child development, chapter 5, caprice paduano

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  • 1. Chapter 5 Child Development Caprice Paduano

2. Chapter 5 Key Questions

  • How do the human body and nervous system develop?
  • Does the environment affect the pattern of development?
  • What developmental tasks must infants accomplish in this period?
  • How does nutrition affect physical development?
  • What sensory capabilities do infants possess?

3. Physical Growth: The Rapid Advances of Infancy

  • Infants grow at a rapid pace over the first 2 years of their lives.
  • By the age of 5 months, the average infants birthweight has doubled to around 15 pounds. By the first birthday, the babys weight has tripled to about 22 pounds.
  • The weight gains of infancy are matched by increased length.
  • By the end of the 1st year, the typical baby grows almost a foot and is about 30 inches tall.

4. Four Principles of Growth

  • Cephalocaudal principle The principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body
  • The cephalocaudal growth principle means that we develop visual abilities (located in the head) well before we master the ability to walk.

5. Four Principles of Growth

  • Three other principles help explain the patterns by which growth occurs:
  • Proximodistal principle The principle that development proceeds from the center of the body outward
  • Principle of hierarchical integration The principle that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills
  • Principle of the independence of systems The principle that different body systems grow at different rates

6. The Major Principles Governing Growth 7. The Nervous System and Brain: The Foundations of Development

  • Neuron The basic nerve cell of the nervous system
  • Neurons can communicate with other cells, using a cluster of fibers calleddendritesat one end.
  • Dendrites receive messages from other cells.

8. The Nervous System and Brain: The Foundations of Development

  • At their opposite end, neurons have a long extension called anaxon , the part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons.
  • Synapse The gap at the connection between neurons, through which neurons chemically communicate with one another

9. Synaptic Pruning

  • Babies are actually born with many more neurons than they need.
  • In addition, although synapses are formed throughout life, based on our changing experiences, the billions of new synapses infants form during the first 2 years are more numerous than necessary.

10. Synaptic Pruning

  • After birth, neurons continue to increase in size. In addition to growth in dendrites, the axons of neurons become coated with myelin
  • Myelin A fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses

11. Synaptic Pruning

  • The neurons also reposition themselves as they grow, becoming arranged by function.
  • Some move into the cerebral cortex, the upper layer of the brain, while others move tosubcortical levels , which are below the cerebral cortex.

12. Synaptic Pruning

  • The subcortical levels, which regulate such fundamental activities as breathing and heart rate, are the mostfully developed at birth.

13. Environmental Influences on Brain Development

  • Brain development, much of which unfolds automatically because of genetically predetermined patterns, is also strongly susceptible to environmental influences.
  • Plasticity The degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable

14. Environmental Influences on Brain Development

  • Compared with those brought up in more enriched environments, infants raised in severely restricted settings are likely to show differences in the brains structure and weight
  • Sensitive period A specific time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment
  • A sensitive period may be associated with a behaviorsuch as the development of full visionor with the development of a structure of the body, such as the configuration of the brain.

15. Environmental Influences on Brain Development

  • Developmentalists suggest that there are many simple ways parents and caregivers can provide a stimulating environment that will encourage healthy brain growth.

16. Integrating the Bodily Systems: The Life Cycles of Infancy

  • In the first days of life, infants body rhythms govern the infants behavior, often at seemingly random times.
  • Rhythms Repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior
  • State The degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation

17. Integrating the Bodily Systems: The Life Cycles of Infancy

  • Some of the different states that infants experience produce changes in electrical activity in the brain.
  • These changes are reflected in different patterns of electricalbrain waves , which can be measured by a device called anelectroencephalogram (EEG) .

18. Sleep: Perchance to Dream?

  • At the beginning of infancy, the major state that occupies a babys time is sleep.
  • On average, newborn infants sleep some 16 to 17 hours a day. However, there are wide variations.
  • Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep The period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming

19. Primary Behavioral States 20. SIDS: The Unanticipated Killer

  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) The unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby
  • SIDS strikes about 1 in 1,000 infants in the United States each year.
  • Although it seems to occur when the normal patterns of breathing during sleep are interrupted, scientists have been unable to discover why that might happen.

21. SIDS: The Unanticipated Killer

  • Although no reliable means for preventing the syndrome has been found, the American Academy of Pediatrics now suggests that babies sleep on their backs rather than on their sides or stomachscalled theback-to-sleepguideline.
  • The number of deaths from SIDS has decreased significantly since these guidelines were developed.

22. Motor Development

  • The shape and proportions of newborn babies are simply not conducive to easy mobility.
  • Their heads are so large and heavy that young infants lack the strength to raise them.
  • Because their limbs are short in relation to the rest of the body, their movements are further impeded.

23. Motor Development

  • Furthermore, their bodies are mainly fat, with a limited amount of muscle; the result is that they lack strength.
  • Fortunately, it doesnt take too long before infants begin to develop a remarkable amount of mobility.

24. Reflexes: Our Inborn Physical Skills

  • Reflexes Unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
  • Newborns enter the world with a repertoire of reflexive behavioral patterns that help them adapt to their new surroundings and serve to protect them.

25. Some Basic Reflexes in Infants 26. Ethnic and Cultural Differences and Similarities in Reflexes

  • Although reflexes are, by definition, genetically determined and universal throughout all infants, there are actually some cultural variations in the ways they are displayed.
  • In some cases, reflexes can serve as helpful diagnostic tools for pediatricians.

27. Ethnic and Cultural Differences and Similarities in Reflexes

  • Because reflexes emerge and disappear on a regular timetable, their absenceor presenceat a given point of infancy can provide a clue that something may be amiss in an infants development.

28. Gross Motor Skills

  • The motor skills of newborn infants are unsophisticated; still, young infants are able to accomplish some kinds of movement.
  • As their strength increases, they are able to push hard enough against the surface on which they are resting to propel their bodies in different directions.

29. Gross Motor Skills

  • Crawling appears typically between 8 and 10 months.
  • Walking comes later; half of all infants can walk well by the end of 12 months.

30. Fine Motor Skills

  • By the age of 3 months, infants show some ability to coordinate the movements of their limbs.
  • The sophistication of fine motor skills continues to grow. By the age of 11 months, infants are able to pick up objects as small as marbles.
  • Grasping, like other motor advances, follows a sequential developmental pattern in which simple skills are combined with more sophisticated ones.

31. Dynamic Systems Theory: How Motor Development Is Coordinated

  • Each skill (such as a babys ability to pick up a spoon and guide it to her lips) advances in the context of other motor abilities (