Christianity Basic Beliefs and Early History in Middle East and Beyond.

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  • Slide 1
  • Christianity Basic Beliefs and Early History in Middle East and Beyond
  • Slide 2
  • Opening Questions What do you think about Christianity? What are some of the first things that come to mind? Why is Christianity viewed negatively by some people?
  • Slide 3
  • Christianity Worlds largest religion Central Belief Jesus Christ was the son of God, died for the sins of all humanity, was resurrected and returned to heaven Must believe this in order to go to heaven Different branches and denominations Catholicism Protestantism Orthodox Christianity
  • Slide 4
  • Essential Bible Verse The Bible is the most important holy scripture for Christians. A key verse for Christians in the Bible is the following: For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son so that whosoever would believe in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. John 3:16
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  • The Holy Trinity One God with three parts Father Creator, Master Planner, Holy Son (aka Jesus) Needed as a sacrifice for humanitys sin Holy Spirit Active, sent to fulfill God the Fathers plans
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  • Fall of Man The Book of Genesis (the first book of the Bible) tells how God created Adam and Eve and put them in the Garden of Eden with a command not to eat from one tree. They did, which was the Original Sin. From that point on, humanity continued to get worse in terms of sinfulness. God hates sin. Ancient Israelites sacrificed animals to obtain forgiveness. Christians believe Jesus was sent as the final sacrifice.
  • Slide 7
  • Foundations in Judaism Jesus and the Apostles were Jews The first Christians began as Jews The story of Creation, the first people, the Ten Commandments, stories of judges and kings of Israel, and books of prophets are important and read by Christians.
  • Slide 8
  • References to the Messiah in the Old Testament Gen 3:15, Gen 22:18, Gen 26:4, Gen 49:10, Num 21:6-9, Num 24:17, Duet 18:15, Psm 16:9-10, Psm 22:all, specifically: Psm 22:14-16-18, Psm 132;11, Isa 7:14, Isa 9:6-7, Isa 40:10-11, Isa 50:6, Isa 52:13-15, Isa 53:all, Isa 60:21, Jer 23:5, Jer 33:14-15, Ezek 34:23, Ezek 37:25, Dan 9:25, Mic 5:2, Mic 7:20, Zech 6:12, Zech 9:9, Zech 9:10, Zech 12:8-10, Zech 13:7, Mal 3:1-4, Mal 4:2-6.
  • Slide 9
  • Difference from Judaism Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah foretold by the Old Testament prophets. Jews believe that the Messiah has not come. Some ethnic Jews do believe that Jesus was the Messiah (they are a minority though) and call themselves Messianic Jews or Jews for Jesus.
  • Slide 10
  • The Bible 66 Books in the Bible Old Testament 39 Books, before Jesus came to Earth New Testament 27 Books, after Jesus came to Earth and went back to heaven, letters of advice on how to live for early Christians (no Bible was organized yet)
  • Slide 11
  • Old Testament Creation and first people (Adam, Eve, Noah, etc.), Original Sin How God set apart the nation of Israel Exodus and giving of the Law of Moses Conquest of Canaan with Joshua Creating Nation of Israel Nation of Israel (Judges then Kings) Jewish history Cycle of sinfulness, punishment, repentance Conquest by enemies (Assyrians, Babylonians) and captivity Return to homeland, rebuilding of Jerusalem
  • Slide 12
  • New Testament Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John 4 versions of Jesus life; there are other gospels that were not approved to go into the Bible (Gospel of Thomas, who was one of the 12 Apostles) The Book of Acts (Acts of the Apostles) Epistles of Paul and other epistles (Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, etc.) Revelation Apocalypse, Second Coming of Christ, Armageddon, Judgment, the New Jerusalem
  • Slide 13
  • Parts of Jesus Christs Life Annunciation, Incarnation and childhood (birth through 12 years old) Public Ministry (~30 33) Passion (events surrounding his crucifixion) Resurrection and Ascension ACTIVITY: Look through the art history books; find a work of art for each of the following: Annunciation, Public Ministry when he was traveling, teaching, and healing people, Crucifixion, Resurrection, and his return as Judge during the end of the world
  • Slide 14
  • Incarnation and Childhood Annunciation to Virgin Mary Angel visited Joseph in dream (dont divorce Mary) Nativity Went to Bethlehem for a Roman census; no vacancies; Jesus born in manger (stable) lowly, humble; visited by shepherds and angels appeared to the shepherds Visited by Magi (Wise Men probably Zoroastrian priests) who bring gifts (gold, frankincense, myrrh) Flight to Egypt (Herod wanted to kill the Messiah; ordered the deaths of all boys two and under; Angel warns Joseph in a dream to take family to Egypt and not return until visited again)
  • Slide 15
  • Public Ministry Age ~30 Baptism and fasting for 40 days temptations from the Devil Miracle at Cana turning water into wine Miracles Healing the blind, lepers, paralyzed, and demon possessed, walking on water, and even raising people from the dead! Teachings Sermon on the Mount, parables Challenging the Jewish religious leaders Are you really following Gods laws? Are you loving your neighbors as you love yourselves?
