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The Mysteries of the Chinese PyramidsA report about the expedition to central China, 5-19 of January 2008 by Maxim Yakovenko
1. Introduction For many centuries China used to be a mysterious eastern land for the western world. The Silk Road was a unique link between European and Chinese civilizations. Seldom travelers ventured to pass thousands of miles to unknown territories where people spoke another language and prayed to the their own gods. By the end of 20th century China turned to be a major destination for thousands of visitors from all over the world thanks to open borders and globalization. The Great Wall, authentic temples and green parks of Beijing, legendary monasteries of Loayang together with modern skyscraper districts of Hong Kong and Shanghai create unique mixture of ancient legacy and advanced technological achievements that attracts tourists to visit this land. Seems that everything has already been discovered and examined in China in terms of archeology and topology by far, however in the center of the country, in the vicinities of Xian (the administrative center of Shaanxi province) there are hundreds of ancient pyramidal structures of different shapes and sizes with equal faces and flat tops. The first record about so-called Chinese pyramids was made in 1912, when the travel agents Oscar Maman and Fred Shroeder reported of colossal structures observed in China. Shroeder mentioned eight pyramids, especially he was fascinated by the largest of them: "It was more eerie than if we had found them in the wilderness. Here they had been under the nose of the world, but unknown to the western countries... The big pyramid is about 1,000 feet high (other descriptions estimate 1,000 to 1,200 feet high) and roughly 1,500 feet at the base, which makes it twice as large as any pyramid in Egypt. The four faces of the structure are oriented with the compass points" When Shroeder and Maman asked Buddhist monks about pyramids they noticed that already in the monastery books of 5000 years old those structures were already considered as very ancient and unexplored. During World War II a US Air Force pilot James Gaussman was flying between China and India, his report to an intelligence officer is very important:
"I banked to avoid a mountain and we came out over a level valley. Directly below was a gigantic white pyramid. It looked like something out of a fairy tale. It was encased in shimmering white. This could have been metal, or some sort of stone. It was pure white on all sides. The remarkable thing was the capstone, a huge piece of jewel-like material that could have been crystal. There was no way we could have landed, although we wanted to. We were struck by the immensity of the thing." This story about colossal pyramid called White Pyramid was published in 1947 in the New York Times and was forgotten for half of century until 1994 when German traveler Hartwig Hausdorf visited a valley of pyramids in central China. He was the first European in modern history which shared his impressions and observations to the public in his book Die Weisse Pyramide (The White Pyramid). Later he published The Chinese Roswell where he gave a little attention to the White Pyramid. Nevertheless that was the first research of the Chinese pyramids ever done. From that time press and then Internet created many myths around Chinese pyramids especially around the White Pyramid. Same time Chinese authorities did not carry out any research of the pyramids and did not invite the foreign scientists to examine those structures. 2. The meaning of the term pyramid in the Chinese language Before we describe the Xian pyramids let us consider the meanings of the word pyramid in Chinese language. There are three meanings of the term pyramid in Chinese: 1. Jin zi ta (jnzt) is the most commonly used. Jin means gold. Zi a mark, a written symbol. Ta a tower. So we have a tower with golden symbols. Hard to say why this term is used in Chinese to describe a pyramid, the history of ancient characters is not clear for us. Characters Jin and zi (golden symbols) are not attributed to a golden metal but rather to sacred knowledge, which as valuable as gold. Therefore we may assume that pyramids in Egypt, China and in other places are some reserves of important information about ancient civilizations for all the humankind. Chinese characters refer to ancient meaning of the pyramids. This is very important because language is the key to understanding of culture and history of peoples.
