdiction is indicated- )ut t(e venue isn,t*'2

    J(ere do you %ile an action %or e9tra0=udicial %oreclosureF

    o ?9tra=d %oreclosure is 16" a =udicial action and not covered )y t(e RoC* It,s covered )y Act

    2!G

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    $since it,s not really a petition )ut a motion K P"A case'

    /or =udicial %oreclosure

    o Rule @ does not provide %or t(e venue o% t(is CA- )ut it is %iled w(ere t(e property is

    located*

    o I% t(e contract o% mortgage covers various properties in di%%erent provinces- %ile in R"C o%

    any o% t(e provinces covering t(e property* $Atty &uevara'

    Sec# 2# >e"ue !$ e&!"'l 'ct!"All !t%e 'ct!"& '. e c!e"ce+ '"+ te+ *%ee t%e l'"t$$ ! '". !$ t%e "c'l l'"t$$&e&+e&, ! *%ee t%e +e$e"+'"t ! '". !$ t%e "c'l +e$e"+'"t& e&+e&, ! " t%e c'&e !$ ' "!"-e&+e"t +e$e"+'"t *%ee %e '. e $!u"+, 't t%e elect!" !$ t%e l'"t$$#

    J(at,s t(e venue o% personal actionsF

    o ?it(er in t(e place w(ere

    o "(e plainti%% or any o% t(e principal plainti%% resides- or

    o "(e de%endant or any o% t(e principal de%endant resides- or

    o In t(e case o% a non0resident de%endant- w(ere (e may )e %ound

    At t(e election o% t(e plainti%%

    6n t(e issue o% w(o t(e principal plainti%% is

    o In Marcos-*raneta v )* (2335- Court ruled t(at it is t(e )ene%iciary o% a trust w(o is t(e

    principal plainti%%* "(e )ene%iciary is t(e RPI- not t(e trustees w(o merely represent t(e

    )ene%iciary* Dence- w(en t(e )ene%iciary lives in Makati- t(e action must )e commencedt(ere- and not w(ere t(e trustees reside*

    Action was a personal one: suit %or reconveyance o% stocks

    o "(e rule is suc( to prevent t(e plainti%% %rom c(oosing t(e residence o% a minor plainti%% or

    de%endant as t(e venue*

    J(at does residence mean in t(is ruleF

    o *ctual residence- w(ere t(ere is personal- actual and p(ysical (a)itation*

    ?9amples o% personal actions

    o 5amages

    o Recovery o% personal property

    o Cancellation o% real estate mortgage $to compel t(e mortgagee to accept payment o% t(e

    mortgage de)t'

    Sec# # >e"ue !$ 'ct!"& '3'"&t "!"-e&+e"tI$ '". !$ t%e +e$e"+'"t& +!e& "!t e&+e '"+ & "!t $!u"+ " t%e =%l"e&, '"+ t%e 'ct!" '$$ect& t%ee&!"'l &t'tu& !$ t%e l'"t$$, ! '". !et. !$ &'+ +e$e"+'"t l!c'te+ " t%e =%l"e&, t%e 'ct!"

    '. e c!e"ce+ '"+ te+ " t%e c!ut !$ t%e l'ce *%ee t%e l'"t$$ e&+e&, ! *%ee t%e!et. ! '". !t!" t%ee!$ & &tu'te+ ! $!u"+#

    J(at i% any o% t(e de%endants does not reside and is not %ound in t(e P(ilippines- w(at,s t(e

    venueFo I% it involves t(e personal status o% t(e plainti%%- t(en in t(e court o% t(e place w(ere t(e

    plainti%% resides*o I% it involves t(e property o% t(e de%endant located in t(e P(ilippines- w(ere t(e property

    or any portion t(ereo% is situated or %ound*

    3urisdiction is limited to t(e res- namely- t(e personal status o% t(e plainti%% or t(e property o% t(e

    de%endant located in t(e P(ilippines*

    "(e =udgment must )e con%ined to t(e res- and no personal =udgment can )e rendered against t(e

    de%endant- unless (e su)mits to t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court*

    Sec# 6#

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    o Action %or nullity o% marriage: w(ere plainti%% residents- w(ere t(e de%endant resides or

    w(ere t(eir con=ugal (ome is locatedo Adoption: w(ere t(e prospective adoptive parents reside

    o Pro)ate: w(ere t(e deceased last resided at (is time o% deat(

    o Contempt in #uasi0=udicial agencies: R"C w(ere t(e contempt was committed

    o Jrit o% (a)eas corpus on residence o% minors: &R is R"C w(ere t(e minor is supposed to

    )e %ound

    ?C?P" w(en place is unknown or minor cannot )e %ound- can )e %iled in t(e CA orC

    Can venue )e stipulatedF

    o >es- )ut it must not )e contrary to pu)lic policy*

    o A written agreement o% t(e parties as to venue )e%ore t(e %iling o% an action is not only

