china at the end of the qing dynasty do now: explain: spheres of influence and open door policy

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  • China at the End of the Qing DynastyDo Now:Explain: Spheres of influence and Open Door Policy

  • Europe Seeks Trade RightsMing and QingRestricted Trade Cantononly trading portChinese saw European as inferior long-nosed barbarians

  • 2 Developments that Changed the RelationshipThe decline of the Qing Dynasty due to internal problemsFood ShortagesDroughts and Floods causing faminePeasant revoltsThe European industrial revolutionModern navies intense desire for more resources and markets

  • European annoyed Would not kowtow (bow) to the Chinese emperor.

    resented trade restrictions

    China refused to engage in diplomacy to reform trade

  • OpiumThe Key to the DoorBritish began selling Indian grown opium to the Chinese.

    Rampant opium addiction=instability in China

    Chinas attempts to stop it failed

    China destroys European boats carrying opium

  • No Match for the British The British navy made fast work of the Chinese. The Treaty of Nanking (also Nanjing) ended the Opium War. This was the first of many unequal treatiesPay for the destruction of the European ships and opiumGive Hong Kong to the BritishEnd restrictions on tradeExtraterritorialityCrimes committed by British in China are tried in Britain.

  • Taiping Rebellion A peasant uprising 1851 lasted 14 years 20 million deaths.Weakened empireFollowing the rebellion-100 days of reformAttempts to modernize ChinaAdopt some western ideas Why?

  • The distribution of all land is to be based on the number of persons in each family, regardless of sex. A large family is entitled to more land, a small one to less. The land distributed should not be all of one grade but mixed. All the land in the country is to be cultivated by the whole population together. During harvest season, the Group Officer1 should direct [the grain collection by] the sergeants. Deducting the amount needed to feed the twentyfive families until the next harvest season, he should collect the rest of the produce for storage in the state granaries. all people under Heaven are of one family belonging to the Heavenly Father, the Supreme Ruler, the Lord GodonHigh. Nobody should keep private property. All things should be presented to the Supreme Ruler, so that He will be enabled to make use of them and distribute them equally to all members of his great worldfamily. Thus all will be sufficiently fed and clothed.1. Why would Confucian scholars be opposed to the system suggested in these passages?2. What strengths and weaknesses do you see in the Taiping economic program as revealed in these passages?3. In what ways does the system envisioned here differ from what was already n place during the mid-nineteenth-century Qing?

  • Imperialism ExpandsLate 19th and Early 20th century Europeans compete to build empiresNationalism Territorial acquisition

  • United States Open Door PolicyAmerica feared being boxed out because of exclusive trade agreements (spheres of influence)

    Sought unrestricted trade

    John Hay sends Europeans notesEuropeansOnly if the other agreeHay says yay Boxer rebellion seals the deal

  • Ci Xi and the Boxer RebellionCi Xi, Qing dynastys last empress, opposed this reform

    Fists of Righteous Harmony (Boxers) violently revolted against all foreigners

    America helps squash the rebellion which leads to military presence in China

    The door is open!!!

  • 1911 China faces collapse

    ResultsLong March--Zedong and his 90000 supporters were forced to flee to the Northwest. During the 6000 mile march that lasted more than a year, everyone died but 7000.

  • Japanese Invade1931Japan takes Manchuria and establishes puppet-state, Manchukuo.1937Japan invades the rest of ChinaRape of Nanking (viewed as genocide)Zedong and Kai Shek team up against JapaneseJapan is defeated 1945 (end of WWII)

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