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Page 1: Chess Master
Page 2: Chess Master

Chess Master and

Grandmaster

Page 3: Chess Master

Chess Master

and

Grandmaster

Max Euwe

and

Walter Meiden

LONDON George Allen & Unwin

Boston Sydney

Page 4: Chess Master

First published in 1978

This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. All rights are reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the pur­pose of private study, research, criticism or review, as per­mitted under the Copyright Act, 1956, no part of this publi­cation may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to the

publishers at 40 Museum Street, London WClA lLU.

© Max Euwe and Walter Meiden, 1977

ISBN 0 04 794007 7

Originally published in the USA in 1977 as CHESS MASTER VS CHESS MASTER. American spelling and

usage have been retained.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Euwe, Max Chess master and grandmaster. I. Chess - Collections of games I. Title II. Meiden, Walter 794.l '52 GVl452 78-40113

ISBN 0-04-794007-7

Printed in Great Britain by Hollen Street Press Ltd at Slough, Berkshire

Page 5: Chess Master

Contents

Preface ix Introduction 1 To the Reader 1 0

Game Opening Players

Two Knights ' Defense : Kuindgi-Klovan 15 4 N-N5 Line

2 Ruy Lopez: Byrne-Spassky 3 1 Breyer Defense

3 Petroff Defense Browne-Bisguier 47 4 Falkbeer Countergambit Farkas-Szell 6 1 5 French Defense : Kostro-Uhlmann 7 1

Tarrasch Variation 6 Alekhine Defense Spassky-Fischer 84 7 Pirc Defense Timoshenko-Karasev 1 00 8 Sicilian Defense : Karpov-Korchnoi 1 1 1

Dragon Variation 9 Sicilian Defense: Peters-Larsen 1 23

Paulsen Variation 1 0 Sicilian Defense : Karpov-Spassky 135

Scheveningen Variation 1 1 Sicilian Defense : Rodrigu.ez-Quinteros 147

Najdorf Variation 1 2 Sicilian Defense : Savon-Mecking 1 59

Najdorf Variation 1 3 Sicilian Defense : Fischer-Petrosian 170

Irregular 14 Queen' s Gambit Declined : Mikenas-Kupreichik 184

Slav Variation 1 5 Queen' s Gambit Declined: Fischer-Spassky 1 96

Tartakower Variation 16 Queen ' s Gambit Accepted Gligoric-Portisch 2 1 4

v

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vi Contents

1 7 Nimzoindian Defense : Hort-Ivkov 235 4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line

1 8 Nimzoindian Defense : Portisch-Bobotsov 246 4 P-K3 P-B4 Line

1 9 King's Indian Defense : Gheorghiu-Westerinen 256 Samisch Variation

20 Queen's Indian Defense Kotov-Kholmov 269 2 1 Griinfeld.Defense: Petrosian-Fischer 282

4 B-KB4 Line 22 Catalan Opening Balashov-Tal 297 23 English Opening= Smyslov-Mecking 3 1 3

Sicilian in Reverse 24 Benoni Defense Gligoric-Kavalek 328 25 Reti Opening Furman-Stein 343

Index of Openings 36 1 Index of Players 362 Index of Subjects 365

Page 7: Chess Master

Strategic Themes

Game Theme

1 Bringing Every Piece into Play 1 4 2 The Queen Sacrifice 30 3 The Sacrifice 46 4 The Attack against the Castled King behind an

Unweakened Pawn Structure 60 5 The Pawn Chain 70 6 The Pawn Salient 83 7 Castling 99 8 Attack against the Opponent ' s King Castled K-side 1 1 0 9 Attack and Counterattack 1 22

1 0 Strategy vs . Tactics 1 34 1 1 The Initiative 147 1 2 Winning a Game through Small Advantages 158 1 3 The Isolated Pawn 169 1 4 The Combination 1 83 1 5 Hanging Pawns 195 1 6 Pressure 2 1 2 1 7 Neglect of K-side Development 234 1 8 The Sacrificial Attack with Pieces 245 1 9 Waves of Attack 255 20 The Pin 268 2 1 Bulldozer Strategy 28 1 22 Zugzwang 296 23 The Sham Sacrifice 3 1 2 24 The Center Majority vs . the Q-side Majority 327 25 The Fianchettoed Bishop 342

vii

Page 8: Chess Master

Preface

The purpose of this book is to show the amateur player how to improve his chess by a detailed study of the techniques of twenty-five games between masters and grandmasters played during the first five years of the 1 970's .

These games not only embody the fundamental principles of chess which have been recognized since the days of Morphy and Steinitz and refined by the great masters of the first half of the twentieth century, but they also include examples of some of the modern techniques which have been introduced into chess as a result of the intensive research that has been going on in the game for the past twenty-five years . The principles and techniques exemplified and explained will continue to be valid for instructional purposes long after these individual games are forgotten and after as yet unknown masters have come to the fore in the chess arena .

Games of the first half of the 1 970' s were chosen partly to illustrate the way chess is now played , partly to acquaint the reader with some of the more recent masters .

The choice of games was dictated by a desire to present a number of openings and variations currently in vogue in tournaments and matches , to illustrate various styles of middle game and endgame play , and to give recent games of a number of masters who are active at the present time . The absence of any master from the games in this collection by no means implies that this master is not important or even outstanding . It was impossible in twenty-five games chosen for specific opening and middle game techniques to include more than a limited number of players .

The method of annotating the games is distinctive in that emphasis is placed on revealing the reason for each significant move rather than on giving numerous tactical variations-although the latter are also included where they serve to clarify the possibilities of a given position .

It is hoped that our explanations will help the amateur to understand what considerations go into the choice of a master's move, to com­prehend the thought processes which one master uses to defeat an­other , and to incorporate that type of chess thinking into his own game.

ix

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x Preface

We wish to thank friends who have read these games in manuscript form and aided us through their comments and suggestions . We are especially indebted to Mr. Fred Foote of Middleville, Michigan , and to Mr. Tom Kuhn and Mr. Steve Wygle of Columbus , Ohio , for their critical reading of the manuscript , and to Mr. Fred Foote and Mr . Steve Wygle for their careful reading of the proof. We are very grateful to Miss Naomi Lisle of Fremont , Ohio , and to Dr . Harry Vredeveld of the Ohio State University for their help in preparing the manuscript .

M. E. W. M .

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Chess Master and

Grandmaster

Page 11: Chess Master

Introduction

How does a chess master differ from other chess players? A master is thoroughly conversant with the technique of handling

each phase of the game: opening , middle game, and endgame. He treats the game as a whole, each move being part of a certain strate­gical or tactical concept . He keenly appreciates the possibilities of all positions . He can analyze accurately and foresees rather exactly the consequences of this move or that . He understands the basic principles involved in the various positions . His tactical play is accurate ; he makes fewer and less serious mistakes than other players . He knows a great many chess games of the past and is well informed on the lines played in the tournament games of the present .

There are various categories of masters . The Federation lnter­nationale des Echecs (FIDE) has adopted the Elo system, which evaluates the performance of a chess player on a scale which attempts to list players in the probable order of their strength . Professor Elo developed it by using the mathematical theory of measurements . His system is based on a normal distribution of the results of perfor­mances . Its application has led to some practical indications : those who have 2500 or more Elo points tend to be (but are not necessarily) international grandmasters ; those who have 2300 or more Elo points are likely to be international masters ; those who have 2200 or more points are usually national masters ; and those who have 2000or more points are considered experts .

FIDE creates and regulates only international masters and grand­masters . These two titles are awarded by FIDE after a favorable vote of its Qualifications Committee upon sufficient evidence of the per­formance of a player against other masters and grandmasters . In general , depending on the strength of the tournament, a player must attain a certain percentage of wins on two different occasions .

However, over and above the mere title of international master or grandmaster, differences of style of chess play make the various masters stand out one from the other . For instance , Morphy and Marshall were strongest in the open game and in combinational chess ;

1

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2 Introduction

Steinitz was famous for his scientific handling of positional chess ; Capablanca's chess was characterized by the simplicity of his style and his unparalleled mastery of the endgame; Alekhine, Tai , and Spassky are known for their attacking genius ; Lasker and Botvinnik are outstanding for their all-around play and their ability to see a long series of moves in advance ; Petrosian is noted for his defensive play and his ability to build up a winning position almost imperceptibly; Fischer stands out because of his classical style of play , his complete mastery of openings , and his ability to get an advantage in the middle game and to exploit it in the endgame; Karpov excels in positional play and in an ability to switch to combinations at the proper moment .

Thus, when one master plays another , it is not merely a contest between two outstanding players who are expert in all phases of the game but also between two highly experienced chess players who are distinguished by their own predilections for certain types of games and who have special areas of strength . For that reason , during the past half century before matches and tournaments masters have customari­ly studied the games of the participants carefully so as to get an accurate idea of the type of chess their opponent will probably play and to be prepared to meet it .

Every chess game consists (a) of a general plan or series of plans (strategy) ; (b) of successive moves , many of which suggest various reasonable continuations but each of which must be carefully evaluated whether it contributes to carrying out the strategic plan or by necessity simply meets the moves of the opponent (the operational phase of strategy) ; and ( c) at times of series of more or less unexpected moves which make up combinations (tactics) .

Let us consider each one of these important concepts and its role in master play .

Strategy

Strategy is the overall plan for handling a game or a certain part of a game . Some, such as Game 24, have practically only one strategic plan, for the aims of the two sides are clear and nothing enters in to seriously interfere with them. In most cases , however, a game is divided into a series of strategic phases with definite goals to be attained . Once a given aim is realized, there is normally a shift to a new strategic phase based on the characteristics and requirements of the new position . Such strategic phases are illustrated in many of the following games, notably in Games 1 6 and 25 .

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Introduction 3

The master has a very keen awareness of the general direction in which each part of the game should go . He has a firm grasp on the overall situation. Unlike many amateurs , he does not simply play from move to move, although he does not fail either to take into consid­eration the essential requirements of move-to-move play .

The Operational Phase-The Role of Analysis

The moves of master games, which seem to flow one after another in an easy and logical sequence as one plays them from the score , are actually the result of long and arduous analysis . In the opening phase, where both players are well acquainted with the main lines and a great many variations , moves are usually played mechanically and very rapidly in order to gain time on the clock, but even there the situation is not always mere rote, for , as in Game 1 3 , masters often prepare new variations or deliberately play a line which has fallen into disuse in order to force the opponent into difficult analysis from the very outset . Only when the game score indicates how much time was taken to reflect upon each move can one truly appreciate the amount of thought that goes into the choice of moves at the various critical positions. The complicated analyses of the possible lines , sometimes with several sublines which may include two or three variations themselves , must be gone over carefully by both of the adversaries. If a master should fail to analyze carefully at a given point , his opponent might well detect a defect in his reply and then proceed to exploit it .

The master must , above all , have the ability to visualize positions and then to hold those positions in mind while he rapidly explores the lines and sublines arising from them.

The long paragraphs of main lines and branches found in the printed analyses of master games are not merely a more complete post­analysis of what could have happened. MllSters actually accomplish much of this analysis while playing the game. Of course , the analysis of an adjourned position must , by the conditions under which it is made, be even more thorough than that made while the clocks are ticking .

