city branding or place branding
Post on 17-Sep-2015
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DESCRIPTIONTo emphasize the elements which could contribute towards branding and places and articulates of cities and history to bring investors to make it business place
city Or place branding
IntroductionThere is a small but rapidly growing body of literature pertaining to place branding. Many streams of research have provided input to the creation of knowledge in the domain of place branding. This diversity of sources encompasses many disciplines that rarely, if ever, attract attention in the marketing and branding literature. For example, the fields of sociology, history, national identity, and politics may be regarded as having a potentially important contribution to make to the practice of place branding. Practitioners and academics involved in place branding should therefore be prepared to scan horizons far wider than those associated purely with conventional brand management and brand strategy. The country-of-origin literature offers valuable insights into the effect on consumer behavior that the provenance of a product or service can have. However, it has traditionally been beyond the scope of the country-of-origin literature to analyze the historical and cultural dimensions of which nations are constituted. It is this breadth of scope that characterizes place branding. This overview of the literature highlights the multifaceted nature of place branding and identifies some of the landmark texts and emerging avenues in the place branding literature.
FROM PLACE MARKETING TO PLACE BRANDING Places have long felt a need to differentiate themselves from each other, to assert their individuality in pursuit of various economic, political or socio-psychological objectives. The conscious attempt of governments to shape a specically-designed place identity and promote it to identied markets, whether external or internal is almost as old as civic government itself. Thus, any consideration of the fundamental geographical idea of sense of place must include the deliberate creation of such senses through place marketing.Problem Statement The goal of the study is to gain an insight and understanding on how Rawalpindi is branded to attract tourists to the destination. Through this understanding gain further light as to how Rawalpindi can be branded to meet the international tourists expectations, especially Pakistani tourists Research Question How can we use Rawalpindi city as a brand, in mechanism of tourism, culture, artifacts and economic development?
ObjectivePlace branding creates value for a city, region or country by aligning the messages that the place already sends out, in accordance with a powerful and distinctive strategic vision; by unlocking the talent of the people who live there and stimulating investment to reinforce and fulfil this vision; and by creating new, powerful and cost-effective ways to give the place a more effective and memorable voice and enhance its international reputation.Literature ReviewThe debate relating to branding and its inception is extremely active and intriguing. Brands have been used as marks of identification at some time in all countries and civilizations. McNeill & McNeill (2003) believe that branding was developed as a result of humans [being] drawn together in patterns of interaction and exchange, cooperation and competition since earliest times. Keller (2003) considers that the origins of branding relate to craftsmen and their need to identify the fruits of their labor from others. However, Low and Fullerton (1994) believe that the origins of modern branding can be traced to the late 19th century with the development of branded consumer products such as Gillette and Quaker Oats.Destination and place branding however, is considered to be a relatively new field of study (Hankinson, 2001, Kavaratzis, 2004), in which there remains an apparent lack of empirical research (Caldwell and Freire, 2004) and little clarity or agreement about terminology or definitions (Anholt, 2004). Nevertheless, it is generally recognized that concepts of place branding are grounded in corporate branding and marketing theories that have been modified for the purpose (Kavaratzis, 2004). Many authors have acknowledged the multiple dimensionalities of brands and there are a plethora of models and metrics which attempt to classify and measure the various brand components. Some of these models seek to explore the more fundamental nature of brands, for instance, focusing on the functional and emotional/symbolic attributes (Cooper, 1979; de Chernatony and McWilliam, 1989). This concept has been further developed through application of the Brand Box Method (de Chernatony and DallOlmo Riley, 1997) and specifically applied to destination branding where it has been used to explore areas such as city brand image attributes (Hankinson, 2005), organic (historical and cultural heritage) images (Hankinson, 2004) as well as country and regional differences (Caldwell and Freire, 2004). Others (e.g. Goodyear, 1993; de Chernatony 1993) have developed brand typographies which explore the evolutionary nature and developmental sequence of a typical brand, starting as an unbranded commodity and developing through a brand icon, and a brand culture, into a policy driver or even a brand religion (Kunde, 2000).At the same time, a range of multifaceted models have been developed, many of which tend to measure aspects such as brand equity, brand esteem and brand potential. Rubenstein (1995), for instance, developed a model for Brand Chartering, which presents key dimensions of a brand, against its communication, management and implementation objectives. Kapferer (2003) introduces a range of models to explore different brand facets, for instance, a brand prism, exploring such questions as why? When? , for whom? and against whom (Kapferer, 2003; p97) and further presents a model to identify positive and negative, latent and patent brand associations (Kapferer, 2003; p119), and has also developed a brand hexagon which seeks to explore more nebulous brand dimensions such as personality, reflection, self-image and physique. Keller (2000) introduced the Brand Report Card in which brand managers are asked to score their brands against 10 pre-determined facets, and later presented a Brand Tracking model, which provides a practitioner approach to brand building (Keller, 2003; Kotler and Keller, 2006). This model consists of a brand pyramid which starts with salience at the base (to define awareness and identity), and moves through performance, imagery, judgments and feelings towards resonance, at the apex, denoting the relationship with the brand. The destination brand literature has complimented these typologies, often with more specific brand attributes that include the physical environment, weather and food (Embacher and Buttle, 1989), or the creation of a geographical marketing mix (Ashworth and Voogt, 1989) focusing on promotion, spatial-functional measures, organizational measures and financial aspects, whilst Kotler et al (2002) have developed a model of place improvement which embraces place as a character, the fixed environment, service provision and the entertainment or recreational value. Hubbard and Hall (1998) further include aspects such as cultural regeneration, large-scale physical redevelopments and mega events.The purpose of this study is not to re-examine the extensive literature on corporate and product branding but to focus specically upon the self- conscious application of branding to places as an instrument of urban planning and management. The application of place marketing is largely dependent on the construction, communication and management of the citys image, because, at its simplest, encounters between cities and their users take place through perceptions and images. Marketing therefore cannot other than be the conscious and planned practice of signication and representation (Firat & Venkatesh 1993, p. 246), which in turn is the starting point for examining place branding. One of the cornerstones of marketing thought is undoubtedly consumer orientation; thinking about the product, the company and the way we do business from the consumers viewpoint. In city marketing and especially in the case of the citys existing residents, consumers orientation would have to be how the residents encounter the city they live in, how they make sense of it, which physical, symbolic or other elements they evaluate in order to make their assessment of the city. The eld of cultural geography has dealt with such matters and has developed an understanding, which is useful at this point. In general, people make sense of places or construct places in their minds through three processes (see e.g. Crang 1998; Holloway & Hubbard 2001). These are rst, through planned interventions such as planning, urban design and so on; second, through the way in which they or others use specic places; and third, through various forms of place representations such as lms, novels, paintings, news reports and so on. It is generally acknowledged that people encounter places through perceptions and images. As Holloway & Hubbard (2001, p. 48) describe, interactions with places may be through direct experience or the environment or indirectly through media representations. However, what is critical is how, this information is processed, via mental processes of cognition, to form stable and learned images of place, which are the basis for our everyday interactions with the environment. It is the mental maps that individuals create that allow them to navigate through complex reality, because our surroundings are often more complex than the sense we make of them. Branding deals specically with such mental images. Place branding Centres on peoples perceptions and images and puts them at the heart of orchestrated activities, designed to shape the place and its future. Managing the place brand becomes an attempt to inuence and treat those mental maps in a way that is deemed favorable to the present circumstances and future needs of the place.ConclusionThis study, which sough