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Md. Zahidul Hasan Lecturer Department of Computer Science & Engineering Northern University Bangladesh E-mail: Mobile: 01712682032


Northern University Bangladesh

CIT 1101Introduction to Computers

An Overview of the Computer System

Lecture 1

Learning Objectives

In this lecture you will learn about: Computer Data Processing Applications of Computers Importance of Computers Limitations of Computers Parts of Computer System

Sunday, February 28, 20164CIT 1101 (ZH)

A World of ComputersComputers are everywhere5

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ComputerA Computer is an electronic data processing machine that stores, retrieves and processes data. Finally generate meaningful information with speed and accuracy. Computer is an electronic device that process data according to a set of stored instructions.Sunday, February 28, 20166CIT 1101 (ZH)

Data / Information Processing CycleFig. Data Processing CycleSunday, February 28, 20167Processes(Data Processing)Input(Data)Output(Information)Storage

CIT 1101 (ZH)

NumbersImagesSoundVideoInputProcessOutput12 + 8 = 20000001100000001000---------------00001010020001000000000000000001000000000000010010110000011000011011011111111111100111111111111111110111111111111111100011111000001000 000001001 000010100 volume Time 0010101011111010101010010101010101111010001100101011011

8 9 0 5 0010101011111010101010010101010101111010001100101011011001010101111101010101001010101010111101000110010101101100101010111110101010100101010101011110100011001010110110010101011111010101010010101010101111010001100101011011TextThis is a test84 104 73 115 This is a test

DataData is the raw materials from which information is generated. Data consists of raw facts, numbers, letters, or symbols that the computer processed into meaningful information.Data has no specific meaning.Sunday, February 28, 20169CIT 1101 (ZH)

Data ProcessingIts a process that converts the data into information.A general term that stands for all logical, arithmetic, and input/output operations that can be performed on data by a computer.Sunday, February 28, 201610CIT 1101 (ZH)

InformationInformation refers to an organized , meaningful, & useful interpretation of dataInformation is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver.

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Data vs. Information

1200 100 79154WestCharles Mann79154TM Shoes

Monthly Sales Report for West RegionSales Rep: Charles MannEmp No. 79154

Item Qty Sold PriceTM Shoes 1200 $100

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StorageData and information are stored/ maintained for future use.Any type of information - words, figures, still or moving images, sound or music - can be stored into storage devices (e.g. HDD, CD, DVD) and that can be used at any time.

Hard Disk DriveCD / DVD DriveFlash DriveSunday, February 28, 2016CIT 1101 (ZH)13

Block Diagram of Computer System


Figure: Block diagram of a Computer System.Process

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Applications of ComputerData processing and Data storingIn Banking system : On line banking Internet & Webpage :Information super highway E mailE commerce and M commerceAirways and Railways Ticket ReservationsMedical science In Education Multimedia systemProduction systemCommunication: Mobile communicationPublishing (Books, Newspaper)OfficesData Analysis, Data Base ManagementJob searching / CV sendingAnd MoreSunday, February 28, 201615CIT 1101 (ZH)

Importance of ComputersHigh Speed: Computer can perform data processing jobs very fast, usually measured in microseconds (10-6), nanoseconds (10-9) and picoseconds (10-12)Automatic Operation: Computers are automatic in operation. Once data and program are fed to a computer, operation of the computer is automatic.

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Importance of Computers (Cont)Accuracy: Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. Computer errors causes due to incorrect input data or unreliable programs.The system or process of showing the faulty results of a computer is called Garbage-In-Garbage-Out (GIGO)Sunday, February 28, 201617CIT 1101 (ZH)

Importance of Computers (Cont)Diligence: Computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumblingVersatility: Computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps

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Importance of Computers (Cont)Power of Remembering: Computer can store and recall any amount of information because of its secondary storage capability. It forgets or looses certain information only when it is asked to do soSunday, February 28, 201619CIT 1101 (ZH)

Importance of Computers (Cont)Common data: One item of data can be used for different computer operation.Complexity: Computers perform complex calculations. A computer provides the required answers after running the program for complex calculations.Sunday, February 28, 201620CIT 1101 (ZH)

Limitations of ComputerComputer cannot think (no I.Q).

Computer can not do anything without human instructions.

Computers can not make any adjustment as human being can do (no feelings).Sunday, February 28, 201621CIT 1101 (ZH)

Comparison Between Human & ComputerCreativity,Judgment, IntuitionSpeed,Accuracy, Attention to Details,No I.Q,No feelings

Power of Remembering, Processing Capability,Versatility / Adaptability

ComputerHumanSunday, February 28, 201622CIT 1101 (ZH)

Computer SystemSystems: A system is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose.

A computer system consists of hardware components that have been carefully chosen so that they work well together and software components or programs that run in the computer.

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Parts of a Computer System

Hardware Software Users Data / Information ProceduresCommunication (optional)A computer system is made up of six parts:Sunday, February 28, 201624CIT 1101 (ZH)

HardwareThe physical devices that make up the computer are called Hardware.The generic term device refers to any piece of hardware.Examples: CPU, memory, disks, CD-ROM drives, printer, monitor etc.Sunday, February 28, 201625CIT 1101 (ZH)

Hardware ExamplesSunday, February 28, 201626

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Inside the System Unit(SU)GraphicsOnboard and external

Power supplyProcessorunder the fan and heat sinkKeyboard, video, and other connectorsDisk drives


Expansion slots




SoftwareStep by step instructions that tells the hardware how to perform a task.The term program refers to any piece of software.Sunday, February 28, 201628CIT 1101 (ZH)


Users People are the Computer operators, also known as users or Humanware.The user is a person perhaps like yourself someone without much technical knowledge of computers but who uses computers to perform professional or personal tasks, enhance learning, or have fun.No computer is totally autonomous.Sunday, February 28, 201629CIT 1101 (ZH)

Data / Information:Data is the raw materials from which information is generated. information is summarized data or otherwise manipulated (processed) data. Sunday, February 28, 201630CIT 1101 (ZH)

Procedures:Procedures are descriptions of how things are done, steps for accomplishing a result. Procedures for computer systems appear in documentation manuals, which contain instructions, rules and guidelines to follow when using hardware and software.Sunday, February 28, 201631CIT 1101 (ZH)

Communication:When one computer system is set up to share data and information electronically with another computer system, communications becomes a sixth system element. Examples: phone lines, microwave transmission, satellite transmission, etc.Sunday, February 28, 201632CIT 1101 (ZH)


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