    )inding upon t(e parties )ut also on t(e courts*o "(e parties must employ categorical and suita)ly limiting language t(at t(ey wis( t(e

    venue o% t(e action )e laid only and e9clusively at a de%inite place*

    In t(e a)sence o% #uali%ying or restrictive words- t(e stipulation on venue s(ould

    )e deemed as merely an agreement on an additional %orum- not as limiting venueto t(e speci%ied place* $Lantin v Lantion- 2'*

    In Lantin- t(e action was a real one: nullity o% sale andor mortgage )ecause t(emain o)=ective o% t(e case was t(e reconveyance o% t(e property sold

    o Important: w(ere t(e e9clusivity clause does not make it necessarily all encompassing-suc( t(at even t(ose not related to t(e en%orcement o% t(e contract s(ould )e su)=ect tot(e e9clusive venue- t(e stipulation designating venues s(ould )e strictly con%ined to t(especi%ic undertaking or agreement* $MC v Monasterio- 2

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    Realpersonal actions are not t(e same wit( in rem- #uasi in rem- in personam actions*

    o "(e %ormer determines venue- =urisidiction- and %iling %ees*

    o "(e latter merely determines w(o will )e )ound )y t(e =udgment $e%%ect o% =udgment'*

    RULE UNIFORM =ROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS

    Sect!" 1# U"$! !ce+ue#

    T%e !ce+ue " t%e Mu"c'l T'l C!ut& &%'ll e t%e &'e '& " t%e Re3!"'l T'l C!ut&, e/cet (')*%ee ' 'tcul' !&!" e/e&&l. ! le+l. 'le& !"l. t! et%e !$ &'+ c!ut&, ! () " clc'&e& 3!e"e+ . t%e Rule !" Su'. =!ce+ue#

    Sec# 2# Me'""3 !$ teT%e te ?Mu"c'l T'l C!ut&? '& u&e+ " t%e&e Rule& &%'ll "clu+e Met!!lt'" T'l C!ut&,Mu"c'l T'l C!ut& " Cte&, Mu"c'l T'l C!ut&, '"+ Mu"c'l Ccut T'l C!ut

    "o )e read wit( t(e Rules on ummary Procedure

    In t(e M"Cs- t(e procedure is t(e same as in t(e R"C e9cept:

    o J(en )y e9press or implied provision o% law

    o In civil cases governed )y t(e Rules on ummary Procedure

    Civil cases governed )y t(e Rules on ummary Procedure:

    o ?=ectment cases- regardless o% t(e amount o% damages or unpaid rent soug(t to )e

    recovered*

    I% attorney,s %ees are to )e awarded- s(ouldn,t )e more t(an P2-*o All ot(er cases- e8cept probate proceedings- w(ere t(e total amount o% t(e plainti%%,s claim

    does 16" e9ceed P!- or P2- $in MM'- e9clusive o% interest and costs*2E

    /or criminal cases- see codal*

    Court will issue an order stating t(at t(e case is governed or not )y t(e rules on summary

    procedure*[email protected]

    "(ree steps in summary procedure:

    o /IR": /iling o% t(e complaint

    pon %iling- t(e court can:

    5ismiss t(e case outrig(t

    Issue summons28

    "(e responsive pleading (ere will )e an A1J?R wit(in ! days $not t(e usual !ot later t$an t$irt" *30+ da"s after t$e last ans%er is filed, a !reliinar" conference

    s$all #e $eld. T$e rules on !retrial in ordinar" cases s$all #e a!!lica#le to t$e !reliinar" conference unless inconsistent %it$ t$e !ro(isions oft$is Rule.

    T$e failure of t$e !laintiff to a!!ear in t$e !reliinar" conference s$all #e a cause for t$e disissal of $is co!laint. T$e defendant %$o a!!ears

    in t$e a#sence of t$e !laintiff s$all #e entitled to )udgent on $is counterclai in accordance %it$ Section $ereof. ll crossclais s$all #e

    disissed.

    'f a sole defendant s$all fail to a!!ear, t$e !laintiff s$all #e entitled to )udgent in accordance %it$ Section $ereof. T$is Rule s$all not a!!l"%$ere one of t%o or ore defendants sued under a coon cause of action %$o $ad !leaded a coon defense s$all a!!ear at t$e !reliinar"

    conference.34Sec. =. Record of !reliinar" conference. Jit$in fi(e */+ da"s after t$e terination of t$e !reliinar" conference, t$e court s$all issue an

    order stating t$e atters taken u! t$erein, including #ut not liited to:

    *a+ J$et$er t$e !arties $a(e arri(ed at an aica#le settleent, and if so, t$e ters t$ereof6*#+ T$e sti!ulations or adissions entered into #" t$e !arties6.