2. The second meaning of the word pyramid in Chinese is Jiao zhui, literal translation is a horn for drilling the ground. It may seem that this term has nothing to do with pyramids, but it does for the Chinese pyramids. There is an unusual object in 40 kilometres from Xian which looks like an unnatural lake. After closer examination and analysis of satellite images, it becomes clear that this object is like a mirror reflection of a flat topped pyramid. It looks as though a flat topped pyramid has been turned upside down and drowned into the ground and then removed. We propose to give this construction a terms pyramidal antipode. For what reason was this deepening made? Its a question without an answer so far. However since there is a special term to describe this construction in Chinese language it should be that the pyramid antipode was an important object of some special yet undiscovered meaning in ancient times. 3. The third meaning for term piramid is Leng zhu and can be translated as prism. Any pyramid is a prism, this also applies to the Chinese pyramids. These flat-topped pyramids are widespread in Shaanxi Province. The meaning of characters Leng zhu refer to the pyramid as a prism. These flat-topped pyramidal objects are sort of prisms but the prism is not simply a solid object with ends that are parallel and of the same size and shape, and with sides whose opposite edges are equal and parallel but its also an optical lens which transforms the light. The authors supposition is that these Chinese flat-topped pyramids could probably function as huge generators of energy from the sun light and the universe. A tower with golden symbols, a pyramid antipode and a prism pyramid are three meanings of the word a pyramid in Chinese which have been used for a long time and written in characters. Moreover Chinese terms for word pyramid reflect certain forms of pyramids in Shaanxi Province, for instance: pyramid-antipode and flat-topped or prism pyramids. Besides the description the term pyramid reflects in esoteric nature of the construction. 3. Classification of the pyramids Location: Chinese pyramids are located in the center of Shaanxi province. They surround Xian from different directions and some smaller pyramids are even located in the city. There is a long valley of the pyramids in the northern vicinities of Xianyang, the city which is very close to Xian. Stretched from the East to the West for 50 km. long the valley looks like a Milky Way.
There are many absolutely unknown pyramids located in the Northwest region from Xian and one of them is the legendary White Pyramid. We can expect new pyramidal objects to be found in other regions of Shaanxi province in the future. Let us define similarities of pyramids in central China. What is in common: General characteristic of all pyramids is the material of construction high quality pressed clay. Being in Shaanxi we didnt find natural rock hill or any other stone formation only the soil, consisting of clay of mustard color. Ancient builders used clay because it was the only available construction material in that area. But how they turned the clay into construction material of rather high quality is a mystery for us. Every pyramid looks like one solid monolith without any evidence of the clay blocks or slides. Clay material of pyramids is strong like concrete.
Base: The majority of pyramids have square base but some pyramids have rectangular base reminding huge cone-shaped artificial hills but as their parallel sides are equal we shall consider them as separate type of pyramids. There are pyramids which lay on large square foundations up to 3 meters high. Top: Flat-topped pyramid is the most widespread type of the pyramid. Some plateaus on the tops of the pyramids have impressive sizes of 50 x 50 m. All of them resemble Mexican pyramids. There are also pyramids with the top like Egyptian pyramids but they are no more than 40 meters high.
Shape: Chinese pyramids can be divided into step and non-step pyramids. Step pyramids are also divided into multistage and one-step. Pyramid steps represent terraces of 1-2 meters high. Pyramids with one step (terrace) are relatively small - not higher than 10 meters. Pyramids with pointed top are generally non-step, while flat-topped pyramids can be with many terraces or without any. Therefore we can see that Chinese pyramids have some similarities with Mexican pyramids in shapes - they have terraces on each face and flat tops.
4. The Great Pyramid Complex of YaSen Garden Among most interesting pyramids are those of YaSen Garden - a park of apple trees located 15 kilometers from the center of Xian. There are sixteen interconnected pyramids and more than ten smaller pyramids located in the vicinities of YaSen Garden.
All those pyramids are aligned to the earths cardinal points - North-South and East-West. The biggest pyramid of this complex is not-step pyramid with three-meter square foundation and flat top of 41-42 meters of length and width. Pyramids are all approximately 46-48 meters high. Simple mathematic calculations of this pyramid are rather impressive. Perimeter of top plateau is 166 m., which is exactly the length of one side of the pyramid base which is also 166 meters long! The perimeter of the base equals 664 meters. If we take into account error in 2 meters at measurement from the satellite images we approac