Can intuition be substituted for analysis or for part of it? There are some positions which are so complicated that masters must at times resort to intuition-and a few such positions have been pointed out in the games that follow. Others fall into patterns which the masters have often met previously so that playing them is a matter of rote . But playing by intuition is dangerous . It leads to overlooking hidden or

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4 Introduction

unexpected lines , so that a master cannot very often trust to his intuition alone . He is forced , because he knows that his opponent will also do so , to look as far as possible into each variation .

It is of paramount importance that analysis be accurate, for an error may result in the loss of a Pawn, the Exchange , or even a piece . An error in the analysis of a position is usually more serious in its consequences than an error in the general strategy of the game, for the result of the former makes itself felt immediately in the form of some tangible disadvantage, whereas an error in the latter can normally be exploited only through a long series of moves ; moreover, there is always the chance in the strategical area that with a shifting tactical picture the failure to find the most appropriate plan may not result in any concrete loss and that the position will eventually right itself again.

Tactics

In carrying out the operational phase of the game, a position sometimes arises with certain characteristics which might , under the right circumstances , lead to a combination : there may be a loose piece on the board ; the opponent' s King may be exposed ; the possibility of a desperado may exist ; an in-between move could perhaps be played advantageously ; both of the opponent ' s Rooks might be attacked simultaneously, etc .

Discovering, analyzing, and taking advantage of such situations belong to the realm of chess which we shall call tactics.

The master has a sharp eye for spotting positions which may lead to a combination, and he has the ability to analyze the moves necessary to execute the combination successfully . He is an excellent tactical player .

Characteristics of Master Play

Master play is characterized by strong and accurate moves which have as their purpose to give the player an advantage if possible or, if not, at least equality . Each successive position may offer several possibilities of approximately equal value, and in such cases the master may choose the one most suited to his temperament . But one of the most notable differences between master and amateur games is that the former are relatively free of the questionable moves which abound in the latter .

The master has at his command a considerable number of tech-

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Introduction 5

niques and devices for attaining effective play . These we shall pre­sently summarize , and the masters represented in this work will give examples of them in the course of their games .

In addition to the technical devices used wherever possible in play , there are the intangible elements of imagination and of superior insight into the position and a feeling for the presence of tactical combina­tions . An impressively large percentage of the twenty-five games which follow were won by combinations which in most cases involved sacrifices .

Although chess masters are far better equipped by their knowledge , experience, and natural talent to win games than are amateurs , nonetheless they lose some games to other masters . However , about 50 to 60 percent of the games played between masters of equal strength end in draws .

The fundamental question dealt with in this work is how one master wins from or loses to another . Aside from an occasional oversight or inaccurate move made under time pressure , the master does not make the same type of errors as the amateur . Therefore , the methods masters use to defeat each other are usually more subtle and less obvious than those found in games between amateurs .

How Masters Won the Games in This Book

Among the means used by the masters of this work to obtain superiority , the following merit special comment . (The games re­ferred to at the end of each category are only those in which the technique in question is most clearly illustrated . )

1 . The combination As a sequence of moves made to attain a specific end, the combina­

tion implies the ability of the player execut�pg it to penetrate keenly into the position, to see far ahead, to weigh the consequences of the series of moves , and to judge its final outcome . It requires both imagination and precise analysis on the part of the master . The combination is the crowning glory of chess play , and during the nineteenth century the beauty of a game was judged by the complexity of its combinations. (Games 2, 3, 4, 8 , 1 1 , 1 2 , 14 , 1 8 , 20 , 22 , 24)

2. The sacrifice The sacrifice is a special type of combination called a ' ' sacrificial

combination . ' ' It contains the element of surprise . It requires the same

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6 Introduction

abilities as those listed above under the combination . (Games 2, 3 , 1 1 , 14 , 1 8)

3 . The threat A move embodying a threat forces the opponent to take into

consideration what will happen if his adversary gets the opportunity to carry out the threat on the following move, and it therefore seriously limits the scope of the opponent's action . In master games the threat is used constantly, as attested by the fact that the lines analyzed under numerous moves begin with a statement containing ' ' . . . threaten­ing . . . . " (All games)

4. Pressure Pressure is one of the most potent weapons in a game of chess .

Pressing on squares of the opponent's position , and in particular on certain of the opponent's pieces , with as many of his own pieces as he can bring to bear on them is one of the most common techniques used , and it is an important factor in the success of the winners of these games .

A master opponent naturally tries to meet pressure with counter­pressure , but at times one player is able to exert more pressure on a given enemy piece than his opponent is able to oppose with coun­terpressure . At such times the position may be broken open to the advantage of the side with the greatest amount of pressure , or the player with the most pressure may win a piece or a Pawn . (Practically all games , particularly Games 1 2 , 1 7 , 22)

5. Direct attack against the opponent 's King A significant number of wins are based on an attack of some sort on

the opponent's King . Many of these are directed against a King which has already castled K-side : in one case still protected by its three Pawns in their original position (Game 4); in another by a pawn structure slightly weakened because one or more Pawns have already advanced (Games 8 , 1 9) ; in a third when some Pawns are missing (Game 24) ; in one game where two Pawns are missing and where the K-side is shorn of all pawn protection (Game 1 8) . Some of the other games are won by attacks against a King that has not yet been able to castle or that , for practical reasons, found it unwise to do so . (Games 7, 1 1 , 1 4)

6 . The initiative There is a tremendous advantage in having the initiative . In many of

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lntrodu cdon 7

the games the winner was the player who seized this initiative at a certain point and used it to keep his opponent so busy defending that he was never able to take over the initiative himself because of the constant necessity of protecting himself from the strong thrusts of his opponent. (Almost every game, but very strong in Games 9, 1 3 , 1 5 , 1 7)

7 . Giving the opponent an unfavorable pawn position The master , keenly aware of the types of pawn formations that are

weak, is frequently able to manipulate in such a way as to leave his opponent with an unfavorable pawn position and then to exploit the weaknesses it entails . (Games 1 3 , 1 5)

8 . Exchange of pieces or refusal to permit exchange of pieces The master is very sensitive to the power of his own and his

opponent 's pieces in the positions at which they are posted . He constantly asks himself whether he benefits more from exchanging one of his own for an opponent 's well-posted piece or from retaining his piece and attempting to realize its full power . In the endgame especially it is often important to retain certain pieces to assure a win . In some endgames even considerable material superiority does not lead to a win . (Games 9, 1 3)

9 . Simplification into a favorable endgame position When a master has attained some advantage, whether in material or

a superior. pawn structure , he normally simplifies through exchanges to a favorable endgame_, for it is much easier to retain an advantage and to make it count in the endgame, where technique predominates , than in the more volatile and complex middle game, where through a sudden quirk the opponent may tum the tables and himself emerge with the more advantageous position . (Games 3 , 1 3 , 1 6)

In addition to the nine major techniques described above, the following devices are found in certain of the games . In each case , one game which uses the device is mentioned, but there are often several others which also employ it .

1 . Standard types of attacking patterns (Game 3) 2. Opening lines for attack (Game 2) 3. Pressing the attack (Game 1 5) 4. Effective play with the Bishop pair (Game 25)

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8 Introduction

5 . Judicious play with Bishops of the same color or with Bishops of opposite colors (Game 22)

6 . Choice of moves which prevent the opponent from getting counterchances (Game 1 5)

7 . Control of diagonals and files (Game 10) 8 . Exploitation of holes (Game 1 9) 9. The in-between move (Game 22)

10 . Driving the King into the open field (Game 7) 1 1 . Creation of a flight-square for the King (Game 16) 1 2 . Exploitation of the loose piece (Game 1 8) 1 3 . Preparation of the mating net (Game 4) 14 . The outpost (Game 9) 1 5 . Pawn chain technique (Game 5) 1 6 . Effective coordination and use of all pieces (Game 17) 1 7 . Penetration into the opponent' s position (Game 1 0) 1 8 . Restriction of the movement of the opponent' s pieces (Game

1 6) 1 9 . The pin (Game 20) 20. Occupation of strong squares (Game 1 6) 2 1 . Zugzwang (Game 22)

Why the Masters Lost the Games in This Book

The methods, techniques, and devices used to win the games are listed above. But how did the opposing player come to allow the winner to get the upper hand through their use?

In general , the loss of the games may be ascribed to the following types of inadequacies on the part of the loser :

1 . an insufficient knowledge of certain patterns in the opening or in variations or of a line especially prepared by the opponent ; 2. a false positional judgment ; 3 . inaccurate analysis .

On examining the twenty-four games which were lost by one of the players , one finds that they were most often lost because

1 . the loser was unable to defend himself successfully against the sharp thrusts of the winner ; 2. for one reason or another the loser found himself with an un­favorable pawn position .

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Introdu ction 9

It is noteworthy that in many of these games it required just one incorrect move or misjudgment to lead to the eventual loss of the game. In others there were several questionable moves on the part of the loser .

Errors of Masters and Grandmasters

In Game 6, the only one which ended in a draw, there were questionable moves by both players so that their possible errors of judgment canceled each other out and led to the final draw.

Although masters are far less prone to err than amateurs, master games and even games played by world champions are not always free from errors or even, at times , from serious blunders . Considering the tension under which masters play, the time limits to which they are subjected, the psychological factors which often play their part , and the element of fatigue in a long and strenuous tournament , it is not surprising that errors are sometimes made even by the world's leading players .

Most important is that the level of master play is very high and that the great majority of master moves are accurate and often original and imaginative .

Page 20: Chess Master

To the Reader

This work is designed for a wide range of chess players-from the relatively inexperienced amateur who has had some opportunity to play but has never "studied chess" to the near expert, who may also find some revealing and helpful information in the comments on the moves of the games.

Players of varying strengths will approach the material in different ways . The advanced amateur who is already familiar with "book chess" needs no indications as to how to derive the greatest profit from a treatise on chess play . What follows , therefore , is for the less experienced player and most of all for those who up to now have had little contact with "book chess . " It may serve to give them some idea of how they can study the games with the greatest benefit to themselves .

1 . The introduction to the games Before each game there is an Introduction which contains general

remarks on some basic phase of chess play . Although no reference is made in this material to the game that follows , on playing over that game you will find exemplified what has been discussed in the Introduction .

The material in these Introductions is relatively elementary in nature and is designed , for the most part , for the less advanced player .

2 . The opening Each game illustrates a line of some well-known opening . By going

over the moves of the opening you will get some idea how that variation of the opening develops and why.

Remember that there are many other lines of the same opening and many other variations of the line actually played. Take these opening moves as an example of what could be played and why, but do not consider them to be the only or even the preferred line of the opening in question .

If you are completely unfamiliar with chess openings, you may find it profitable to get a standard book on openings , although the size and

10

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To the Reader 1 1

scope of such works i n this decade i s s o great that such a book may prove to be more confusing than helpful. In any case , never forget that the important thing in the opening variation is its basic ideas rather than just the sequence of moves .