  • Slide 16
  • Passion of Christ Passion of Christ refers to events leading up to the Crucifixion Entering Jerusalem with Apostles on back of donkey (Palm Sunday) to celebrate Passover Turning over tables of businesses at the temple Last Supper Passover Meal; communion ritual established; Jesus announces that one of them will betray him Betrayal (by Judas) in the Garden and beaten Trials, whipping, beating, mocking, and crucifixion RESURRECTION on the third day
  • Slide 17
  • The Twelve Apostles (Disciples) Jesus chose 12 close confidants but had many other followers Here are the Twelve: Peter (orig. Simon)Andrew (brothers) JamesJohn (brothers) PhilipBartholomew MatthewThomas James, son of AlphaeusThaddeus Simon the ZealotJudas Iscariot
  • Slide 18
  • Apostles Confusion Was Jesus the Messiah? He was a great leader, teacher, healer, miracle worker but the Messiah? Could he be Moses, Elijah, or someone else reincarnated? Peter the first to recognize him as Messiah privilege of being the rock on which Christ will build his church (the body of Christian believers), holds keys to heaven
  • Slide 19
  • Peruginos Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter
  • Slide 20
  • Passion of Christ Christ entered Jerusalem for the Passover. This is celebrated as PALM SUNDAY. He taught and healed people in the few days before his arrest. Celebrated Passover meal (the Last Supper this is when Christ established the idea of Communion; Judas leaves to get the authorities Jesus is arrested in Garden of Gethsemane. He is put on trial by the Jewish Sanhedrin (a group of 60 religious specialists) for claiming to be the Messiah. They bring him to Pontius Pilate; Pilate tries to hand him off to Herod, a Jewish ruler in the region; Herod passes him back to Pilate.
  • Slide 21
  • Betrayal of Jesus/The Kiss of Judas Part of the Passion Jewish religious leaders did not want to arrest Jesus in public Judas goes to them and offers to help them Pharisees give him 30 pieces of silver Judas leads them to the Garden of Gethsemane where Jesus liked to bring the Apostles to get away from crowds Judas leads a group to arrest him, identifies Jesus by greeting him with a kiss Guilt Judas commits suicide
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  • Kiss of Judas
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  • Passion of Christ continued Pilate orders Jesus whipped and crucified. Jesus is crucified, taken down from the cross, and put in a stone tomb. On the third day, He is resurrected from the dead. Mary Magdalene and other women went to the tomb and found it empty. Angels talked to them. In one Gospel, Jesus appears to Mary. Mary tells the Apostles. Then, Jesus appears to the Apostles more than once.
  • Slide 24
  • Ascension of Christ and Mission to the Apostles Christ takes the Apostles to a mountain and gives them the instruction to teach people about Him. He tells them that people must believe in Him in order to obtain salvation. He also instructs them to baptize believers in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. He ascends to heaven and is seated at the right hand of God-The Father waiting for the day when the Father sends him back to judge humanity.
