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<p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Computer integrated manufacturing (Lecture #13)</p> <p>CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)= Historical background = What is CIM? = Definition of CIM = Implementation and operation of CIM = Hierarchical and Distributed Control = (Virtual) Enterprises &amp; ERP Systems = Data mining = Lean Production &amp; Agile Manufacturing = Flexible Manufacturing System = Flexible Manufacturing Cell = Concurrent engineering = Design for X = Reverse engineering</p> <p>1</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Computer Integrated ManufacturingCIM allows the online and batchrelated acquisition of process and quality data. The flow of material within a multistage production process can be planned at any time and monitored from the central station.</p> <p>Computer Integrated ManufacturingJob and materials management permits job-controlled production. Even if complaints are received years after delivery of the components produced, both production and quality data and the materials used can be easily determined.</p> <p>2</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>CIM Conceptl l l l l l l l</p> <p>Acquisition of possible quality-relevant data of different process steps Serial interfacing of SPCs of a wide variety of manufacturers Assignment of data of each process step to individual silicon wafers (materials tracking) Acquisition of the wafer quality Visualisation of the possible quality-relevant data on the wafer quality Evaluation of the data Data storage for long-time CAQ Job and materials management</p> <p>Historical Background (I)1970s - 1980sFlexible Manufacturing Systems/Cells a group of CNC machinery/equipment linked by an automated materials handling system, whose operation is integrated by supervisory computer control Provided efficient mid-volume, mid-variety production Increased machine utilization Reduced work-in-process inventory, labor and tooling costs, setup costs, lead time, lot size Ability to react quickly to engineering changes</p> <p>3</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Historical Background (I)1980s...Computer Integrated Manufacturing computer assisted control and integration at all levels of a manufacturing enterprise Strict hierarchical information flow Totally automated, unmanned, paperless factory Integration problems in heterogeneousm environments</p> <p>Historical Background (I)1990sIntelligent Manufacturing architecture for highly decentralized manufacturing systems, built from a modular mix of autonomous, cooperative, and intelligent elements (agents) Re-emergence of the human factor seeking to maximize the use of human intellectual skills and flexibility Migrating from hierarchy to Vertically Capability of rapid self-reconfiguration by incorporating human and machine intelligence</p> <p>4</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Historical Background (I)1990sExtended Enterprises global integration throughout the complete supply chain in manufacturing: Virtual Enterprise a community of factories each focused on what it does best, all linked by a network that would enable them to operate as one flexibly and inexpensively regardless of their location l An enterprise mostly made of functions provided by other enterprises l Extensive use of standards and information technology tool l Organizations and teams operate autonomously but cooperatively l Pushing toward true integration of design and manufacturing</p> <p>What is CIM?l l l l l l l l l</p> <p>a computer system? a management philosophy? a competitive strategy? a data management and networking problem? a concept? a technology? a method for eliminating direct labor? a deterministic technical system? a socio-technical system?</p> <p>5</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>What is CIM?technology, tool or method used to improve entirely the design and manufacturing process and increase productivity</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>using computers to help people and machines to communicate series of integrated activities and operations involving the design, materials selection, planning, production, quality assurance, management marketing of discrete consumer and durable goods</p> <p>l</p> <p>deliberate integration of automated systems logical organization of individual engineering, production and marketing/support functions into a computer integrated system</p> <p>6</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>focuses on the computer as the center of control of the entire factory, starting from the computerization of the fabrication and assembly processes to the information flow for production control, quality, maintenance, material handling,</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>involves the use of computers to assist in the design, handling, processing, cataloging of materials as they flow through the manufacturing processes</p> <p>l</p> <p>not computer controlled, but is the use of the computer assets to assist in difficult areas of manufacturing</p> <p>7</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>l</p> <p>use of electronic technology to streamline traditionally separate phases, including concept, design, manufacture, analysis, maintenance, into a single process in order to reduce lead time and improve quality of the product</p> <p>What is CIM?