3 . The middle game The comments under the moves of each middle game, as well as

those under many of the openings and endgames , contain basic explanations of the reasons for those moves , their strengths and weaknesses , and numerous analyses of possible lines which could arise from the position and which had to be taken into consideration by the master playing the game .

In the middle game you will also find exemplified certain tech­niques which can be used in given situations ; for instance, pinning the White QN on c3 by the Black Bishop on b4 and/or by the Black Queen on a5 , followed by intensifying the attack by playing the Black KN to e4 . An acquaintance with such techniques may help you in your own middle game play .

On your first study of the game, read over the explanations and try to understand the reasons for each move . It is a good idea to try to anticipate the next move of the game itself and then to compare your projected move with the one made by the master .

On the initial reading it is probably best not to go through the analysis of the variations . To do so then could result in distracting your attention from the main line and from understanding the principles behind the play . The extensive analyses are simply illustrations of what could happen.

4 . The endgame Here few pieces are left on the board , and the play is less complex .

As you go through the endgame, before lookiqg to see what the master played , try to anticipate his move . Decide mentally what move you would make in this position , then compare it with the one actually made . Perhaps the move you chose is discussed in one of the variations .

5 . The analysis of the variations The great value of the variations lies in their ability to develop your

own analytical powers . Once you have gone over the games as described above, you can then go back and study the variations at your leisure in order to develop your own analytical skill .

It is time saving to have two boards set up with the position . On one

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12 To the Reader

board you keep the position of the main line ; on the other you play out the detailed analysis .

It is a good idea, in going over these variations , to ask yourself repeatedly : "What would I do if I had to make the next move in this position-and how would my opponent answer my move?"

6 . Restudying the game after a lapse of time After having studied the games and their variations , you may find it

prof.itable to lay the book aside for several months and then to play over the games again . Ideas which were clear when you first looked at the games may have faded. Going over them a second time will bring them back with greater clarity . They will then be more likely to become an integral part of your own play .

Algebraic Designations of Squares on the Chessboard

7 . Notation system used in this book This book is written predominantly in the descriptive system, which

is currently used in most English works on chess . The scores of the games and the analyses of the positions are always given in the descriptive notation .

In the annotations to the moves the algebraic system is used :

{a) often to refer to a given square when this would be simpler ; e . g. , "Now f6 has become weak" instead of "Now Black' s KB3-square has become weak . " (b) sometimes to indicate pawn positions when the use of the descriptive notation might be confusing ; e .g . , "Black decides to capture Pc5 rather than Pc3" instead of "Black decides to capture White's P/QB4 rather than his P/QB6 . "

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To the Reader 13

(c) occasionally to indicate the position of a piece; e .g . , "White must capture Black's Bishop with his Ne5 , not with his Ng5 , " instead o f "White must capture Black's Bishop with his N/K5 , not with his N/KN5 . "

For those unfamiliar with the algebraic notation the diagram on the preceding page will facilitate locating the proper squares.

dis eh db ch (!) ! ! ! (?) ? ??

Abbreviations and symbols used

discovered check double check a good move a very good move an excellent move a questionable move a bad move a very bad move

Page 24: Chess Master

Game 1

The 4 N-N5 attack in the Two Knights' Defense with the strongest 5 • • • N-QR4 line

Development vs. material

The sacrifice of the Exchange to open the opponent's K-position

The initiative

The threat

Bringing all the pieces into play

Attack against the unprotected King

Transition to the endgame with a plus Pawn

Exchange of Rooks in order to facilitate the win

Advantage of an endgame with light pieces when the opponent's pawn

position has weaknesses

Bringing Every Piece Into Play One of the most important principles of chess play is to bring all the

pieces into the field at the earliest opportunity and to place each piece where it will function most effectively . As far as possible , the pieces should be put where they will work harmoniously together .

If for a special reason a piece was temporarily moved to the edge of the board to perform a necessary function but is no longer needed there , it must then be brought back into the mainstream of the game at the earliest practicable moment so that it can cooperate with the other pieces in both attack and defense . Otherwise , the player with a piece that has strayed off will find himself in effect playing with one man less .

For example, in the well-known 4 N-N5 variation of the Two Knights ' Defense ( 1 P-K4 P-K4 2 N-KB3 N-QB3 3 B-B4 N-B3 4 N-N5 P-Q4 5 PxP N-QR4) , Black's QN is played over to the QR-file in order to enable Black to drive the White pieces from their best squares and then to develop a strong attack . This maneuver is quite in order at Black's 5th move, but the QN cannot safely be left out of play for very long . At the first opportunity, it must be brought back toward the center of the board where it too can participate in the play . Failure

14

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-N5 Line 15

to reintegrate his QN into the struggle can lead to serious conse­quences for Black .

Two Knights' Defense - 4 N-NS Line Tbll lsi, USSR - 1973

Alexander Kuindgi - USSR

I P-K4

Vanis Klovan - USSR

P-K4

Up to the twentieth century , this was by far the most common way to begin a chess game. It continues to be an excellent way to open , for with it some of the most important objectives of the opening are realized :

(a) Lines are opened for the development of pieces .

(b) Control in one way or another of the four center squares (d4, e4, d5 , e5) is most desirable . If one of the players should fail to attain such control , his opponent would soon get an overwhelming position . By 1 P-K4 P-K4 each player occupies one of the center squares (his own K4-square) . He also exercises some control over his Q5- and KB5-squares, for his opponent cannot play a piece or a Pawn to either of these squares without inviting its capture .

2 N-KB3

A very common continuation . It is important to get each piece into play and on the square from which it can exercise the most influence . Here the White KN is developed toward the center of the board where it can move to the greatest number of squares . It is threatening to capture Black's KP, and it exercises control over its own Q4-square .

2 • . • N-QB3

Black develops his QN toward the center of the board . It protects his attacked KP and at the same time vies for control of White' s Q4-square .

3 B-B4

White develops his KB to a square from which it is aimed at the rather weak f7 . For the moment White threatens nothing , but in this

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16 Game 1

game we will soon see how it cooperates in a later attack on that square . Moreover, this KB vacates f1 so that White can now castle .

Even stronger is 3 B-N5 , for at b5 the White KB presses against the Black center, threatening at the right time BxN, taking away the protection the Black QN gives to its KP. The implications of this theme will be discussed in detail in Game 2 .

3 . . . N-B3

One of the best replies to this position . It is more aggressive than 3 . . . B-B4 since it attacks White' s KP .

4 N-NS

The old and dangerous continuation of the Two Knights' Defense, in which White attacks Black' s KBP with both his Bishop and his Knight . No one knows whether it is better for White or for Black . It is certain that any continuation will be complicated and that if one side goes wrong, the other will have chances .

Here is an instance in which the same piece can (perhaps profitably) be moved a second time in the opening because the ensuing position may lead to a big tactical advantage for White .

Equally good but leading to quite another type of game is 4 P-Q4.

4 • • • P-Q4

For a long time this move was considered the only adequate reply to 4 N-N5 , but in modem times 4 . . . B-B4, the Traxler Gambit , has come to the foreground . One example is 4 . . . B-B4 5 NxBP BxPch ! 6 KxB NxPch 7 K-Nl Q-R5 8 P-KN3 NxNP 9 PxN QxPch 10 K-Bl R-Bl 1 1 Q-R5 with incalculable complications .

5 PxP

If now 5 . . . NxP, all sorts of interesting variations and combina­tions can arise . Most of these lines are too complex and too far afield from the present game to go into here ; however , 6 NxBP (the Fegatel­lo) is often played, a line in which White sacrifices his KN in return for a promising but perhaps not decisive attack against the Black King, which comes out into the open with 6 . . . KxN 7 Q-B3ch K-K3 . Many masters consider 6 P-Q4 (the Rio Variation) the strongest answer to

. 5 . . . NxP .

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 17

5 • • . N-QR4

The ' 'official ' ' variation, considered by theory to be the best Black reply to White' s strong attack .

Certainly the Black QN is now posted on a square which is not ideal , for the Knight is so far from the center that it cannot actively participate in play there . On the other hand, because this Knight attacks White' s KB , the power of this aggressive Bishop is broken . It must either withdraw, be protected, or attack .

6 B-NSch

In this main line White keeps the gambit Pawn, but in return he will be subjected to continual harassment by Black .

The chief alternative is 6 P-Q3 , after which there follows 6 . . . P­KR3 7 N-KB3 P-K5 , and now a recently discovered continuation is 8 PxP NxB'9 Q-Q4 N-N3 1 0 P-B4, and it appears that White 's strong center and two Pawns compensate for the piece sacrificed . It is difficult to decide whether 6 B-N5ch or 6 P-Q3 is better for White .

6 . • • P-B3

Also possible is 6 . . . B-Q2, but Black prefers to sacrifice the Pawn permanently , for by doing so he opens for himself the Q-file, the QN-file , and diagonals for his Queen and QB . He also wins a tempo which will allow him to continue a bit later with 8 . . . P-KR3 and if 9 N-KB3 with 9 . . . P-K5 . Thus, Black is willing to sacrifice a little material for an advantage in time .

7 Px:P Px:P

Black does not take advantage of the opportunity of bringing his QN back into the center by 7 . . . NxP but prefers rather to recapture with

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18 Game 1

the Pawn, partly to open files and diagonals for himself, partly to force the White Bishop to lose a tempo by moving once more, which will then give Black the opportunity to continue with 8 . . . P-KR3 .

White could now play 8 Q-B 3 , indirectly attacking Black's QR, but then 8 . . . R-Nl seems to be sufficient for Black, since after 9 BxPch NxB 10 QxNch N-Q2 1 1 P-Q3 B-K2 1 2 N-KB3 0-0 Black has a considerable lead in development for two sacrificed Pawns , although it has not been proved that he has equalized . Perhaps he has more or less . Practice in grandmaster games must decide .

8 B-K2

White has won a Pawn, but Black will soon get a lead in develop­ment and a great deal of freedom of movement . These intangible plusses compensate in many cases for material disadvantage .

Black now has two isolated Pawns , but they afford him open files and diagonals for attack . In the opening and in the middle game these isolated Pawns will not be much of a problem for Black ; but if the game reaches the endgame stage, they will then constitute weaknesses and be difficult to defend .

Now that Black has repulsed White ' s attack at the cost of a Pawn and a poorly placed QN, he must make use of his superior develop­ment and mobility before White can make his material advantage felt . I n all cases i n which a player has sacrificed material for development and mobility he must face this problem at once . Let us see how Black handles it .

8 . . . P-KR3 9 N-KR3

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 19

Surprising, for this gives Black the opportunity to mutilate the White K-side pawn position by 9 . . . BxN . But after the more usual line 9 N-KB3 P-K5 1 0 N-K5 B-Q3 1 1 P-Q4 Q-B2 1 2 P-KB4 0-0 1 3 P-B3 P-B4 theory indicates that chances are equal .

Fischer also prefers the text move and the ideas behind it .

9 • • • B-QB4

Black continues to develop his pieces-and note how undeveloped White is ! Black is in no hurry to exchange on h3--for the White Knight will not run away-but prefers rather to make the exchange after White has castled, for then the weakness of White's K-side will weigh more heavily.