    *c+ J$et$er, on t$e #asis of t$e !leadings and t$e sti!ulations and adissions ade #" t$e !arties, )udgent a" #e rendered %it$out t$e need

    of furt$er !roceedings, in %$ic$ e(ent t$e )udgent s$all #e rendered %it$in t$irt" *30+ da"s fro issuance of t$e order6

    *d+ clear s!ecification of aterial facts %$ic$ reain contro(erted6 and (irtual la% li#rar"*e+ Suc$ ot$er atters intended to e-!edite t$e dis!osition of t$e case.3/Sec.

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    t(e e9piration o% t(e period %or %iling t(e same* $note: not su)mission %or

    resolution )ut su)mission o% t(e last a%%idavitposition paper'o ?C?P": i% t(e court needs more clari%icatory stu%%- it will issue an

    order re#uiring more a%%idavits to )e given to t(e court wit(in !days %rom receipt o% order* "(e court will t(en decide !< days a%tert(e receipt o% t(e last clari%icatory a%%idavit*G

    Pro(i)ited pleadingsGE:

    o M"5- e9cept

    Lack o% 35 over su)=ect matter

    Cannot )e waived )y t(e parties or cured )y silence- ac#uieence or even

    e9press consent* $;ongato v Malvar- 22'

    ?9ample: prescription- %iling %or e=ectment case )eyond t(e !0year period

    /ailure to re%er to [email protected]$waiva)le according to ;anares case'

    5ismissed )ut JI"D6" pre=udice

    o Reply

    o ;ill o% particulars

    o MR or M1"

    o Petition %or relie% %rom =udgment

    o Motion to declare in de%ault

    Also pro(i)ited in small claims cases and environment cases

    o "(ird party complainto Memoranda

    o 5ilatory motions %or postponement

    Motions %or cancellation o% (earing are not dilatory )ut )e care%ul since t(e =udgewill (ave to determine i% it,s dilatory in t(e %irst place

    o Motion %or e9tension o% time

    o Petition %or certiorari- mandamus- pro(i)ition against interlocutory orders o% t(e court

    o Interventions

    5ecisions %rom t(e M"C can )e appealed to t(e R"C*G8

    o 6n appeal in t(e R"C- a MR is no longer a pro(i)ited pleading*

    "(e appeal )e%ore t(e R"C is no longer covered )y t(e Rules on ummaryProcedure* $Macandangdang v &aviola- 28'

    3Sec. 10. Rendition of )udgent. Jit$in t$irt" *30+ da"s after recei!t of t$e last affida(its and !osition !a!ers, or t$e e-!iration of t$e!eriod for filing t$e sae, t$e court s$all render )udgent.

    5o%e(er s$ould t$e court find it necessar" to clarif" certain aterial facts, it a", during t$e said !eriod, issue an order s!ecif"ing t$e atters to

    #e clarified, and re&uire t$e !arties to su#it affida(its or ot$er e(idence on t$e said atters %it$in ten *10+ da"s fro recei!t of said order.

    @udgent s$all #e rendered %it$in fifteen *1/+ da"s after t$e recei!t of t$e last clarificator" affida(its, or t$e e-!iration of t$e !eriod for filing t$e

    sae.T$e court s$all not resort to t$e clarificator" !rocedure to gain tie for t$e rendition of t$e )udgent.37Sec. 1

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    Rules o% Court supplement t(e Rules on ummary Procedure as long as t(ey are not

    inconsistent*4

    o Dence- w(en t(e M"C dismisses a case )ecause o% lack o% re%erral to t(e lupon and t(e

    aggrieved party %ails to appeal wit(in !< days- it )ecomes %inal and e9ecutory and cannot)e revived )y a mere motion* $;anares- 2'

    Preliminary in=unction- )eing a provisional remedy- s(ould lend itsel% to t(e summary nature o% an

    e=ectment case* $Maderada v Mediodea'

    3udges w(o %ail to %ollow t(e Rules on ummary Procedure will )e (eld administratively lia)le*

    RULE 9 INDS OF =LEADINGSSect!" 1# =le'+"3& +e$"e+#=le'+"3& 'e t%e *tte" &t'tee"t& !$ t%e e&ecte cl'& '"+ +e$e"&e& !$ t%e 'te& &utte+ t!t%e c!ut $! '!'te 5u+3e"t#

