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22-1 Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Chapter 22 Chapter 22 Lecture Lecture Outline Outline *

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  • 22-* Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition

    Rod R. SeeleyIdaho State UniversityTrent D. StephensIdaho State UniversityPhilip TatePhoenix CollegeCopyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.*See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.Chapter 22Lecture Outline*

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  • 22-*Chapter 22Lymphatic System and Immunity

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  • 22-*Lymphatic SystemLymphLymphatic vesselsLymphatic tissueLymphatic nodulesLymph nodesTonsilsSpleenThymus

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  • 22-*Functions of the Lymphatic SystemFluid balanceExcess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries and becomes lymphFat absorptionAbsorption of fat and other substances from digestive tractDefenseMicroorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen

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  • 22-*Lymphatic VesselsCarry lymph away from tissuesLymphatic capillariesMore permeable than blood capillariesEpithelium functions as series of one-way valves

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  • 22-*Lymphatic VesselsLymphatic capillaries join to formLymphatic vesselsHave valves that ensure one-way flowLymph nodes: Distributed along vessels and filter lymphLymphatic trunks: Jugular, subclavian, bronchomediastinal, intestinal, lumbar Lymphatic ducts: Right and thoracic which connect to large veins

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  • 22-*Lymph Drainage Into Veins

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  • 22-*Lymphatic Tissue and NodulesLymphatic tissueConsists mainly of lymphocytesEncapsulated or notLymphatic nodulesNumerous in loose connective tissue of digestive (Peyers patches), respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems

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  • 22-*TonsilsLarge groups of lymphatic nodules in nasopharynx and oral cavityProvide protection against bacteria and other harmful materialGroupsPalatinePharyngealLingual

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  • 22-*Lymph NodesOrganized in cortex and medullaSubstances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymphocytes or bothOnly structures to filter lymphAfferent and efferent vessels

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  • 22-*SpleenLocated in left superior side of abdomenCan be ruptured in traumatic abdominal injuries resulting in bleeding, shock, deathBlood flows through at 3 different ratesFast (most), slow, intermediateFunctionsDestroys defective RBCsDetects and responds to foreign substances Limited reservoir for blood

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  • 22-*Spleen

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  • 22-*ThymusLocated in superior mediastinumDivisions: Cortex and medullaSite of maturation of T cells

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  • 22-*ImmunityAbility to resist damage from foreign substances as microorganisms and harmful chemicalsCategoriesInnate or nonspecific resistanceMechanical mechanisms: Prevent entry or remove microbesChemical mediators: Promote phagocytosis and inflammationCells: Involved in phagocytosis and production of chemicals Adaptive or specific immunitySpecificity: Ability to recognize a particular substanceMemory: Ability to remember previous encounters with a particular substance and respond rapidly

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  • 22-*Mechanical Mechanisms andChemical MediatorsMechanical MechanismsSkin, tears, saliva, mucous membranes, mucus

    Chemical MediatorsComplementGroup of 20 proteinsCirculate in blood in inactive formBecome activated in cascade form: Classical or alternative pathwayInterferonsPrevent viral replication

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  • 22-*Complement Cascade

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  • 22-*Innate Immunity: CellsWhite blood cellsMost important cellular components of immune systemMethodsChemotaxisPhagocytosis NeutrophilsPhagocytic and first cells to enter infected tissueMacrophagesMonocytes that leave blood, enter tissuesLarge phagocytic cellsBasophils and mast cellsPromote inflammationEosinophilsReduce inflammationNatural killer cellsLyse tumor and virus-infected cells

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  • 22-*Inflammatory Response

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  • 22-*Inflammatory ResponseTissue injury regardless of type can cause inflammationResponse initiated by chemical mediators that produce vasodilation, chemotactic attraction, increased vascular permeabilityTypesLocal: Symptoms are redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of functionSystemic: Symptoms are increase in neutrophil numbers, fever and shock

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  • 22-*Adaptive ImmunityInvolves the ability to recognize, respond to, and remember a particular substanceStimulantsAntigens: Large moleculesForeign: Not produced by body, introduced from outsideSelf-antigens: Produced by bodyHaptens: Small molecules and capable of combiningTypesHumoral or Antibody-mediated: B cellsCell-mediated: T cells

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  • 22-*Origin and Developmentof LymphocytesB and T cellsOriginate in red bone marrowMove to lymphatic tissue from processing sites and continually circulateClones are small groups of identical lymphocytes

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  • 22-*Origin and Developmentof LymphocytesPositive selectionEnsures survival of lymphocytes that react against antigensNegative selectionEliminates lymphocytes that react against self-antigensPrimary lymphatic organs (red bone marrow, thymus)Where lymphocytes mature into functional cellsSecondary lymphatic organsWhere lymphocytes produce an immune response

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  • 22-*Antigenic DeterminantsAntigenic determinants Specific regions of a given antigen recognized by a lymphocyteAntigenic receptorsSurface of lymphocyte that combines with antigenic determinant

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  • 22-*Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC)Most lymphocyte activation involves glycoproteins of cell surfaces called MHC moleculesClass I molecules display antigens on surface of nucleated cells, resulting in destruction of cellsClass II molecules display antigens on surface of antigen-presenting cells, resulting in activation of immune cells

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  • 22-*Antigen Processing

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  • 22-*Costimulation

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  • 22-*Proliferation of Helper T Cells

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  • 22-*Proliferation of B Cells

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  • 22-*Lymphocyte InhibitionTolerance: To prevent the immune system from responding to self-antigensProvoked byDeletion of self-reactive lymphocytesPreventing activation of lymphocytesActivation of suppressor T cells

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  • 22-*Antibody-Mediated ImmunityAntibodies or Immunoglobulins (Ig)Classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgDStructureVariable region: Part that combines with anitgenic determinant of antigenConstant region: Responsible for activities

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  • 22-*Actions of Antibodies

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  • 22-*Antibody Production

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  • 22-*Cell-Mediated ImmunityAntigen activates effector T cells and produces memory T cellsCytotoxic T cells lyse virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue transplantsCytotoxic T cells produce cytokines, which promote phagocytosis and inflammation

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  • 22-*Interactions and Responses ofInnate and Adaptive Immunity

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  • 22-*Acquired ImmunityActive natural immunityResults from natural exposure to an antigenActive artificial immunityResults from deliberate exposure to an antigenPassive natural immunityResults from transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus or babyPassive artificial immunityResults from transfer of antibodies (or cells) from an immune animal to a nonimmune one

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  • 22-*Ways to Acquire Adaptive Immunity

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  • 22-*Effects of AgingLittle effect on lymphatic systemDecreased ability of helper T cells to proliferate in response to antigensDecreased primary and secondary antibody responsesDecreased ability of cell-mediated immunity to resist intracellular pathogens

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  • 22-*Immune System ProblemsHypersensitivity reactionsAutoimmune diseaseSevere combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)TransplantationAcute rejectionChronic rejection

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