10 N-B3

Here 10 P-Q3 may lead to a transposition of moves after 10 . . . Q­QS 1 1 N-B 3 . If instead 1 1 B-K3 , then 1 1 . . . QxNP. Certainly 1 2 N-Q2 BxB 1 3 PxB BxN 14 PxB QxN i s worth considering, but Black emerges successfully .

10 . • • Q-QS

Threatening 1 1 . . . BxN followed by 1 2 . . . QxP mate .

1 1 P-Q3

In order to answer 1 1 . . . BxN by 1 2 B-K3 . Now we must look far ahead to see what the consequences of these two moves will be. For instance , 1 1 . . . BxN 1 2 B-K3 Q-KR5 1 3 BxB (forced, for 1 3 . . . BxB is threatening) 1 3 . . . BxP 14 R .. KN I QxRP 1 5 K-Q2 R-Q l 1 6 K-B l , and now roles are reversed : Black is a Pawn up, but he will find it difficult to continue his development effectively , and so White is probably better off .

But Black finds a stronger line and plays

11 • • • Q-KRS

Again threatening 1 2 . . . BxN followed by mate . Now 1 2 B-K3 is ineffective because of 1 2 . . . BxB .

12 0-0

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20 Game 1

Practically forced.

12 • • • 0-0

Black continues to develop . He is still not in a hurry to exchange his QB for White 's KN . He can do that later and then win White's P/R3 .

13 K-Rl

In order to make a place for his KN.

13 • • . BxN

Now that White's KN can withdraw to g l Black does make the exchange .

14 Px:B

Now Black could win back his Pawn by either . . . QxRP or . . . BxBP. This is a result of his postponing the capture of White' s KN until Black's 1 3 . . . BxN.

14 • • • QR-Ql

Bringing a new piece into the game and threatening 1 5 . . . P-K5 . But Black may be carrying the idea of developing rather than

winning material too far . It is difficult to say , but perhaps he should have won back his Pawn in one of the following lines :

1 ) 14 . . . BxP 1 5 B-B3 followed by 1 6 B-N2. The White pieces are better posted, but White has an ugly pawn position, for the doubled isolated Pawns on White' s K-wing are worse than the isolated QRP and QBP on Black's Q-wing . All in all , Black is probably a bit better off , for his only drawback is his QN, which is temporarily out of play on a5. 2) 14 . . . QxRP

2a) 1 5 P-B4 B-Q3 , and perhaps White is a little better off ; 2b) 1 5 B-B3 followed by 1 6 B-N2 .

15 P-B4

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 21

In order to open the KB-file , giving greater freedom of movement to his pieces , and to avoid 1 6 . . . BxP.

Also deserving of consideration are 1 5 B-K3 and 1 5 B-B3 with about an equal game . However, the text is best .

If Black now answers 1 5 P-B4 with 1 5 . . . P-K5 , White can play 1 6 Q-K l . There might follow 1 6 . . . QxQ ( l 6 . . . QxRP? 1 7 PxP) 1 7 RxQ KR-K l 1 8 R-B l , and White has maintained his plus Pawn and stands a little better , although by pushing 1 8 . . . P-K6 Black can exercise pressure against the White position by preventing the de­velopment of the White QB .

15 . . . PxP(?)

Since with the text Black gives up the possibility of playing . . . P-K5 , 14 . . . QR-Q l has lost part of its meaning . Black should have played 1 5 . . . P-K5 , which was suggested under 1 4 . . . QR-Q l as the purpose of Black' s 14th move .

16 RxP

As soon as Black has played 1 6 . . . QxP there will be material equality , but although many of the White pieces are still on their original squares , they mutually protect one another and all of a sudden become more active than the better developed but less well protected Black pieces . The Black QN is still completely out of play .

16 • • • QxP

Because Black did not play 1 4 , . . BxP, he has to play 1 6 . . . QxP in order to get material equality , and now his Queen gets

B

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22 Game 1

into trouble . White takes advantage of the awkward position of Black 's Queen in a marvelous way .

It is curious to note that although White 's K-side is somewhat open , it is adequately protected, whereas Black' s K-side is closed, but it is not too well protected because of the absence of certain vital Black pieces from the vicinity of the Black King .

How can White take advantage of this situation?

17 RxN!

A wonderful move ! It permits White to assume the initiative . As compensation for the Exchange, White gets attacking chances on the K-side , and in this position Black is at a great disadvantage because his QN is too far from the center of action to participate in the game either offensively or defensively.

17 • • • PxR 18 N-K4

The White Knight now threatens both 19 NxB and 19 NxPch . Moreover, the Knight is now in such a commanding position that the Black Queen will soon find itself being chased from pillar to post and nearly trapped.

18 • • • B-QS

With this move Black parries both of White' s threats and places his Bishop on a diagonal where it may eventually protect his King by . . . B-N2 .

19 B-N4

A third threat ! Because of the strong position of his Knight , White is in a position to make a series of moves which will seriously threaten to win the Black Queen .

19 • • • 20 B-Q2!

Q-RS

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 23

A fourth and double threat : 21 BxN and 21 B-K l , winning the Queen . In three moves White has already justified the sacrifice of the Exchange made on his 17th move . All his pieces participate in the attack , and the Black Knight and even the Black Queen have become vulnerable . This is due to the fact that the Queen went on a foraging expedition without the support of its minor pieces and because the Black Knight is a loose piece and for all purposes out of play .

20 . • . P-KB4

Black must open an avenue of retreat for his Queen . If White now plays 2 1 BxN , Black can reply 2 1 . . . R-Q4 and the game could continue 22 B-N4 PxB 23 BxR R-KR4 24 Q-K2 KxB or perhaps 24 . . . B-K4.

21 BxBP R-Q4

Black is thinking in terms of an active defense . His Rook protects his threatened Knight and attacks the White Bishop. However , perhaps 2 1 . . . N-N2 would have been better in order to bring the Knight a bit closer to the center of the struggle .

22 Q-B3

This move (a) develops the White Queen to a square where it can participate more actively; (b) protects White' s KB ; and (c) clears his 1 st rank for the development of his QR .

22 • • • N-N2

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24 Game 1

At last Black's Knight begins to return toward the center of the board in order to take part in checking the strong White attack .

23 B-Kl

To drive away the Black Queen and to create the possibility of a direct attack against the Black King .

23 • • • 24 Q-N4ch

Q-K2 K-Rl

After 24 . . . B-N2 the game continues 25 B-B3 P-B3 (forced) 26 Q-N6, and Black is in a very precarious position . He must give back the Exchange by 26 . . . R-B2 (the best) 27 Q-R7ch K-B 1 28 B-N6, after which White has a plus Pawn and an excellent position .

25 Q-R5

Now it will be difficult for Black to defend his KRP. Seemingly 25 . . . B-N2 would stop the attack , but then 26 B-B3 again practical­ly decides , for White threatens QxPch, and 26 . . . BxB ? 27 QxPch leads directly to mate .

25 • • • Q-K3

The only move, but Black is not really offering a Queen sacrifice but rather an exchange of Queens which will be advantageous to him, for if 26 BxQ RxQ, White loses the attack and he is also down the Exchange .

26 N-N3

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 25

White protects his Queen and his Bishop. Now the Black Queen is really attacked .

26 • • • N-Q3?

· In the series of moves that follows Black gives back the Exchange , as will appear from the comments that follow . Moreover , the text is tantamount to resigning, for it leads to an ending with a plus Pawn for White in which all of Black's Pawns are isolated .

Let us consider some alternatives :

1 ) 26 . . . Q-B3 27 B-Q2 l a) 27 . . . N-Q3 28 BxP wins at least the Exchange, for Black must now move either his King or his Queen since White is threatening 29 B-N5 dis eh ; l b) 27 . . . K-N2 28 Q-R3 (threatening 29 N-R5ch) 28 . . . Q-Q3 (he must protect his KRP) 29 B-K4 wins the Exchange, for it threatens both 30 BxR and 30 N-B5ch.

2) 26 . . . Q-Q3 27 B-Q2 K-N2 28 N-K4, and the Queen must give up the protection of the KRP (if 28 . . . Q-K3 ? 29 Q-N4ch) .

3 ) 2 6 . . . Q-K6! (This i s Black's strongest reply . It threatens mate , and because White has to take immediate measures to defend against mate Black can consolidate his position with 27 . . . Q-N4 . ) 27 B-B2 Q-N4 28 BxBch RxB 29 Q-B3 and 3a) 29 . . . R-KB5 30 QxP RxB 3 1 NxR QxN 32 QxPch , etc . ; 3b) 29 . . . N-Q3 30 R-KN I ! (30 QxP? NxB 3 1 NxN QxN 32 QxPch K-Nl 33 R-Nl ch R-N5)

3bl ) 30 . . . . NxB 3 1 NxN R-KB5 (3 1 . . . Q-B5 32 NxR) 32 QxP R-KN5 (32 . . . QxN QxPch) 33 .. RxR QxR 34 QxPch K-N l 35 N-K7 mate;

3b2) 30 . . . R-KB5 3 1 QxP RxB (3 1 . . . NxB 32 NxN) 32 QxN (32 NxR? QxN 33 QxN Q-B6ch draws) 32 . . . R-KNl (32 . . . R-Ql 33 NxR) 33 Q-Q4ch R-K4 (33 . . . P-B3 34 NxR) 34 QxP, and White has a slight advantage with three Pawns for the Exchange;

3b3) 30 . . . R-KN I 3 1 N-K2 QxB 32 NxR.

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26 Game 1

To summarize the analyses of the three variations to 26 . . . N-Q3 , it appears that White maintains his superiorl�y, although 26 . . . Q­K6 ! certainly would have given better chances than 26 . . . Q-B3, 26 . . . Q-Q3., or the text .

27 B:xQ

In this way White regains the Exchange and reaches a won endgame .

27 • • • 28 N:xR

R:xQ P:xB

Now White has a sound plus Pawn and some attacking chances against the Black Pawns, all of which are isolated .

A new phase of the game has begun. White makes the most of his advantage in the simplest way .

29 B-N3 N-B4

Black is down a Pawn, and his Pawns are isolated . Without coun­terchances all he can do his defend his Pawns if they are attacked .

30 R-Kl

Not 30 R-KB l , for 30 . . . NxBch 3 1 NxN RxRch 32 NxR BxP, and White has lost his plus Pawn.

30 • . • N:xBch

In view of Black's vulnerable Pawns and White's attack on his KP, he has only the alternative 30 . . . R-K l , after which 3 1 P-B3 and

1 ) 3 1 . . . B-N3? 32 B-K5ch , which wins the Exchange ;

2) 3 1 . . . B-N2 32 NxB or 32 B-K5 , and White emerges with at least as great an advantage as in the game.

31 N:xN R-B3

To protect both his KP and RP.

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 27

If instead 3 1 . . . BxP, then 32 RxP would lead to the loss of an additional Pawn for Black .

32 P-N3

The plan is to save his Q-side Pawns in order to have an easy win in the Knight vs . Bishop ending . Probably 32 P-B3 would have been just as good .