    A pleading is a written statement o% t(e:

    o Respective claims and de%enses o% t(e parties

    o u)mitted to t(e court %or appropriate =udgment*

    1o claimF 1o de%enseF "(en not a pleading*

    JAR1I1&: ir will ask a lot o% #uestions on Rule [email protected] %or midterms so know t(e codal like t(e )ack

    o% your (and*

    Sec# 2# =le'+"3& 'll!*e+#T%e cl'& !$ ' 't. 'e '&&ete+ " ' c!l'"t, c!u"tecl', c!&&-cl', t%+ ($!ut%, etc#) 't.c!l'"t, ! c!l'"t-"-"tee"t!"# T%e +e$e"&e& !$ ' 't. 'e 'lle3e+ " t%e '"&*e t! t%ele'+"3 '&&et"3 ' cl' '3'"&t %# A" '"&*e '. e e&!"+e+ t! . ' el.#

    Sec# # C!l'"t#T%e c!l'"t & t%e le'+"3 'lle3"3 t%e l'"t$$& c'u&e ! c'u&e& !$ 'ct!"# T%e "'e& '"+e&+e"ce& !$ t%e l'"t$$ '"+ +e$e"+'"t u&t e &t'te+ " t%e c!l'"t#

    A complaint is a pleading alleging t(e plainti%%,s cause o% action*

    o It s(ould contain t(e names and residences o% t(e plainti%% and de%endant*

    J(at else s(ould it containF

    o &R: A concise statement o% t(e ultimate %acts constituting t(e plainti%%,s cause o% action-

    not evidentiary %acts or legal conclusions* "(ese are t(e essential %acts constituting t(e plainti%%,s cause o% action*

    A general allegation o% owners(ip is a su%%icient averment o% t(e ultimate

    %act*

    An allegation t(at de%endant promised to pay is an ultimate %act*

    1ot ultimate %acts:

    ?videntiary or immaterial %acts*

    Legal conclusions*

    Allegation t(at a contract is valid or void $it,s a legal conclusion'

    ?C?P": in actiona)le documents- since you (ave to put t(e su)stance o% t(edocument or its w(ole contents $see Rule @- ec E'

    o It s(ould also contain t(e relie% prayed %or*

    It is t(e relie% )ased on t(e %acts alleged- and not t(e relie% demanded- w(ic( ist(e taken into consideration in determining t(e cause o% action*

    o I% it depends upon a condition precedent- (e must allege and prove t(e %ul%illment o% t(econdition or t(e legal e9cuse %or its non0%ul%illment*

    o Can also )e alleged:

    /raud- mistake- malice- intent- knowledge- illegality

    /or %raud and mistake- aver wit( particularity*

    /or t(e rest- general allegations will su%%ice*

    40Sec. 22. !!lica#ilit" of t$e regular rules. T$e regular !rocedure !rescri#ed in t$eRules of Courts$all a!!l" to t$e s!ecial cases $erein

    !ro(ided for in a su!!letor" ca!acit" insofar as t$e" are not inconsistent $ere%it$.

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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    Sec# 6# A"&*e#A" '"&*e & ' le'+"3 " *%c% ' +e$e"+"3 't. &et& $!t% %& +e$e"&e

    An answer is a pleading in w(ic( a de%ending party sets %ort( (is de%enses*

    J(en s(ould it )e %iledF

    6rdinary service o% summons $Rule!!- ec !'

    Jit(in !< days

    ?9traterritorial service At least days a%ter notice

    ummons )y pu)lication At least days a%ter date o%t(e last pu)lication

    In response to an amended complaint$Rule !!- ec G'

    I% amendment a matter o% rig(t

    I% amendment not a matter o%

    rig(t

    Jit(in !< daysJit(in ! days %rom noticeo% t(e order admitting t(esame

    In response to a supplementalcomplaint $Rule !!- ec E'

    Jit(in ! days %rom noticeo% t(e order admitting t(esame- unless a di%%erent

    period is %i9ed )y t(e courtIn response to a counterclaim andcross0claim $Rule !!- ec 4'

    Jit(in ! days %rom service

    In response to a t(ird0party complaint$Rule !!- ec

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    Prescription- release- payment- statute o% %rauds $grounds %or motion to

    dismiss'

    I% you (ypot(etically admit- wit(out raising any de%ense- t(en t(ere,s no issue*"(is will lead to a =udgment on t(e pleadings* $Rule G4 K w(en t(e answer doesnot tender an issue or admits t(e material allegations'

    o Raise t(ese %irst in your motion to dismiss $w(ic( you %ile )e%ore your answer'- t(en raise

    it again in your answer

    Dow do you plead a%%irmative de%ensesF

    I% estoppel- allege t(e %acts constituting it*

    I% %raud or mistake- aver wit( particularity*

    I% malice- intent- knowledge or ot(er condition o% t(e mind o% a person-

    =ust aver it generally*

    J(at is a negative de%enseF

    o It,s a speci%ic denial o% t(e material %act or %acts allege in t(e pleading o% t(e claimant