</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>an approach to the organization and management of a firm, in which the functions of design, manufacturing, production management are mutually rationalized completely coordinated, through the use of appropriate levels of computer and information/communication technologies</p> <p>8</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>use of computer hardware, software, and communications networks in all aspects of a manufacturing company including inventory control, quality control, planning, cost accounting, design, and manufacturing (machine control)</p> <p>What is CIM?utilizes the computer, not only to automate the design, control, assembly, and planning, but to link these processes into an organizational entity l control of information flow and material or product flow to best serve the customerl</p> <p>9</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>including information, to best serve the customer; typically incorporating together the following technologies: computer aided manufacturing, computer aided design, computer aided process planning, computer aided quality control, computer aided design</p> <p>What is CIM?l</p> <p>concept of a completely automated factory in which all the functions of a company (design methods, production, administration, accounting, marketing, etc.) are integrated and controlled in the company and use common data shared through the same database</p> <p>10</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>What is CIM?consists of three dimensions: l the engineering dimension involves CAD/CAM and CAPP activities; l the networking and systems dimension; l the continuous improvement dimension that encompasses areas such as MRP II, TQM, JIT and theory of constraints (TOC)l</p> <p>Definition of CIMComputer Integrated Manufacturingis the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency.</p> <p>11</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Definition of CIM</p> <p>Design CIM</p> <p>Manufacturing</p> <p>Business</p> <p>Major Subsystems in CIM</p> <p>MarketingProduct</p> <p>Information CA- Storage &amp; Transportation (Logictics) System QualityTool</p> <p>CAD Machine CAPP PPS (MRP) CAM SFC CAPC TMS QC Lower Level Controllers</p> <p>12</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>CIM Representative Topicsl l l l l l l l l</p> <p>Computer-aided concurrent engineering (CACE); Design for Manufacturability (DFM) PDES/STEP-based manufacturing applications Computer numerical control (CNC); Direct/distributed numerical control (DNC) Computer process control, including adaptive process control Rapid prototyping principles &amp; research opportunities Programmable controller/microcomputer applications Computer aided process planning (CAPP), including expert system applications Industrial robot applications, including off-line programming Group technology (GT) &amp; GT manufacturing cells</p> <p>CIM Representative Topicsl l l l l l l l l l l</p> <p>Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS's) Local area networks, including MAP/TOP network standards &amp; ISO reference model Production planning &amp; control, including JIT andSAP Product/process simulation Automated material handling Data entry systems Automated inspection systems &amp; quality engineering Productivity engineering, including manufacturing cost analysis MRP vs. JIT production systems; JIT vs. lean manufacturing AI applications in CIM Other topics: Automation &amp; human labor; green manufacturing; AHP (decsion support tools)</p> <p>13</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>FLEXIBLE MAUFACTURING SYSTEM (FMS)</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemConceptual idea is attributed to David Williamson in the 1960s, but it took development of CNC and programmable controllers to make the concept truly viable.</p> <p>14</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemA series of automatic machine tools or items of fabrication equipment linked together with an automatic material handling provision for random fabrication of parts or assemblies that fall within predetermined families</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemFMS is a group of NC machine tools that can randomly process group of parts, having automated material handling and central computer control to dynamically balance resource utilization so that the system can adapt automatically to changes in parts production mixes, and levels of output. (Kearney and Treaker)</p> <p>15</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Manufacturing SystemA manufacturing system is a collection of integrated equipment and human resources, whose function is to perform one or more processing and/or assembly operations on a starting raw material, part, or set of parts.