White places his Pawns on the White squares so that they cannot be attacked by the h�tile Bishop , which is confined to the Black squares . This is often an effective procedure . However, sometimes putting the Pawns on the same color as that of the opponent' s attacking Bishop seriously restricts its mobility , and this is also a good idea. In such cases, the player must be sure that his opponent cannot (a) break up the player' s pawn chain by attacking it with Pawns; or (b) attack the pawn chain from behind with his Bishop; e .g . , if White had the pawn chain c2-d3-e4 , Black might be able to bring his Bishop to bi and capture one or more Pawns of White ' s pawn chain .

32 • • . K-R2

In the ending , the King begins to "live . " It should become active as soon as possible and preferably in the center . Equally good would have been 32 . . . K-Nl , but not 32 . . . K-N2? , which would be answered by 33 N-R5ch .

33 R-KBl

White offers to exchange Rooks , because he knows that in this position the ending with his Knight against his opponent' s Bishop is easily won . The Knight can attack the hostjle Pawns, whereas the Black Bishop can do nothing of the sort . Moreover , the White King can move freely against the Black Pawns .

33 . . . 34 K-N2

K-N3

Both Kings head for the center , for in the endgame it is important to have the King in a position where it can participate actively , and the more so when the opponent 's King is near the center. In this case , the White King must get to at least f3 .

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28 Game 1

34 • . . RxR

Neither side can afford not to exchange Rooks .

3S NxR

He recaptures with the Knight instead of the King so that his King can reach the center more rapidly.

35 • • • 36 K-B3 37 N-K3

K-B4 K-K4

White wishes to bring his Knight to better squares and to prevent Black from penetrating the somewhat vulnerable White Q-side pawn structure .

Even though the Knight is more valuable than the Bishop in this type of endgame, White need not fear the exchange 37 . . . BxN, since a pawn ending with a plus Pawn is a sure win in 99 percent of the positions, and this position is no exception . So White deliberately plays for the exchange of his Knight for the Black Bishop .

For his part, Black is not going to oblige White by exchanging. If 37 . . . BxN, White can simply march on : 38 KxB P-B4 39 P-B3 K-Q4 40 P-Q4 PxPch 41 PxP P-KR4 42 P-KR4 P-R3 43 P-R3 P-R4 44 K-Q3 K-Q3 45 K-K4, and White can penetrate .

37 • • • P-B4

Now 38 N-N4ch would have won a Pawn for White , but he probably feared 38 . . . K-Q4 39 NxP B-N2 40 N-N4 K-Q5 , and the Black King can penetrate ; however, this does not mean too much after 4 1 K-K2 K-B6 42 K-Ql K-N7 43 P-QR4, and White' s KRP must decide .

So rather than to risk this continuation, White played

38 N-N2 39 P-KR3

B-N8 K-QS

Black suddenly gets a chance to penetrate White ' s Q-side Pawns and tries to take advantage of it .

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Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-NS Line 29

40 N-B4!

Because of 4 1 N-K2ch , Black is now threatened with losing a piece and cannot continue with 40 . . . K-B6 immediately .

40 • . . Resigns

A possible continuation could have been 40 . . . B-R7 4 1 N-K2ch K-Q4 42 K-N4 B-Q3 43 K-R5 B-B 1 44 K-N6 K-Q3 45 N-N l K-Q4 46 N-B3 K-Q3 47 P-KR4 when , for example , on 47 . . . K-Q4 48 P-R5 , 48 . . . K-Q3 loses : 49 K-B7 B-K2 50 K-N7 , etc . Black is in Zug­zwang after White ' s 48 P-R5 .

White won because (a) his pieces were active , whereas Black' s displaced QN was his greatest disadvantage ; (b) through the sacrifice of the Exchange he was able to open up Black' s unprotected K-side ; and ( c) through exchanges he could convert his middle game advan­tages into an endgame in which he had a plus Pawn and Black had no counterchances . It was mainly the plus Pawn that decided the battle . Black' s inferior pawn position was of secondary importance .

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Game 2

General ideas behind the Ruy Lopez and especially behind the Morphy

Variation

Characteristics of the Closed Variation of the Ruy Lopez

The importance of White's playing P-KR3 in this variation

Giving up two tempos in order to maintain the center in a safer way

The customary maneuverings of White's QN in the Closed Variation of

the Ruy Lopez

Problems arising from "unprotecting" a Pawn

Opening the center by a pawn push when one's Bishops are directed

toward the center and thus come to full activity

The in-between move

The Queen sacrifice

Using the developed pieces to best advantage

Keeping the opponent on the run with active moves

Liquidating the dangerous passed Pawn

Maneuvering to win further Pawns in the endgame

The Queen Sacrifice The various chess pieces have different relative values . Not all

chess masters agree on the relative worth of each piece , but the following numerical values are often assigned to them: Queen = 8; Rook = 41/2; Bishop = 3; Knight = 3 ; Pawn= l .

These are only approximate values , since one of the most important factors to consider in determining the worth of a piece is its strength in the position it occupies on the board at a given time.

Theoretically , the Queen is by far the strongest piece because , unlike every other piece , it can move horizontally, vertically , and diagonally any number of unoccupied squares . Therefore , players are understandably reluctant to part with their Queen .

However , there are positions in which the Rooks, the Bishops , the Knights , and possibly the Pawns as well are so strongly posted that they exert a combined pressure which is stronger than that of the Queen itself and where a player can afford to give up his Queen ,

30

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 31

especially if by so doing he can bring the remaining pieces into an even stronger attacking position .

To play without the Queen and to get the maximum use out of the remaining pieces requires consummate skil l . The Queen must not be sacrificed without a careful analysis of subsequent play .

But a master is well equipped to make judgments as to the force of his remaining pieces , and there exist in master play beautiful exam­ples of Queen sacrifices where either by careful analysis or through intuition the master has judged his position strong enough to gain victory without the Queen .

Ruy Lopez - Breyer Defense Candidates' Match - San Jose, Puerto Rico - 1 974

Robert Byrne - USA

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3 3 B-NS

Boris Spassky - USSR

P-K4 N-QB3

The Ruy Lopez, an opening which affords White more possibilities than most others .

With 3 B-NS , White exercises indirect pressure against Black' s position , for with BxN he threatens to win Black' s KP at some future time. He cannot do so immediately , since 4 BxN QPxB 5 NxP is answered by 5 . . . Q-QS or 5 . . . Q-N4, either of which leads to regaining the Pawn and gives Black at least an even position . But Black must continually take into account the possibility of White' s playing BxN under more favorable circumstances , as he threatens to do after 6 R-K l . Therefore , 3 B-NS is SOPlewhat stronger than 3 B-B4, which was played in Game 1 .

3 . . . P-QR3

The Morphy Variation, considered the strongest line of the Ruy Lopez, since Black reserves the possibility of breaking White's pressure on the Black QN at any time by . . . P-QN4.

Important elements of White's strategy in this variation are (a) direct pressure against Black's QN; (b) indirect -pressure against Black' s Pawn on e5 ; and ( c) an attempt to weaken Black' s Q-side first

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32 Game 2

by playing 4 B-R4, which forces Black to drive back the Bishop by . . . P-QN4 at the proper time, and later by playing P-QR4 to exploit Black's . . . P-QN4.

Black 's general strategy is the opposite of White 's . He will attempt to prevent White from attaining the three above-mentioned goals . Also , Black often later tries to exchange the White KB for his QN by means of . . . P-QN4; B-N3 N-QR4.

4 B-R4 N-B3

A developing move which contributes to the centralization of Black' s KN and attacks White's KP.

s 0-0

At this point 5 P-Q4 is not considered strongest , since it would relieve the pressure against the Black KP by allowing Black to exchange it .

s . . . B-K2

The Closed Variation, the basic idea of which is to complete development as rapidly as possible . Black builds up a solid position and hopes to be able to maintain the center, that is, to keep his KP on e5 .

At this point Black could have played 5 . . . NxP, not to gain a Pawn, for White can easily win the Pawn back, but to reach equality in the simplest way. This line is known as the Open Variation .

6 R-Kl

White protects his KP and now threatens to win a Pawn by 7 BxN QPxB 8 NxP. Unless he intends to play 6 . . . P-Q3 , the text forces Black to drive back the White Bishop to the excellent b3-square by 6 . . . P-QN4, and the resultant Black Q-side pawn configuration (Pa6-Pb5) will give White the opportunity to attack the Black Q-side Pawns by P-QR4 if he wishes .

6 . . . P-QN4

Black has postponed . . . P-QN4 until the last possible moment,

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 33

since White's KB will in some ways be more active on b3 (from which point it attacks f7) than on a4 . However , the attack by the White Bishop on f7 is less significant than a few moves earlier , since Black is now able to castle .

7 B-N3 P-Q3

Black protects his KP a second time and frees his QN. Now by 8 . . . N-QR4 Black can threaten to exchange his QN for White's rather active KB .

8 P-83

This move is played (a) so that if 8 . . . N-QR4, White has available 9 B-B2 to avoid exchanging the Bishop for the Knight ; and (b) to gain a strong hold on the center by P-Q4.

8 • • . 0-0

9 P-KR3

This is an important precautionary move in this variation of the Ruy Lopez. If instead White should play 9 P-Q4 immediately, Black could reply 9 . . . B-N5 , forcing White to play 10 P-Q5 in order to avoid doubling his Pawns and opening his K-position by 10 . . . PxP 1 1 PxP BxN 1 2 PxB . Moreover 1 0 P-Q5 would give Black some addi­tional possibilities ; for instance, after moving his QN, he could attack White' s advanced QP by . . . P-QB3 and perhaps later, after ade-quate preparation, play . . . P-Q4 itself . In general , after having attained Pd4-Pe4, White should try to. maintain this strong center formation .

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34 Game l

Let us now examine the other side of the board . How should Black continue?

In the Ruy Lopez the Black QN on c6 presents a problem in that it blocks the eventual development of Black's QBP and also inhibits the effectiveness of the Black QB on b7 , the square to which it will eventually go. Therefore , this Knight has in general two possibilities : (a) it can return to b8 and then go to d7 , from which point it protects the cen£er better than at c6; or (b) it can drive away White's QB from b3 by . . . N-QR4 and eventually go to c4, from which square it may threaten White:'s b2 and at times his Be3 .

Black chooses (a) and plays

9 • • . N-Nl

The Breyer Variation . This move looks strange, for it costs two tempos, but it does have a

strategic basis . As explained above, from here the Knight will go to d7 where it will offer more reliable protection to the Black center .

In this closed game, in which both sides spend time maneuvering, a tempo more or less does not matter a great deal . The center is better protected with Black's QN on d7 than on c6, because after going to b7 Black' s QB will have free reign on the long diagonal , and the QN cannot be attacked as easily on d7 as on c6.

It is best to play 9 . . . N-N l at this point rather than later so that 1 0 P-Q4 can be answered by l O . . . QN-Q2, and the Knight again protects the Black KP.

10 P·Q4

White builds up his center and presses against Black' s KP. If he can force Black to play . . . PxP, then the possibilities of a K-side attack arise . Moreover , after White has answered . . . PxP by PxP, his QN can develop to c3 .