    essential to (is causecauses o% action*o A speci%ic denial can )e two t(ings $Rule @- ec !':

    peci%ic denial: "(e de%endant speci%ies eac( material allegation o% %act $(e doesn,tadmit t(e trut(' and w(enever practica)le- sets %ort( su)stance o% t(e matters (e

    relies upon to support (is denial- or i% (e denies only a part o% t(e averment- (especi%ies so muc( o% it as is true and denies t(e remainder* $ /asically, he chooses

    stu'' 'rom the complaint and shoots them do!n by denying them 5isavowal o% knowledge: "(e de%endant states t(at (e does not (ave knowledge

    or in%ormation su%%icient to %orm a )elie% as to t(e trut( o% a material averment*$9e says he doesnt kno! anything regarding a material averment

    Dowever- i% it t(e averment was in %act wit(in t(e knowledge o% t(e

    de%endant and (e still disavows knowledge- it is deemed admitted as amere general denial*

    5e%enses o% lack o% knowledge %or lack o% privity or ina)ility to recall

    )ecause it (appened a long time ago are insu%%icient de%enses* $Repu)lic vandigan)ayan- 2G'

    J(at is a negative pregnantF

    o It,s a %orm o% negative e9pression w(ic( carries wit( it an a%%irmation or at least an

    implication o% some kind %avora)le to t(e adverse party*o It is a denial pregnant wit( an admission o% t(e su)stantial %acts alleged in t(e pleading*

    ?9ample: allegations were t(at t(ere were illegal %unds in a wiss )ank account*Answer was t(at t(e %unds were legally ac#uired* Dence- t(e su)stantial %act t(att(ere were %unds in a wiss )ank account was not speci%ically denied- and t(usadmitted*

    Sec# 9# C!u"tecl'#

    A c!u"tecl' & '". cl' *%c% ' +e$e"+"3 't. '. %'e '3'"&t '" !!&"3 't.#

    Mario 'iled a collection case versus Luigi% Luigi 'iled a collection case versus Mario, claiming Marioo!ed him%

    A counterclaim is a distinct and independent cause o% action*

    o pon its %iling- t(e same proceedings are (ad as in t(e original complaint*

    Period to answer counterclaim: wit(in ! days %rom service*

    Properly interposed- t(e de%endant )ecomes t(e plainti%%*

    Sec# 7# C!ul&!. c!u"tecl'#A c!ul&!. c!u"tecl' & !"e *%c%, e"3 c!3"'le . t%e e3ul' c!ut& !$ 5u&tce, '&e& !ut !$! & c!""ecte+ *t% t%e t'"&'ct!" ! !ccue"ce c!"&ttut"3 t%e &u5ect 'tte !$ t%e !!&"3't.& cl' '"+ +!e& "!t eue $! t& '+5u+c't!" t%e e&e"ce !$ t%+ 'te& !$ *%! t%e c!utc'""!t 'cue 5u&+ct!"# Suc% ' c!u"tecl' u&t e *t%" t%e 5u&+ct!" !$ t%e c!ut !t% '& t!t%e '!u"t '"+ t%e "'tue t%ee!$, e/cet t%'t " '" !3"'l 'ct!" e$!e t%e Re3!"'l T'l C!ut, t%ec!u"tecl' '. e c!"&+ee+ c!ul&!. e3'+le&& !$ t%e '!u"t#

    Re#uisites %or a compulsory counterclaim:

    o Must arise out o%- or )e necessarily connected wit(- t(e transaction or occurrence t(at is

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

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    t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e opposing party,s or co0party,s claimQo 5oes not re#uire %or its ad=udication t(e presence o% G rdparties o% w(om t(e court cannot

    ac#uire =urisdictionQ ando Must )e wit(in t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court- and is cogni.a)le )y t(e regular courts o%

    =ustice*

    o i% t(e counterclaim is a la)or claim- it cannot )e considered compulsory)ecause it is t(e 1LRC w(o (as =urisdiction- not t(e regular courts*

    o "est o% complusoriness: duplicity o% cases

    o I% you don,t %ile a compulsory counterclaim in your answer- it is deemed waived and )arred

    %orever* $compare to permissive'

    Re#uisites %or a permissive counterclaim:

    o 5oes not arise out o% or is not necessarily connected wit( t(e transaction or occurrence

    t(at is t(e su)=ect matter o% t(e opposing party,s claimQo 5oes not re#uire %or its ad=udication t(e presence o% t(ird parties o% w(om t(e court

    cannot ac#uire =urisdictionQ ando Must )e wit(in t(e =urisdiction o% t(e court- and is cogni.a)le )y t(e regular courts o%

    =ustice

    1ot related at all to t(e original claim %iled- it,s permissive as to t(e party- not to t(e court*