</p> <p>Manufacturing System Components=What are they? =How are they combined? =How are they organized? =Production machines =Material handling system =Computer control system =Human resources</p> <p>16</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Classification of Manufacturing System=Types of operations =Number of workstations &amp; layout =Level of automation =Part or product variety (how to handle; types of flexibility)</p> <p>Types of Manufacturing System</p> <p>=Mass production (transfer line) =Special systems =Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) =Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) =Stand-alone CNC systems</p> <p>17</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemFMS is a system dealing with high level distribution, data processing and automated material flow Using computer controlled machines, assembly cells, industrial robots, inspection machines altogether with computer integrated material handling and storage systems. ( Mehdi Kaighobad)</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemvFMS is a collection of production equipment logically organized under a host computer and physically connected by a central transport system. (David Perish)</p> <p>18</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemFMS is a system consisting of 3 subsystems; fabrication machining assembly. These subsystems are integrated with automatic storage; computer aided design, material handling devices and a computer. (Kusiak)</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemFMS is Business Driven =Improved profitability =Reduced lead times =Reduced inventory levels =Rapid response to market changes =Lower staffing levels =Improved manufacturing effectiveness =Increased operational flexibility =Increased predictability =Increased control</p> <p>19</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemFMS: Impact on Manufacturing =Need for managing change =More complex products =Need for greater flexibility =Need for faster time-to-market</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemDefinition: FMS Group of machines or processes, integrated with material handling equipment, and under the direction of a (central) control system, to produce a variety of parts, at non-uniform production rates, batch sizes &amp; quantities.</p> <p>20</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemPart Design Flexibility</p> <p>Operating Flexibility</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemTypes of FMS Flexibility Product design Makes it possible to accommodate a variety of product designs, including new products and modified designs; stems from recent advances in manufacturing controls that allow design details to reside in a machine software rather than the mechanics of its physical structure.</p> <p>21</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Flexible Manufacturing SystemTypes of FMS Flexibility Operating Makes it possible to reduce manufacturing costs while responding to changes in manufacturing conditions, such as production schedules and model mix; characterized by capability to make up lost production (achieved in past</p> <p>through large WIP inventory)</p> <p>FMS: Important Technologies=Microprocessor =Digital system simulation =Design optimization tools =Computer aided process planning =Process controlled quality =More software control =Advanced industrial controls =Industrial robots</p> <p>22</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>FMS: Other Significant Technologies=Advanced sensors =Improved diagnosis =Higher speed =On-line/in-process inspection =Quick-change tooling =Tool wear monitor =Development with other processes,e.g., forming; heat treat; assembly</p> <p>Invest or Not Invest??=Type of equipment available vs. operations needed =Types of parts &amp; number of part #'s =Part tolerances &amp; material requirements =Design change expected =Operational/schedule change expected</p> <p>23</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>Invest or Not Invest??</p> <p>=Production volumes =Product life &amp; lead time requirements =Direct labor available =Dollars available to invest =Other investment alternatives for company</p> <p>Invest or Not Invest??Production volume (parts/year) Transfer line</p> <p>Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems (CIMS) CNC</p> <p>Product Flexibility (no. of part nos.</p> <p>24</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>System Trade-offsTransfer lines l Large volume production/high output rate (~15,000+ parts/yr) l Parts are virtually identical; sometimes only one part l Changeover difficult/requires shutdown of line &amp; machine retooling l Need to replace machines for major design changesl</p> <p>System Trade-offsl l l l l l l l</p> <p>Stand-alone CNC Efficiently accommodates part design change Reprogram for design changeover/design change Low production quantities (~up to 800 parts/yr) CIMS Between high production rates &amp; high flexibility (midvolume) Fills in gap between transfer lines &amp; low volume CNC machines</p> <p>25</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>FMS ConceptsSingle station routing part flow l Sequential routing part flow l Random routing part flowl</p> <p>FMS ConceptsSingle station l Tailor to design or operational change need l Attributes of both random &amp; sequential flow l Problem areas: overall accuracy &amp; required head investmentl</p> <p>26</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>FMS ConceptsSequential flow l Accommodates operational part mix change; higher throughput capacity l Similar operation sequences l Simpler material handling l Potential problems: over &amp; under utilization; machines repeated for repeated operationsl</p> <p>FMS ConceptsRandom flow l High degree of design flexibility &amp; limited operating flexibility l Complex material handling system l Potential problems: availability of machine tools; reduced capacity with over &amp; under utilized machine toolsl</p> <p>27</p> <p>17.12.2008</p> <p>FMS: Machine Tool TradeTrade-offsTooling Head changer...</p>