10 • • • QN-Q2 1 1 QN·Q2

In the Ruy Lopez White's QN is often developed via d2 and f1 to g3 or e3 , from which point it exercises considerable influence on the center.

According to theory the attempt to undermine the Black center Pe5

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Roy Lopez: Breyer Defense 35

by 1 1 P-B4 and 1 2 P-B5 does not accomplish much . Black is not forced to capture White's QBP . One advantage of this line , however , is that White gets c3 for his Knight .

11 • . • B-N2

Attacking White 's KP a second time. Many of the opening moves in the Ruy Lopez center around Black 's attack on and White' s protec­tion of that KP.

12 B-B2

White protects his KP with a third piece . He will now be able to continue the development of his QN by 1 3 N-B l .

12 . • • R-Kl

To press indirectly against White 's KP and to free f8 for the Black KB .

13 N-Bl

As already explained , from fl White can bring his Knight into the game more actively by playing it to either e3 or g3 .

In the lOth Fischer-Spassky game Fischer played 1 3 P-QN4 at this point , expanding White's Q-wing and guarding against a possi­ble . . . P-QB4 and also blocking Black' s QNP so that an eventual P-QR4 could not be answered by . . . P-N5 . That move is neither better nor worse than the text .

13 . . • B-KBl

Indirectly attacking White's KP once more and planning, after proper preparation , to develop his KB to g7 .

14 N-N3 P-N3

Black opens up a square at g7 for his KB , from which point that Bishop can press against the White center . It will also furnish indirect support to Black's vulnerable KP. It is a .sort of preparation for the Black counterpush in the center, which will soon follow . It also

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36 Game l

prevents White from establishing his Knight on the strong outpost f5 . This move does create a certain weakness in Black's K-side pawn

formation , but this is significant only if White gets attacking chances with P-KR4-5 or if he can attack the Black K-side with pieces at g5 , f6 , or h6 .

15 P-N3?

To be able to develop his QB to a square where it will support his center . But the text " unprotects" White 's QBP, which, as we shall soon see, will become very vulnerable and will constitute a gnawing problem for White .

Perhaps 1 5 P-QR4 would have been better , and if 1 5 . . . B-N2 1 6 P-Q5 , and then Black cannot successfully continue 1 6 . . . P-B3 to attack the White center because of 17 PxP BxP 1 8 QxP.

15 • • • B-N2 16 P-QR4

In order to weaken Black's QNP. But 1 6 P-Q5 would have been better to prevent Black from opening up the center , as he now does, for then-as already remarked-1 6 . . . P-B3 would fail against 17 PxP followed by 18 QxP.

16 • • • P-Q4!

The counterpush in the center . Both Black Bishops are very well posted for this counterpush . Suddenly all the Black pieces become active , whereas the White pieces are not very effectively placed. They are posted defensively , whereas the Black pieces are posted aggres-

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 37

sively. White 's QBP is somewhat weak , whatever is played, and especially if the al/h8 diagonal is opened .

17 PxKP

More or less forced , for 1 7 PxQP is answered by 1 7 . . . NxP and there follows 1 8 B-N2 (to protect the QBP) 1 8 . . . N-B5 , and Black has the makings of an attack because of his preponderance in space .

17 • • • KNxP

Now both White 's Pc3 and his Pe5 are en prise , and his QBP is very weak .

18 BxN

White is forced to remove the Black KN because of the weakness of his QBP, but he will end up with a very annoying Black Pawn on e4 .

He could have played 1 8 NxN , keeping his Bishop , but a whole series of factors must be taken into consideration when making this choice . Questions arise such as : What happens after a Black Queen sacrifice such as occurs in the game at Black's l 9th move if there were a Bishop at c2 but no Knight at g3? In other words , how would the game have continued after 1 8 . . . PxN 19 B-N5 PxN 20 BxQ? Apparently White did not take into consideration the possibility that Black would offer to sacrifice his Queen after 19 B-N5 .

18 • • • PxB

If now 19 NxP NxP, Black's position is a bit better, for his Bishops are working along the diagonals and White's position has several weak points . Moreover , Black has the advantage of the Two Bishops against Bishop + Knight .

19 B-NS

An in-between move which attacks the Black Queen . White hopes for 1 9 . . . Q-B l 20 NxP NxP, and things begin to look better for him. Among other advantages White controls f6 .

A simple continuation for Black would have been 19 . . . P-KB3 , and after 20 PxP NxP Black still stands a bit better . But instead of

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38 Game l

choosing the conventional way, Black plunges into a sea of complica­tions which no one could foresee or judge even with analysis, and whose outcome no one could predict .

The point is : Be very careful when making an in-between move . All possibilities must be calculated beforehand. In this position White does not lose because of his in-between move, but he does give his opponent the opportunity to create promising possibilities .

19 • • • PxN

Black offers his Queen in exchange for a very strong attack against the White King by his Bishops , his Pf3 , and his Knight , which will soon be on e5 .

20 BxQ QRxB

Two Bishops for a Queen are not a great deal , but what Bishops ! Black has two threats : (a) the indirect attack of his QR on the White Queen ; and (b) the continuation . . . PxP followed by . . . NxP and . . . N-B6ch . The weakness of White' s QBP must also be taken into consideration. The Black Bishops are working wonderfully well to­gether . All the Black pieces are in action .

The following variations show the force of Black's position and some of his possibilities :

1 ) 2 1 PxBP NxP 22 Q-B2 NxPch 23 K-B l NxR (with 23 . . . N­R7ch Black can force a draw) 24 RxN RxRch 25 KxR B-B6, and White is lost , since he has no defense against 26 . . . BxPch 27 QxB R-Q8 mate , and 26 N-K4 or 26 N-K2 is refuted by 26 . . . R-K l .

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 39

2) 21 Q-B2 NxP (threatening 22 . . . PxNP and 23 . . . N-B6ch) practically forces 22 RxN RxR 23 PxBP BxP 24 PxP PxP, and White has no moves to strengthen his position , whereas Black threatens for instance 25 . . . KR-Q4 followed by 26 . . . R-Q8ch 27 RxR RxRch 28 K-R2 B-K4 and mate on h l .

3) 2 1 P-K6 N-K4 22 PxPch KxP 23 Q-B l PxNP 24 Q-B4ch K-N l 25 N-K4 R-KB I , and Black wins at least the Exchange, maintain­ing a very strong attack .

4) 2 1 N-B l ! NxP 22 Q-B2 PxNP 23 N-R2 . This is what Spassky considered to be the best defense . A White Knight now controls f3 , and Black's attacking chances are not very promising . On the other hand, Black has almost full compensation : two Bishops and two Pawns for the Queen . Spassky draws attention to the remarkable continuation : 23 . . . P-N4 24 QR-Q I N-N3 , threatening 25 . . . N-B5 and 26 . . . NxP mate . After 25 P-B3 N-B5 26 K-B2 the mate is parried, but the struggle goes on .

21 PxNP 22 PxRP?

NxP

This is equivalent to resigning, for Black now reaches an ending in which he has two light pieces for a Rook .

White should have tried 22 Q-B2, and after 22 . . . PxKNP White sacrifices the Exchange : 23 RxN (forced) RxR 24 PxP B-B6. White must try to defend against the threat 25 . . . QR-Kl and 26 . . . R­K8ch . The best way is 25 P-R7 QR-K l (threatening mate) 26 P­R8 = Q (26 Q-Q2 fails against 26 . . . B-R3) 26 . . . BxQ 27 RxB RxR 28 KxP, and Black has the better endgame , but White still has some play .

22 • • • 23 KRxR 24 PxP

RxQ B-QRl

If White does not capture the Pawn now, Black will continue 24 . . . PxP, which will make matters worse , for Black will have a strong protected passed Pawn .

24 • • • 25 K-Bl

NxPch BxP

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40 Game 2

White 's weakened QBP finally succumbs .

26 QR-Bl

White has no compensation for his material disadvantage . His passed Pawn does not mean much.

26 • • • N-Q7ch

Black could have played 26 . . . B-R4 at once, but the text is a device for gaining time on the clock . From here through his 39th move Black will give a number of needless checks which will not advance his position but will gain him time .

27 K-Nl 28 P-N4

B-R4

Hoping for 28 . . . BxP 29 RxP, which would increase White 's drawing chances , since all the Black Q-side Pawns would have disappeared.

28 • • • 29 K-Bl 30 K-Nl 31 K-Bl 32 R-B2

N-B6ch N-R7ch N-B6ch B-N3

On its 2d rank White's R/2 can neutralize the force of the Black Rook by moving to e2 ; from c2 it can also offer additional protection to e2 in case White wishes to bring his Knight to that square .

32 • • • 33 K-Nl 34 K-Bl

N-R7ch N-B6ch K-Bl

Partly to bring the King nearer the center of the board-a good idea in most endgames-partly to give protection to the Rook, for in case Black later played . . . B-K5 his Bishop could otherwise be pinned by R-K2 .

35 N-K2

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 41

To bring the Knight via f4 to a square where it will have greater activity .

35 • • • 36 K-Nl 37 K-Bl

N-R7ch N-B6ch B-KS

At e4 the Bishop attacks the White R/2 and has the possibility of going to f5 , threatening to win White' s KRP and perhaps even to give mate .

38 R-R2

If 38 R-B4, Black could play 38 . . . B-KB4 (threatening mate) 39 N-B4 P-N4, and if 40 R-QS B-B l , capturing White ' s passed Pawn, since 4 1 N-Q3 fails against 4 1 . . . BxRP mate .

38 • • • N-R7ch

These repetitions are becoming monotonous , but Spassky is eager to reach the 40th move, when the game can be adjourned and he will have all the time in the world to look for a sure win .

39 K-Nl 40 K-Bl

N-B6ch N-RS

Threatening to win a Pawn by 4 1 . . . B-N7ch.

41 N-B4

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42 Game l

At this point the game was adjourned.

41 • • • B-B6

Strengthens the pressure . After 42 R-B 1 Black would continue 42 . . . P-N4 43 N-Q3 B-N7ch , winning the KRP. If Black had played 4 1 . . . P-N4 immediately, the Knight could have gone to d5 , where it would have been well placed and would have served as a support for White 's passed Pawn .

42 R-Q3

Black would also answer 42 R-B l by 42 . . . P-N4 and then be able to win White' s KRP.

42 • • • P-N4

This is an important offensive move, for it drives the Knight from its powerful position at f4 .

43 N-K2

This inactive move is forced , for if 43 N-Q5 , Black quickly wins by 43 . . . B-N7ch 44 K-N l R-K8ch 45 K-R2 R-R8ch 46 K-N3 RxPch 47 K-N4 RxR, etc .

43 • • • B-N7ch

Black is now playing to attack the White King and White's pieces so

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 43

as to get them into such a position that at a given moment White will no longer be able to protect his KRP .

44 K-Kl

If 44 K-N l N-B6ch 45 KxB N-K8ch , winning the Exchange .

44 • • • 45 K-Ql

N-B6ch N-K4

This move brings the Knight to the center , where it is offensive in that it attacks White' s R/3 and eventually defensive in helping to guard against the advance of White ' s QRP.