    As you can see- t(ere is 16 need %or leave o% court %or a counterclaim* It,s up to t(e party

    involved*

    Important distinction )etween compulsory and permissive counterclaims: Compulsory: 1o need %or certi%icate o% non0%orum s(opping since not an initiatory pleading

    Permissive: 1eed %or certi%icate o% 1/

    5ocket %ees are now re#uired %or )ot( compulsory and permissive counterclaims* Remem)er t(is

    $7orean "ec( v Lerma- [email protected]'

    Rule on =urisdiction over counterclaims:

    o In t(e R"C- t(ere is no limit to t(e counterclaim*

    o In t(e M"C- t(e counterclaim is limited to t(e =d o% t(e in%erior court*

    o t(e )alance is lost* o =ust %ile separately*

    Mario %iled a collection suit versus Luigi in t(e R"C o% Manila %or P8-* Luigi made a

    counterclaim %or P!

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    transaction*

    Sec# 10# Rel.#A el. & ' le'+"3, t%e !$$ce ! $u"ct!" !$ *%c% & t! +e"., ! 'lle3e $'ct& " +e"'l ! '!+'"ce !$"e* 'tte& 'lle3e+ . *'. !$ +e$e"&e " t%e '"&*e '"+ t%ee. 5!" ! 'e &&ue '& t! &uc% "e*'tte I$ ' 't. +!e& "!t $le &uc% el., 'll t%e "e* 'tte& 'lle3e+ " t%e '"&*e 'e +eee+

    c!"t!ete+#

    I$ t%e l'"t$$ *&%e& t! "te!&e '". cl'& '&"3 !ut !$ t%e "e* 'tte& &! 'lle3e+, &uc%cl'& &%'ll e &et $!t% " '" 'e"+e+ ! &ulee"t'l c!l'"t#

    You 'ile this a'ter the ans!er%

    A reply is a pleading w(ose %unction is to:

    o 5eny- or

    o Allege %acts in denial or avoidance o% new matters-

    J(ic( were alleged )y way o% de%ense in t(e answer-

    o And t(ere)y =oin or make issue as to suc( new matters*

    I% t(ere is 16 reply- all t(e new matters alleged in t(e answer are deemed controverted*

    o )ontroverted na pala eh, !hy 'ile a reply pa&

    ;ecause it,s not good practice*

    "(e proper %unction o% a reply is to allege new matters in avoidance o% anya%%irmative de%ense*

    It also %urt(er de%ines t(e issues and speci%ies matter %or trial*

    J(en s(ould one %ile a replyF

    Response to an answer $Rule!!- ec '

    Jit(in ! days %rom service

    I% in response to a supplementalanswer

    Jit(in ! days %rom notice o%order

    A%ter service o% t(e )ill o%particulars- or a%ter notice o%denial o% one,s motion %or a )illo% particulars $Rule !2- ec

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    uc( a claim may still )e en%orced in a separate action* "(e action is not

    lost*

    Is summons needed on t(e t(ird0party de%endantF

    o >es* 6% course* In order to o)tain =urisdiction over (im(er*

    Can t(e original claimant amend (is pleading to =oin t(e t(ird party de%endantF

    o >es* De may amend (is pleadings to assert against t(e t(ird0party de%endant any claim

    w(ic( t(e %ormer mig(t (ave asserted against t(e latter (ad (e )een =oined originally as aparty*

    "(e )ringing o% a t(ird0party de%endant is proper i% (e would )e lia)le to t(e plainti%% or t(e

    de%endant or )ot( %or all or part o% t(e plainti%%,s claim against t(e original de%endant- alt(oug( t(eGrdparty de%endant,s lia)ility arises out o% anot(er transaction*

    A t(ird0party complaint must allege %acts w(ic( prima %acie s(ow t(at t(e de%endant is entitled to

    contri)ution- su)rogation- etc %rom t(e t(ird0party de%endant*

    ?9ample

    Mario sold land to Luigi% /o!ser sues Luigi to recover said parcel o' land, claiming hes the real

    o!ner% Luigi then 'iles a third-party complaint versus Mario to en'orce the !arranty againsteviction% /o!ser may amend his complaint to include Mario and claim damages 'or havingdeprived him o' said land%

    Is t(e Grdparty de%endant )ound )y t(e ad=udication o% t(e t(ird0party plainti%%,s lia)ility to t(e

    original plainti%%F

    o >es* J(at is t(e e%%ect o% t(e dismissal o% t(e complaint on t(e t(ird0party complaintF

    o I% t(e complaint is dismissed- t(e t(ird0party complaint will also necessarily )e dismissed*