  • Slide 25
  • The Role of the Apostles The Apostles spread Christianity. Peter traveled around the Middle East (ex. Babylon) and established major church in Rome. Philip went to Ethiopia. Thomas went to India. All the Apostles except John (the youngest) died violent deaths. John died of old age. A new man came into the picture Paul. Paul was not an original Apostle but is one of the most important. Paul wrote letters to the early Christian churches (ex. Romans, Corinthians)
  • Slide 26
  • Last Judgment Christ will return to judge humanity. Did a person believe in Him as the Son of God? Did a person love God as shown by his actions (obedience, asking for forgiveness)? Did a person love his neighbors as demonstrated by his actions? People will either go to hell or heaven for eternity. God loves people so much that He gives them many chances in life to come to a knowledge of Him. If people reject Him, then
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  • The Last Judgment
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  • John the Baptist, Saint Andrew & Saint Lawrence
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  • Saint Bartholomew
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  • Faith
  • Slide 41
  • Faith rising
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  • Hope
  • Slide 43
  • Love
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  • Christian Practices Celebration of Christmas and Easter Prayer Going to church/communal worship Tithing giving 10% of income to church Bible reading the Word of God Communion Evangelism teaching people about Jesus Baptism in Water Baptism in the Holy Spirit Live like Christ (forgiving others, helping the sick and poor)
  • Slide 47
  • Sin Anything displeasing to God based on Ten Commandments and other commandments given by Jesus Sin separates people from God, who is holy For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. Romans 3:23 The need for a sacrifice to atone for sins Ancient Israelites sacrificed sheep and other animals Christians believe Jesus was the final sacrifice
  • Slide 48
  • Ten Commandments
  • Slide 49
  • Forgiveness Seek forgiveness from God through the blood of Jesus Christ FORGIVE OTHERS Bible says if you that if you dont forgive others, God wont forgive you Do not judge others, judge yourself
  • Slide 50
  • Essential Belief Nicaea Creed Jesus Christ is the son of God, born of the Virgin Mary, lived a sinless life, was crucified and buried and rose again on the third day and ascended to be at the right hand of the father He will come again to judge the living and the dead
  • Slide 51
  • Focus on Heaven SALVATION BY FAITH in Jesus Christ Christians cannot earn their way to heaven. They will always fall short and sin. Not a blank check to sin Christians regard God as father and friend Would you keep hurting/insulting your father or friend? Obeying commandments Love God with all heart, soul, mind, and strength Love neighbor as you love yourself These sum up Ten Commandments
  • Slide 52
  • Differences among Christians Different denominations have different views Salvation by faith alone (Protestant) vs. Salvation and Good Works (Catholic) faith without works is dead it does say this in the Bible Women as priests/ministers Biblical interpretation Literal (fundamentalist) vs. open/metaphorical Views towards the Sabbath, gays, abortion/birth control, drinking, enjoyment of pop culture
  • Slide 53
  • Why is it significant to understand Christianity in History of Middle East? Jerusalem is holy to Christians site of Jesus crucifixion and resurrection Christians believe that Armageddon, the final battle between good and evil, will occur in Israel in the Valley of Megiddo. Control of Holy Land influenced the Crusades (1096-1272), which greatly damagesd relations with Muslims
  • Slide 54
  • Constantine the Great (272 337 CE) First Christian Roman Emperor Mother Helena was Christian Claimed to see a vision of cross of light in sky before a battle with inscription In this sign you will conquer. Legalizes Christianity Christians were being persecuted Promotes Christianity as major religion
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  • Map of Byzantine Trade Routes
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  • Was Constantine a true Christian? Textbook calls him a nominal Christian Had rivals killed so that he could consolidate power Colossal image of himself resembling the Roman god Jupiter in a basilica in Rome Baptized with water on his death bed (an important Christian ritual Why did he wait so long to do this?) If he really wanted to accept Christianity, wouldnt he have behaved following Christs example?
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  • Council of Nicaea Meeting called by Constantine (about 300 bishops present from all over the Roman Empire) Answers questions and builds consensus on who Christ was this becomes the Orthodox view Christians, who had different views, were labeled heretics and persecuted as if they were rebelling against the empire
  • Slide 62
  • Icon of Constantine and the Church Fathers They are holding a slightly modified form of the Nicene Creed (Niceno- Constantinopolitan Creed of 381).
  • Slide 63
  • Christian Dissident Groups AriansArians believed that Jesus was divinely sired and inspired, but was not on the level of God JUST A MAN (arose in Alexandria; priest called Arius) NestoriansNestorians through that Christ was TWO DIFFERENT BEINGS one divine, one human (When the church of Ephesus condemned them, they fled to Persia); arose in Antioch MonophysitesMonophysites opposite view of Nestorians and Arians Jesus was only one being and was ONLY DIVINE/GOD (not human)
  • Slide 64
  • Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire Persecutes Heretics Heretics people who go against the official church doctrines Orthodox Christian view Jesus was both God and man in one body (power of God to perform miracles with the weaknesses...