White must continually make forced moves . For instance, if now 46 R/3-Q2 BxRP, White cannot take advantage of the fact that Black ' s QB has left the a8/h l diagonal , for 47 P-R7? is answered by 47 . . . R-R l followed by the capture of White 's RP. This is because White' s Rooks cannot be doubled on the QR-file immediately , and yet White ' s QRP cannot be protected unless the Rooks are doubled .

46 R-QB3 B-Q4

Black maneuvers very cleverly to eliminate White ' s QRP . Some possibilities :

1 ) 47 R/2-R3 B-B5 (indirect attack against the White Knight) 48 N-N3 R-R 1 , winning the QRP, since White cannot double Rooks;

2) 47 R-R l B-B5 48 N-N3 B-Q5 , etc . ;

3) 47 R-R4 B-B5 48 N-N3 R-R l 49 R/�-R3 B-N4, etc .

47 R-Q2

Now Black goes after White' s QRP directly , and it can no longer be defended .

47 • • • 48 R-R3 49 P-B4

B-BS R-Rl

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44 Game l

Since there is no possibility for White to defend his QRP, he avails himself of the opportunity of improving the position of his Knight .

49 • • • SO NxP SI RxR S2 N-QS

PxP RxP BxR B-BS

Now that the QRP has been eliminated, Black can afford to let White exchange his Knight for Black ' s KB .

S3 NxB

White exchanges his Knight for the Black Bishop because Two Bishops are very strong . They can control all the squares on the board and make things very difficult for an opponent .

S3 • . . S4 R-Q6 SS K-Q2

PxN P-N4 N-N3

Black transfers his Knight to a protected square from which it can cooperate in maneuvers to win the White RP .

S6 K-K3 S7 Resigns

P-R4

There is no point in continuing the game . Black can play in his own good time for the advance of his KBP, and in most cases he will be able to capture White' s RP or NP without any compensation for White .

Just to give one possible line : 57 K-Q4 N-B5 58 P-R4 (if 58 R-KR6 K-N2) 58 . . . N-N3 59 K-K4 NxP 60 R-KR6 B-K7, and after 6 1 K-K3 N-B4ch White wins the Bishop but loses his Rook on h6 . With two passed Pawns and two pieces against a Rook Black can simply advance his King and Pawns , and at a given time White will have to sacrifice his Rook . The point is that White has no counterplay whatever .

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Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense 45

Black won the game because (a) his pieces were more effectively posted for maximum usefulness ; (b) through an imaginative Queen sacrifice Black was able to get into a very effective attacking position; and (c) White had several weaknesses which Black was able to exploit .

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Game 3

Lively play resulting from the Petroff Defense

Black's attempts to maintain his Knight on e4 and White's efforts to

undermine it

The surprise proffered sacrifice

Development with tempo

Exact calculation of the many complicated consequences of a sacrifice

Reducing to an advantageous endgame position

Outmaneuvering the opponent in a R + P vs. R + P endgame

The Sacrifice Many chess games advance very quietly, each side developing

pieces with clocklike regularity , sometimes protecting an attacked piece at the same time . In such games, both players often strive for a slight positional advantage which in the long run may be increased enough to lead to a win .

But sometimes a position offers other and more dramatic resources -at times a surprising sacrifice of a piece may be compensated in other ways , such as faster development to take advantage of the fact that the opponent has not yet castled, an overwhelming attack, or a chance to regain the sacrificed piece while emerging with material equality but with a superior position .

The proffered sacrifice is frequently much more exciting and much more interesting than the plodding attempt to win by slow stages . It requires great powers of imagination and a considerable analytical ability .

Once the sacrifice has been accepted, the player who offered it must have at his command sufficient counteradvantages to justify his gam­ble . Otherwise he will find himself down materially and with a losing position .

Certain types of weaknesses in the opponent ' s position may justify the sacrifice . The problem is how to recognize the weaknesses and then design and evaluate a sacrificial combination based on these indications . Among the typical weaknesses are a loose piece, a vul-

46

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Petroff Defense 47

nerable K-position, and several of the opponent' s pieces on a diagonal or vertical line .

Petroff Defense US Championship - Chicago - 1 974

Walter Browne - USA

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3

Arthur Bisguier - USA

P-K4 N-KB3

The Petroff Defense-in reality a counterattack, since instead of defending , as Black did in Games 1 and 2, against the White KN' s attack on his KP, Black attacks White' s KP. This leads to a game with entirely different ideas from those prevalent in the Two Knights ' Defense and the Ruy Lopez Opening .

Formerly it was thought that the Petroff Defense would give White a slight advantage, but in practice this advantage has proved unimpor­tant , and in recent years the Petroff has become a popular weapon for players who are looking for something more than mere equality .

It is difficult to show exactly how Black often gets such lively play in this defense , but sometimes it stems from a psychological factor , namely that White expects too much from the opening . He feels that it is his duty to strive for more than equality , and this gives chances to Black .

3 NxP

The oldest and principal variation . Another important line is Steinitz' s 3 P-Q4 .

If after 3 NxP Black plays the tempting 3 . . . NxP? , he risks falling into a trap which could lose him his Queen: 4 Q-K2 N-KB3?? 5 N-B6 dis eh (attacking the Queen , giving discovered check , and covering e7 with the Knight) , etc . Even with a better defense after 3 . . . NxP, Black comes out disadvantageously ; e .g . , 4 Q-K2 Q-K2 5 QxN P-Q3 6 P-Q4 and

1) 6 . . . PxN 7 PxP P-KB3 8 P-B4 N-Q2(?) 9 P-K6 N-B4 10 B-N5ch P-B3 1 1 BxPch, etc . , and White remains a Pawn ahead ; or

2) 6 . . . N-Q2 7 N-QB3 PxN 8 N-Q5 Q-Q3 9 PxP NxP? 10 P-KB4.

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48 Game 3

These variations show that in many lines Black succeeds in regain­ing his Pawn, but he remains backward in development , which may later cost material . So, because of the tactical possibilities at White's disposal , after 3 NxP Black must drive away the White Knight before playing . . . NxP himself.

3 . • . 4 N-KB3 S P-Q4

P-Q3 NxP

With this move White occupies one of the most important center squares .

The alternative 5 Q-K2, forcing 5 . . . Q-K2, is followed by 6 P-Q3 N-KB3, which gives a slight advantage to White because after 7 N-QB3 or 7 B-N5 the game usually continues 7 . . . QxQch 8 BxQ, and White has won a tempo over and above the one he had by virtue of the first move . However, most games with this continuation end in a draw . In fact , sometimes White deliberately plays this variation because he has practically no chance to lose the game. This is what Lasker did when playing against Marshall during the last round at St . Petersburg, 19 14 .

s . . . P-Q4

The most enterprising and best move, for it maintains the position of the Black KN and improves Black' s mobility .

The positions are almost symmetrical , and it is difficult to decide which of the two sides has won or lost a tempo . One of the following situations must exist :

(a) If the position of Black's Knight on e4 is , in fact , an invitation to an attack which, in collaboration with moves such as . . . B­KN5 , . . . P-KB4, and . . . N-QB3, proves to be effective, then Black has won a tempo.

(b) If , however , White succeeds either in forcing back Black' s Knight ( 6 B-Q3 B-Q3 7 0-0 0-0 8 R-K l N-KB3) or i n taking advantage of the vulnerable position of the Black Knight as in the game, then White has won a tempo over and above the one he had by playing first .

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Petroff Defense 49

Theory has not definitely determined whether (a) or (b) is valid, but it inclines toward the second option under (b) .

6 B-Q3

White now begins to apply pressure on the Black Knight . If White can force Black's Knight to withdraw or to exchange itself for the White QN once the latter is developed to c3 , then White usually gets a slight advantage . If now, for instance, 6 . . . N-KB3 , White is two tempos ahead .

6 . . . B-Kl

Nowadays this modest development of Black' s Bishop to e7 is preferred to the more aggressive 6 . . . B-Q3 . In general , 6 . . . B­K2 is followed by . . . 0-0, . . . B-KN5 , and . . . P-KB4, and Black sacrifices his QP after White has played P-QB4 .

Although 6 . . . B-Q3 looks ideal , if Black is going to sacrifice his QP anyway, in some variations it is important for him to control g5 , which he does with 6 . . . B-K2 .

Let us consider what might happen after 6 . . . B-Q3 : 7 0-0 0-0 8P-B4 and

1 ) 8 . . . B-KN5 (sacrificing his QP) 9 PxP P-KB4 1 0 N-B3 , and White stands better . A wild continuation would be 10 . . . N-Q2 1 1 P-KR3 B-R4 12 NxN PxN 1 3 BxP N-B3 14 B-B5 ! K-R l 1 5 P-KN4!

l a) 1 5 . . . NxQP 1 6 B-K6 B-B2 1 7 N-N5 ! ; lb) 1 5 . . . B-N3 1 6 BxB followed by 1 7 N-N5 or 1 6 B-K6, and Black' s position has not improved .

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so Game 3

2) 8 . . . P-QB3 9 Q-B2 2a) 9 . . . R-K l 10 N-B3 N-B3, and White stands better , for he has superior development and has succeeded in forcing back Black' s Knight ; 2b) 9 . . . N-R3 , and the pawn sacrifice does not work after 10 BxN PxB 1 1 QxP, for White stands better in view of his superior development .

7 0-0

It would not be advantageous at this point to exchange by 7 BxN PxB 8 N-KS unless Black's KP could then be captured, which is not the case .

If Black now answered 7 . . . 0-0, he would not have many coun­terchances because 8 R-K l P-KB4 9 P-B4 P-B3 10 Q-N3 ! practically forces the Black Knight to withdraw, which was White's objective all the time , for White threatens 1 1 PxP PxP 1 2 BxN PxB 1 3 RxP, winning a Pawn; and if Black parries the threat by 1 0 . . . K-R 1 , then after 1 1 N-B3, White has an excellent position . Therefore, it appears that Black gets a stronger position by postponing castling .

So instead Black plays the somewhat aggressive

7 • • • N-QB3

Today this is considered the best system of defense , for after 8 . . . B-KN5 Black has an attack on White's QP. Moreover , Black might eventually play . . . N-NS , which could also put problems to White . If the threat of . . . N-NS should force White to play P-B3 , then the aggressive and undermining P-B4 by White would be out of the question, and Black would have a satisfactory position . But White is not intimidated and does not play 8 P-B3 , which would be too passive , but chooses rather the active

8 P-B4

This is to undermine the position of the Black KN by taking away its protection . White will be left with an isolated QP, but this will be compensated for by his advance in development .

Also good here is 8 R-Kl .

8 • • . N-NS

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Petroff Defense Sl

In order to eliminate White 's KB . The move looks good, for in addition to exchanging a Knight for a Bishop Black succeeds within a few moves in isolating White 's QP. But judging from the outcome of this game, its value is dubious. The text also violates the rule that each piece should be played only once during the opening. This rule is important only in sharp positions, but since the position becomes sharp later in the game, the principle is applicable here .

Probably best would have been 8 . . . B-KNS , the other line suggested under Black' s 7th move , after which the game might have continued 9 PxP QxP 1 0 R-K l P-B4 ( 10 . . . N-B3 1 1 N-B3 with advantage to White) . Also to be considered is 8 . . . B-K3 .

