child & adult food care and food pyramid

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Post on 21-Nov-2014



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prepared by nursing students /faculty of medical sciences


  • 1. Child and adult food care & food pyramid Prepared by: Raveen Ismail Heyman AhmedViyan MouradWarveen Abid Wdyan Jondi

2. ObjectivesAt the end of the presentation the students willknow: Difference between nutrients, nutrition, food. food pyramid ,food groups . The classification of foods ,nutrients . The daily calorie intake for adults ,children . The affect of inadequate food, nutrients intakeon our bodies . the nursing role in (children ,adult) food care . 3. Introduction to nutrition Nutrition is the intake of food, according to the bodysdietary needs required by organisms and cells to stayalive. Essential nutrients include protein, carbohydrate, fat,vitamins, minerals and electrolytes,. Normally 85% of daily energy use is from fat andcarbohydrates and 15% from protein. Nutrition is essential for growth and development,health and wellbeing. Eating a healthy dietcontributes to preventing future illness and improvingquality and length of life. 4. Whats nutrition ? It is a Science which investigates themetabolic &physiological responses of thebody to diet . 5. Whats food is any substance consumed to providenutritional support for the body. It is usuallyof plant or animal origin, and containsessential nutrients , such as(carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins,minerals) 6. Foods classification according to their generalphysical properties solid primary semisolid liquid foods fibrous,secondary gelatinous, starchy, oleaginous, crystalline,and albuminous foods. 7. Foods classification according to theirsourcesAnimal foodsVegetable foods meats ,fishcereals, vegetables Shellfish, proper , fruits, crustaceans, eggs, sugars, vegetable milk and its products, oils. animal fats, gelatin. 8. Food classification according to their compositions the majority of the Nitrogenous foods animal substances belong carbon , hydrogen , to the nitrogenous, and oxygen , the majority of vegetable nitrogen substances to the non-Non -nitrogenous nitrogenous group. foods carbon oxygen hydrogen 9. Whats nutrients a substance that provides nourishmentessential for the maintenance of life and forgrowth : for example :fish is a source of manyimportant nutrients, including protein,vitamins, and minerals 10. Classification of nutrientsCarbohydratesMacronutrientsFatsProteins WaterVitaminsMicronutrientsMinerals 11. Function of nutrients in food Provide energy (carbohydrate ,fat ,protein) Build tissue (proteins ) Regulate metabolic processes ,(water is baseof all metabolic processes . 12. Difference between food ,nutrients, nutritionFoodNutritionNutrientsis any substance Is taking in and the a substance thatconsumed to provide utilization of food provides nourishmentnutritional support for substances by which essential for thethe bodygrowth, repair andmaintenance of life andmaintenance of thefor growth .body are accomplished . It is usually of plantFood origin food is a source ofor animal originnutrients for e.g.. fish is asource of many importantnutrients, including protein,vitamins, and minerals contains nutrients forUtilizing food nutrients Are food components fore.g. Carbohydrate through process ofe.g. carbohydrateingestion, digestion,absorption andassimilation. 13. Factors affecting food intake Age Emotional factors Sensory factors Personal Preference Social situations Income (poverty ) Nutritional knowledge Intolerance & allergies 14. Food Security The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing : when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active lifeFood security is built on three pillars: Food availability Food access Food use 15. Whats food pyramid Is an outline of what to eat each day , It isnot a rigid prescription, but a general guidethat lets you choose a healthful diet thatsright for you, shows a range of serving foreach major group . The first food pyramid was published inSweden in 1974. 16. Whats serving ? The amount of food that counts as a serving. For example If you eat one plate of rice, thatwould be two servings. If you eat a smallerportion, count it as part of a serving. 17. Daily Calorie Intake Recommended daily calorie intake varies fromperson to person Calories also play a role in weight control Calories are a measure of energy and arecommonly used to describe the energy content of foods. 18. Daily calories intake for adults 19. 1600 caloriesmany sedentary womensome older adults. 20. 2200 calories active women many sedentary men Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding may need somewhat more. most children teenage girls 21. 2800 caloriesmany active mensome very active women.teenage boys 22. Calories intake for children per day Age boys Girls3 - 6 months 7007006 - 9 months 8108109 - 12 months9509501 - 2 yrs 115011502 - 3 yrs 135013503 - 5 yrs 155015505- 7 yrs185017507- 9 yrs21001800 10- 11 yrs 22001950 12- 13yrs24002100 14 - 15 yrs26502150 16- 19yrs28502150 23. Factors affecting daily calories intake age. Gender . Body size (height and weight). Physical state (pregnancy ,lactation) Type of work (sedentary .moderate, heavy) 24. Lack of insufficient food intakePoor nutrition can lead to: reduced immunity. increased susceptibility to disease. impaired physical and mental development 25. For examples Protein deficiency leads to Kwashiorkor..etc Calories deficiency leads to Starvation, marasmus..etc Vitamins deficiency leads to Pellagra ,Beri Beri, scurvy, rickets ..etc. Minerals deficiency leads toOsteoporosis, tetany, laryngospasm ,cardiacarrhythmias ..etc. 26. MalnutritionMalnutrition intake of nutrients insufficient to meet daily energy requirements as a result of inadequate food intake or improper digestion & absorption of food.S&S The most common symptom is a notable weight loss. For example, those who have lost more than 10% of their body weight in the course of three months and are not dieting could be malnourished. Growth failure in children Muscle wasting and lack of strength in the muscles. Swelling of the abdomen and legs. Increased susceptibility to infections Skin and hair becomes dry. 27. Role of nurseAssessing : Usual eating patterns & habits Allergies & intolerances Food frequency record Brief personal & family history Height/weight Ideal body weight Body mass index ( weight in kilograms over height in meterssquared Weight/height (in m)2) and mid arm circumference.(18.5_24.9) Manifestations of malnutrition Social, economic, ethnic, religious factors Other risk factors for altered nutrition 28. Role of nurseTo stimulate appetite Relieve illness symptoms that depress appetite priorto mealtime Select small portions Avoid unpleasant or uncomfortable treatments oractivity immediately before/after meals Provide tidy, clean environment Encourage or provide oral hygiene before mealtime Reduce psychological stress 29. Role of nurseAssisting with Meals Help client feed self when possible Assist client to sit on side of bed or chair if possible Check tray for clients name, type of diet, & completeness which order would you like to eat? Do not rush client; allow ample time Offer fluids every 3 or 4 mouthfuls of food if client unableto communicate Use adaptive feeding aids as needed For blind person, identify placement of food as you woulddescribe time on a clock 30. The greatest wealth is Health 31. References