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  • Slide 1
  • Citing Sources Using APA Style A Simplified Guide to Cite your Resources Using American Psychological Association (APA) Style
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  • Overview When doing a research, you must provide a list of information resources (References) you have used at the end of your research paper. Consistency is very important while preparing your references list
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  • Overview, Cont. References Must be arranged Alphabetically by authors last name and initials or by Title in case there is no author.
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  • Overview, Cont. Reference Entry includes the following elements Name of the Author Title of the source Publication Information (Publishers name, place, year)
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  • Overview, Cont. Additional information may be required such as journals volume no., issue no., page numbers, edition numbers, web URL address, date of access, etc., depending on the information sources Type.
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  • Overview, Cont. If you dont cite All the information resources that you have used, at the end of your research, this will be considered as an Academic Malpractice, called Plagiarism
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  • What is Plagiarism An academic malpractice. Plagiarism is the use of the ideas, words or findings of others without acknowledging them as such. To plagiarize is to give the impression that the student has written, thought or discovered something that he or she has in fact borrowed from someone else without acknowledging this in an appropriate manner. k/sectiond.htm k/sectiond.htm
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  • General Rules Formatting The APA font is Times New Roman with 12-point size. Double-space between all lines of text, including the reference list. Margins of at least 1 inch on all sides.
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  • General Rules Hanging indents should be used for the reference list. This means that all lines after the first line of each entry should be indented one half inch from the left margin
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  • General Rules Reference List Arrange reference list in alphabetical order by the Last Name / Surname of the author. Write only the initial(s) of the author's name, not the full name. If there is no author, consider the title.
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  • General Rules If the reference list includes two or more references for the same author(s), list the references in chronological order / according to the publishing year. Start with the old one (oldest first). All References mentioned / cited in the text must appear in the reference list and vise versa
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  • General Rules Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the article or book title. Journal titles should be capitalized. Italicize journal titles, volume numbers and book titles should be Italicized.
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  • Citing Sources Using APA Style Books Periodical Articles Web Resources
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  • Books By a single author Author, A. (year). Title of the Book (edition). Place of Publications: Publisher
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  • Books,cont. Example: Purtilo, R. (1999). Ethical dimensions in the health professions (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders
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  • Books,cont. By two or more authors Singleton, J. & McLaren, S. (1995). Ethical foundations of health care: Responsibilities in decision making. London: Mosby
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  • Books, cont. Part of a book (Chapter or Article in a Book) Author, A. & Author, B. (Year). Title of Chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the Book (ed.) (page nos.). Location: Publisher
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  • Example: Shelton, S. (1998). The Doctor-Patient Relationship. In A. Stoudemire (Ed.), Human behavior: An introduction for medical students (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Books,Cont.
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  • Periodical Articles Journal Article Author, A., Author, B. & Author, C. (Year). Title of the Article. Title of the periodical, volume no.(issue no.), page nos.
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  • Periodical Articles Cont. Example: Everett, K. (2006). Health and health care for the 21st century: For all the people. American Journal of Public Health, 96(12), 2090-2092.
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  • Periodical Articles Cont. Fulltext article from a Periodical Database Hui, E. (2005). Doctors as fiduciaries: do medical professionals have the right not to treat?. Poiesis & Praxis, 3(4), 256-276. Retrieved March 11, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database
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  • Internet Resources Online Article Based on a Print Sources Singer, P. (2000). Medical ethics. BMJ, 29, 282285. Retrieved March 11, 2007, from nder.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1118276 nder.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1118276
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  • Internet Resources Cont. Internet Document American Medical Association (2001). Principles of medical ethics. Retrieved March 9, 2007, from American Medical Association Website:
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  • For more details Please click on the following link for more information