    Sec# 12# 4"3"3 "e* 'te

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    ?'"&*e t! t%e &ec!"+ c'u&e !$ 'ct!"? '"+ &! !": '"+ *%e" !"e ! !e ''3'%& !$ t%e '"&*e 'e'++e&&e+ t! &ee'l c'u&e& !$ 'ct!", t%e. &%'ll e e$'ce+ . *!+& t! t%'t e$$ect#(c) Rele$# - T%e le'+"3 &%'ll &ec$. t%e ele$ &!u3%t, ut t '. '++ ' 3e"e'l '.e $! &uc%$ut%e ! !t%e ele$ '& '. e +eee+ 5u&t ! eut'le#(+) D'te# - Ee. le'+"3 &%'ll e +'te+#

    Sec# # S3"'tue '"+ '++e&

    Ee. le'+"3 u&t e &3"e+ . t%e 't. ! c!u"&el ee&e"t"3 %, &t't"3 " et%e c'&e %&'++e&& *%c% &%!ul+ "!t e ' !&t !$$ce !/# T%e &3"'tue !$ c!u"&el c!"&ttute& ' cet$c'te . %t%'t %e %'& e'+ t%e le'+"3: t%'t t! t%e e&t !$ %& "!*le+3e, "$!'t!", '"+ ele$ t%ee & 3!!+3!u"+ t! &u!t t: '"+ t%'t t & "!t "te!&e+ $! +el'.# A" u"&3"e+ le'+"3 !+uce& "! le3'le$$ect# @!*ee, t%e c!ut '., " t& +&cet!", 'll!* &uc% +e$ce"c. t! e ee+e+ $ t &%'ll 'e't%'t t%e &'e *'& +ue t! ee "'+ete"ce '"+ "!t "te"+e+ $! +el'.# C!u"&el *%! +ele'tel. $le&'" u"&3"e+ le'+"3, ! &3"& ' le'+"3 " !l't!" !$ t%& Rule, ! 'lle3e& &c'"+'l!u& ! "+ece"t

    'tte t%ee", ! $'l& t! !tl. e!t t! t%e c!ut ' c%'"3e !$ %& '++e&&, &%'ll e &u5ect t!'!'te +&cl"'. 'ct!"#

    ?very pleading must )e signed )y t(e party or counsel representing (im- ot(erwise t(e pleading

    produces no legal e%%ect* $3ocson v CA- 28 w(erein t(e counsel o% Plainti%% A signed %or Plainti%% ;and t(e court said t(is can not )e done- wit(out proo% t(at counsel represented Plainti%% ; as well'

    1o signature: no legal e%%ect

    o Can )e cured i% due to mere inadvertence or not intended %or delay

    ignature o% counsel certi%ies t(at:

    o De read t(e pleading-

    o "(ere is good ground to support it- and

    o 1ot interposed %or delay

    Counsel must also in%orm t(e court o% (is c(ange o% address*

    Sec# 6# >e$c't!"#E/cet *%e" !t%e*&e &ec$c'll. eue+ . l'* ! ule, le'+"3& "ee+ "!t e u"+e !'t%, e$e+! 'cc!'"e+ . '$$+'t#A le'+"3 & e$e+ . '" '$$+'t t%'t t%e '$$'"t %'& e'+ t%e le'+"3 '"+ t%'t t%e 'lle3't!"&t%ee" 'e tue '"+ c!ect !$ %& e&!"'l "!*le+3e ! '&e+ !" 'ut%e"tc ec!+A le'+"3 eue+ t! e e$e+ *%c% c!"t'"& ' e$c't!" '&e+ !" ?"$!'t!" '"+ ele$,? !u!" ?"!*le+3e, "$!'t!" '"+ ele$,? ! l'c& ' !e e$c't!", &%'ll e te'te+ '& '"u"&3"e+ le'+"3#

    &R: Pleadings need not )e veri%ied- under oat(- or accompanied )y an a%%idavit*

    o ?C?P": i% speci%ically re#uired )y law or rule* A veri%ication states t(at t(e a%%iant (as read t(e pleading and t(e allegations t(erein are true*

    o It must )e under oat(*

    It is t(e PAR"> w(o signs t(e pleading- not t(e lawyer*

    o Alt(oug( t(e lawyer can sign it under compelling reasons*

    A minor can sign- )ut (e must )e assisted*

    eri%ication is only a %ormal re#uirement*

    o It is not =urisdictional* /ailure to attac( is not %atal*

    ;ut in t(e C and CA- t(ey dismiss wit(out pre=udice it %or %ailure to comply wit(procedural re#uirements*

    &R: /or cases involving multiple parties- ALL o% t(em must sign t(e veri%ication* $applies also to

    C1/'

    o ?C?P": w(en t(ey (ave a common interest among t(em* In t(is case- a signature o% one

    will su%%ice* $1o need %or aut(ority %rom ot(ers eit(er' ?9amples o% common interests:

    Deirs- wit( regard to property allegedly )e#ueat(ed to t(em $Iglesia v

    Pon%errada- 2- w(ere only one (eir signed t(e veri%ication and it wasallowed )y t(e court'

    pouses and %amily mem)ers- involving t(e %amily (ome

    Mem)ers o% a co0owners(ip- involving t(e property o% t(e coowners(ip

    Arising %rom t(e same transaction $3ua)an v ?spina w(erein

    Mickey Ingles

    4C Ateneo Law 2!2Atty "ran#uil $and some stu%% %rom Atty &uevarra'

    3/

  • 7/30/2019 Civpro Mickey

    36/137

    a m + d gRemedial Law Review: Civil Procedure and Appeals

    Sec# # Cet$c't!" '3'"&t $!u &%!"3#T%e l'"t$$ ! "c'l 't. &%'ll cet$. u"+e !'t% " t%e c!l'"t ! !t%e "t't!. le'+"3'&&et"3 ' cl' $! ele$, ! " ' &*!" cet$c't!" '""e/e+ t%eet! '"+ &ult'"e!u&l. $le+t%ee*t%;(') t%'t %e %'& "!t t%eet!$!e c!e"ce+ '". 'ct!" ! $le+ '". cl' "!l"3 t%e &'e &&ue& "'". c!ut, tu"'l ! u'&-5u+c'l '3e"c. '"+, t! t%e e&t !$ %& "!*le+3e, "! &uc% !t%e 'ct!" !cl' & e"+"3 t%ee":() $ t%ee & &uc% !t%e e"+"3 'ct!" ! cl', ' c!lete &t'tee"t !$ t%e e&e"t &t'tu& t%ee!$:

    '"+(c) $ %e &%!ul+ t%ee'$te le'" t%'t t%e &'e ! &l' 'ct!" ! cl' %'& ee" $le+ ! & e"+"3, %e&%'ll e!t t%'t $'ct *t%" $e () +'.& t%ee$! t! t%e c!ut *%ee" %& '$!e&'+ c!l'"t !"t't!. le'+"3 %'& ee" $le+#

    F'lue t! c!l. *t% t%e $!e3!"3 euee"t& &%'ll "!t e cu'le . ee 'e"+e"t !$t%e c!l'"t ! !t%e "t't!. le'+"3 ut &%'ll e c'u&e $! t%e +&&&'l !$ t%e c'&e *t%!ut

    e5u+ce, u"le&& !t%e*&e !+e+, u!" !t!" '"+ '$te %e'"3# T%e &u&&!" !$ ' $'l&ecet$c't!" ! "!"-c!l'"ce *t% '". !$ t%e u"+et'"3& t%ee" &%'ll c!"&ttute "+ect c!"tet!$ c!ut, *t%!ut e5u+ce t! t%e c!e&!"+"3 '+"&t'te '"+ c"'l 'ct!" I$ t%e 'ct& !$ t%e't. ! %& c!u"&el cle'l. c!"&ttute *ll$ul '"+ +ele'te $!u &%!"3, t%e &'e &%'ll e 3!u"+$! &u'. +&&&'l *t% e5u+ce '"+ &%'ll c!"&ttute +ect c!"tet, '& *ell '& ' c'u&e $!'+"&t'te &'"ct!"

    J(at is %orum0s(oppingF

    o "(e %iling o% multiple suits in di%%erent courts- eit(er simultaneously or successively-

    Involving t(e same parties-

    "o ask t(e courts to:

    rule on t(e same or related causes- andor

    grant t(e same or su)stantially same relie%s*

    "est: Is t(ere identity o%:

    o Parties-

    o Rig(ts or causes o% action- and

    o Relie%s soug(tF

    J(o must sign itF

    o "(e party (imsel%- not t(e counsel*

    J(at i% multiple parties- do t(ey all (ave to signF

    &R: Like in veri%ication- yes- t(ey all (ave to sign*

    o ?C?P": w(en t(ey all s(are a common interest and invoke a

    common cause o% action or de%ense- t(e signature o% only one o%

    t(em will su)stantially comply wit( t(e rules $3ua)an v [email protected]'

    o 6nly individuals vested wit( aut(ority )y a valid )oard resolution may sign t(e C1/ on

    )e(al% o% a corporation* /ailure to provide a C1/ or to accompany wit( proo% o% t(esignatory,s aut(ority are su%%icient grounds to dismiss t(e petition* $Repu)lic v Coal)rine-2!'

    J(en is it neededF

    o In every initiatory pleading*

    Dence- it is 16" needed in a motion $even i% it,s erroneously la)eled as apetition*' $P"A v Metro)ank- 2!- w(erein Metro)ank %iled %or a petition, %ort(e issuance o% a writ o% possession %ollowing a %