child behavior & guidance part i: theories & principles

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Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service November 3, 2009 9:30-11:00 a.m . Debbie Richardson, Ph.D. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University . Child Behavior & Guidance Part I: Theories & Principles. Introduction. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Child Behavior & Guidance Part I: Theories & Principles

Child Behavior & Guidance Part I: Theories & Principles

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension ServiceCore In-Service November 3, 20099:30-11:00 a.m.

Debbie Richardson, Ph.D.Parenting Assistant Extension SpecialistHuman Development & Family ScienceOklahoma State University

IntroductionWelcome

Centra Instructions

Overview of In-service

Resource Materials2

Core in-service designed for educators with little experience with child development, parenting, etc. as well as a refresher for educators with more experience

5 sessions:November 3 Part 1: Theories & PrinciplesNovember 10 Part 2: Influences on BehaviorNovember 17 Part 3: Behavior ProblemsNovember 24 Part 4: Positive Guidance & DisciplineDecember 1 Part 5: Research & ResourcesWill primarily refer to age range from about toddlers to 12 years.Will address from varying perspectives of individual child, parents, child care providers, teachers, other caregivers

Recommend starting a binder to include materials from each session.Please feel welcome to submit questions for future sessions or just contact me if want to discuss or follow-up on anything. 2In-Service ObjectiveExtension Educators will be able to identify definitions, major theories, and key principles relevant to the behavior, discipline, and guidance of toddlers through school-age/pre-teen children.

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Terms & Definitions

Child BehaviorAny observable response or action of a childForm of communication - Verbal & nonverbal Conduct, actions, words children use to express thoughts, feelings, needs, impulsesJudged whether it meets social, cultural, developmental, & age appropriate standardsCan be positive/negative, impulsive/planned, predictable/unpredictable, consistent/ inconsistent5

5Child BehaviorCan elicit wide range of positive or negative responses from othersDoes not occur in isolationInfluenced by: childs desires, temperament, & ability to adaptparenting style, family situation, various stresses and transitions6

6Self-regulationSelf-controlChilds ability to contain and manage his/her own behavior without relying on caregivers to guide him/herGradually internalizing an understanding of what behaviors are acceptable/non-acceptable, right/wrong, meeting social standardsLong process

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7Compliance

Childs ability and willingness to adjust behavior to meet the expectations and limits of caregiversCompliant when following a caregivers request or direction8

Conscience & Moral DevelopmentInternal voice or system of moral values Judge right/wrong Feelings of guilt or discomfort Not innate built gradually from relationships Internalize standards of behavior taught by caregiversProcess of norms, rules, and values of family and society become an internal motivator even in absence of external authority Values beliefs9

DisciplineTeach, lead, educateDoes not imply punishment or scoldingTeaches what behavior is appropriate in which circumstance, or how to interact in a socially acceptable mannerProcess of guiding in ways that supports development of self-controlUsed to set reasonable limits in a consistent manner while still allowing some choice among acceptable alternatives

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1011DisciplineTeaches responsibility and right from wrongShows how to get along and respect rights and feelings of othersEncourages independence and self-directionEnhances self-worth, sense of competenceProtects children from harm by teaching what is safe Is ongoing - long-term focus

1112PunishmentUse of an unpleasant experience to try to change or eliminate behavior

Physical or emotional means to cause pain, humiliation, denial of freedom, and/or isolation

An arbitrary penalty

May stop bad behavior for the moment but does not teach expected good behavior

Often builds anger & resentment

Inhibits development of self-discipline

Physical/Corporal PunishmentPhysical force with the intention of causing the child to experience bodily pain or discomfort so as to correct or punish the childs behavior

Physical restraint use of physical force to protect the child or others from physical pain or harm

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Physical punishment - Not only hitting. Other practices include washing a childs mouth out with soap, making a child kneel on sharp or painful objects (rice, grate), placing hot sauce on a childs tongue, forcing a child to stand or sit in painful positions for long periods of time, forcing child to engage in excessive exercise or physical exertion.

Physical Restraint such as holding a child to prevent them from running into a busy street, pulling a childs hand away from a hot stove, holding a child who has hurt another child to prevent him/her from doing so again.13AbuseOklahoma statute Tit. 10, 7102, 7106(A)(3)

Harm or threatened harm to a child's health or safety includes, but is not limited to, nonaccidental physical injury, mental injuryIfthe incident reported was the result of the reasonable exercise of parental discipline involving the use of ordinary force, including, but not limited to, spanking, switching, or paddling, the investigation or assessment will proceed no further.14

Extreme punishment

Striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child, or any action that results in a physical impairment of the child

Verbal abuse14GuidanceA constant ongoing process of learningEmphasis is on guiding & teachingSelf-discipline, not control, is the goalShapes behaviors with love, respectIn context of relationship, each person influences and is influenced by the other - may require changes in behavior of both the adult & child

Influenced by many factors our origins, teaching experiences, cultural beliefs & values, family beliefs and values, & societal expectations

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SocializationProcess of imparting competencies, values, and expectations of society to childrenProcess by which children learn to behave according to social expectations and standards16

Theories & Frameworks

Related to child behavior, discipline, & self-regulation1717Theories & FrameworksSchools of thought, paradigms, perspectivesGrow out of efforts to make sense of scientific observationsResearch tests and supports hypothesesDifferent theoretical frameworks are useful for understanding different areas of behavior

18Many of the beliefs and practices of discipline and child rearing of previous generations are now seen as cruel and inhumane.

Even today many different beliefs and theories exist about how best to discipline and how a child develops self-regulation.

While the frameworks themselves are rarely tested directly, they are often used to make sense of research findings.

We can also expect new frameworks to be invented to help us better understand development and relationships.

Theories can guide adults in making decisions about teaching and caring for children.

A clearly articulate theory leads to thoughtful and consistent teaching and parenting.

Combine/integrate frameworks Most professionals use a combination

18Some Major Differences Between TheoriesEmphasis on various ways to encourage compliance in children:Some focus on training by modeling and reinforcement Some focus on self & interactions with others

Emphasis on the emotional quality of the parent-child relationship19Following are a few influential theories & frameworks over last 100 years19Psychoanalytic (Freud)Natural instincts, innate drivesParents (esp. mothers) are the most important socializing agentsChildren internalize their parents values which form a superego or conscience -occurs in first 5 yearsEarly influences are very important for childrens developmentHarsh parenting methods are detrimental to childrens well-being 20

20Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner)Child is a blank slate at birth - filled in over time by experiences in environment Based on stimulus-response relationships; stimuli predict behaviorClassical & operant conditioningBehavioral changes occur when certain consequences are contingent on (related to) the performance of desired behaviorShape childs development and control behavior in desired direction with rewards, praise, reinforcement, modeling, etc.

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Assigns great importance to role of adults, and holds that parents and teachers must purposefully shape childrens learning.

Very focused on modifying behavior rather than relationship or emotions.

Watson opposed parental expressions of affection for their children. Watson recommended scientific approach to childrearing although not supported by scientific evidence concerns regarding spoiling of children, scheduled care such as infant feeding, babies cry it out. Believed nurturing responsive parenting spoiled children.

Classical conditioning: learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not evoke that type of response. (i.e. Pavlovs dog and bell)

Operant conditioning: learn to act deliberately on their environments in order to bring about desired consequences. Childrens behavior can be shaped only gradually; breaking down learning into manageable units and rewarding small steps forward.

Reinforcement: process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated. Such as verbal praise and tangible rewards given only after positive behaviors have been performed.

Punishment: will decrease probability that the preceding behavior will occur in the