9 Px:P

If now 9 . . . QxP, then after 1 0 BxN QxB 1 1 R-K l White gets superiority somewhat as in the game .

9 • • • lO QxN 1 1 R-Kl

NxB QxP B-KB4

The appropriate move, for Black continues to try to maintain his Knight at e4 .

If instead 1 1 . . . N-B3, White must not continue with the obvious 1 2 N-B 3 , since after 1 2 . . . Q-Ql White can no longer prevent Black from castling . Better is 1 2 B-NS , threatening 1 3 BxN, after which Black' s K-side Pawns are mutilated . So now 1 2 . . . B-K3 is practi­cally forced, and there follows 13 N-B3 Q-Q2 ( 1 3 . . . Q-Q3 or 1 3 . . . Q-Q l can be answered by 1 4 Q-N5ch, winning Black' s QNP) 14 N-KS Q-B l 1 5 BxN BxB? 1 6 P-QS and wins .

If 1 1 . . . N-B4 1 2 Q-NSch, winning a piece after 1 2 . . . P-B3 1 3 QxN.

Black has succeeded in giving White an isolated Pawn, and he has the Bishop pair , but he has not yet castled, and this is an important point to consider in evaluating the relative strength of the two sides .

12 N-B3 NxN

The only move .

13 QxN P-QB3

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52 Game 3

Black's QBP must be protected . If 1 3 . . . Q-Q3 , White maintains the initiative by 1 4 B-N5 P-KB3

1 5 B-R4, threatening to win a Pawn by 1 6 B-N3 . After 1 3 . . . Q-Q l 14 B-N5 P-KB3 1 5 B-B4 P-B3 1 6 Q-N3 things

grow worse, for Black will have difficulty in castling and his QNP is attacked .

To be considered is the pawn sacrifice 1 3 . . . B-K3 . After 1 4 QxP B-Q3 1 5 Q-B3 0-0 Black has some-but probably not sufficient­compensation for his lost P�wn because of his better development .

14 B-R6!

A surpnsmg move-not at all obvious . Most masters would perhaps not even have considered it . After having seen its conse­quences we can state that it serves two purposes : (a) it wins a tempo which brings White' s QR into the game; and (b) it helps to open the c3/h8 diagonal by removing Pg7 , after which White will be able to attack Black' s KR with his Queen . It is worth noting that these two factors are worth a piece and that White wins back the piece because of them . The fact that Black has not yet castled certainly is the deciding factor . Moreover , the text is the only move which will maintain White's advantage and more .

14 • • • R-KNl

Black declines the sacrifice, for after 1 4 . . . PxB 1 5 R-K5 White wins back his piece with positional advantage : 1 5 . . . Q-Q2 1 6 QR-K l and

1 ) 1 6 . . . B-K3 1 7 P-Q5 ! (The point ! Now the c3/h8 diagonal is

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Petroff Defense 53

completely open and the indirect attack of White's Queen against Black' s KR becomes a reality .) 1 7 . . . PxP 1 8 RxB PxR 19 QxRch B-B l 20 Q-B6 B-K2 2 1 RxP and wins ;

2) 1 6 . . . K-Q l 1 7 RxB/7 QxR 1 8 RxQ KxR 1 9 Q-B5ch K-B3 20 Q-K5ch K-N3 21 N-R4ch, etc .

Interesting is the variation given by Browne himself : 1 4 . . . B-K5 15 BxP R-KNl 1 6 B-B6 ! BxB ( 1 6 . . . BxN 1 7 RxBch K-B l 1 8 P-KN3 Q-KB4 1 9 Q-B5 and White stands much better) 1 7 RxBch QxR 18 R-Kl QxRch 1 9 QxQch B-K2 20 Q-K5 , and White's position is superior .

15 R-K5

This represents an important gain of tempo which enables White to double his Rooks along the K-file .

15 • • • 16 QR-Kl

Q-Q2 (forced) B-K3

To protect his KB . Now the obvious 1 7 B-N5 is answered by 1 7 . . . B-Q3 , and after White retires his KR, Black can complete his development by . . . P-KR3 , . . . P-KN4, and . . . 0-0-0.

17 N-N5!

Another very peculiar move , which gives Black new problems . Let us study its consequences :

c

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54 Game 3

I ) 1 7 . . . PxB 1 8 NxB PxN 19 RxP R-N2 (perhaps it would be better to give back the Bishop by 1 9 . . . K-Q l or by 19 . . . R­N3 20 RxBch QxR 2 1 RxQch KxR 22 Q-N4ch, and White captures a number of Pawns , but the struggle between a Queen and two Rooks is never easy) 20 P-Q5 , another tricky move, the recurring theme, for now Black' s Rook is en prise ;

l a) 20 . . . R-B2 2 1 P-Q6, etc . ; lb) 20 . . . K-B 1 2 1 QxRch ! KxQ 22 RxBch QxR 23 RxQch K-B3 24 P-Q6 R-Ql 25 RxNP RxP, and White wins easily.

2) 17 . . . B-B3 (or l7 . . . B-Q3) 1 8 NxB BxR 19 NxPch , etc .

3) 1 7 . . . BxN 1 8 BxB P-KR3 1 9 B-R4 P-KN4 20 B-N3 0-0-0 2 1 P-Q5 ! BxP 22 R-K7 and wins . If Black does not castle in this last variation, his King stays in the middle of the board , and , despite the fact that there are Bishops of opposite colors , this will lead to a certain win for White .

17 • • • 0-0-0

By far the best reply ! Black hopes for 1 8 NxB PxN 1 9 RxP B-B3 ! , after which he is certainly not bad off . As a matter of fact , he has a slight advantage because he has a centralized KB and will win the QP. Besides , White' s Bishop is still en prise .

18 NxBP!

Another surprising move.

18 • • • BxN

What else can he do?

I ) If 1 8 . . . B-B3 1 9 RxB QxN 20 B-B4 (threatening 2 1 RxPch followed by mate) and now

l a) 20 . . . Q-Q2 2 1 R-Q6 Q-QB2 22 RxB ; or lb) 20 . . . RxP 2 1 RxPch PxR 22 QxPch K-Q l 23 Q-R8ch K-Q2 24 Q-N7ch K-Q l , and White has the choice between winning his opponent 's Queen and mating in two by 25 Q­N8ch K-Q2 26 Q-B7 mate .

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Petroff Defense

2) 1 8 . . . PxB 1 9 RxB QR-K l 20 Q-K3 and wins .

19 RxB 20 RxB

QxP

SS

Better than first 20 QxQ RxQ, which would improve the position of the Black QR. The fact that White now gets two isolated Pawns on the Q-wing does not mean anything . White's Rook, which has penetrated into the Black position, can more easily capture Black's QRP and QNP than Black can capture White's Pawns on a2 and c3 .

20 • • • QxQ

If 20 . . . PxB 2 1 Q-QN3 , and White has a greater advantage than in the game, since he has the attack , and it is advantageous for him to maintain the Queens on the board.

21 PxQ PxB

Now what is White going to do in the endgame? For the moment, his QR cannot leave the l st rank . If he had already played P-KR3 , then 22 QR-K7 would be immediately decisive. In general , two Rooks on one's 7th rank constitute an important trump. If White now plays 22 P-KR3 to threaten to double the Rooks on the 7th rank, Black simply answers 22 . . . R-Q2, and White' s advantage is considerably de­creased. Therefore , he must find a more active move.

22 R-Nl(!)

This poses new problems for Black, since advancing his QNP is out

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56 Game 3

of the question, for then 23 RxQRP would demolish the entire Black Q-wing .

Also possible would have been 22 RxRP, but then perhaps Black would have obtained some counterchances by 22 . . . R-Q7 23 P­KR3 RxRP 24 QR-K7 R-N7, and then Black's QRP could become dangerous .

22 • • • R-N4

A good idea. Black hopes for 23 R/7xNP R-Q8ch ! 24 RxR KxR 25 R-Q7ch K-N3 26 RxKRP R-QR4 with some counterchances . Black' s only hope is to win White's QRP to obtain a passed Pawn of his own; that would put White on the defensive and allow Black to cross White' s plans with his own.

23 P-KR4!

This illustrates the slight disadvantage of Black's last move . It is a very strong reply, for it attacks the Black Rook and furnishes a flight-square for the White King, so that R/ 1 xP becomes a real threat .

23 • • • R-N4

Forced; otherwise 24 R/ lxP follows.

24 RxR 25 RxRP 26 K-Rl 27 RxRP

PxR R-Q8ch R-Q7

It 's ' 'catch as catch can , ' ' which is often the case in R + P endings when the Rook of each side has free access to the opponent 's Pawns .

27 • • • RxRP

Black has finally attained what he wished: a passed Pawn far from the field, which may distract White from his own plans .

The following moves show that White must play carefully to promote the advance of his own passed Pawns and to prevent the too rapid advance of the hostile passed Pawn .

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Petroff Defense

28 P-RS

White relies on the force of his passed RP.

28 • • • 29 R-R8ch 30 P-R6

RxP K-B2

White now threatens to queen by 3 1 P-R7 R-B2 32 R-B8ch.

30 • • •

57

Black removes his King from a square where it can be checked by the Rook on c8 . This enables him to answer 3 1 P-R7 by 3 1 . . . R-B2.

Now it looks as if White could have won simply by 3 1 P-R7 R-B2 32 P-N4 P-R4 33 P-N5? , but in that case Black could draw : 33 . . . R-N2 ! 34 K-R3 RxP 35 K-R4 (if 35 R-R8? R-R4ch, winning White's RP) and either 35 . . . R-N2 36 K-R5 P-N5 37 PxP PxP 38 K-R6 RxPch 39 RxR P-N6 40 K-N5 , and White must be satisfied with a draw, or 35 . . . R-N8 36 K-R5 P-N5 31 PxP PxP 38 R-KN8 R-R8ch 39 K-N6 P-N6 40 P-R8 =Q RxQ 41 RxR K-B4, and the game is also a draw .

If after 3 1 P-R7 R-B2 32 P-N4 P-R4 White plays 33 K-R3 , the game continues 33 . . . P-N5 34 PxP PxP 35 P-N5 R-N2 36 K-R4 P-N6 37 K-R5 P-N7 38 K-R6 P-N8 =Q, and White is lost .

31 K-R3

White unpins his NP so that it can advance and support the RP if necessary . If Black should now reply 3 1 . . . R-B8 with the idea of

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58 Game 3

32 . . . R-KR8 in order to tie down White 's KR to the protection of his RP, then 32 K-N4 so that the King itself can go to the support of its RP. The White Rook may be needed to stop the Black Pawns .

31 • • • 32 P-N4

P-R4

Because of 32 . . . R-B2, 32 P-R7 is still insufficient.

32 • • • 33 Px:P 34 R-K8

P-N5 Px:P

In time ! The White Pawns can now take care of themselves , and the White Rook is needed to stop the Black Pawn .

34 • • • R-B8

To get behind White's passed Pawns .

35 K-N2 36 P-N5

R-B2 R-B4

If 36 . . . P-N6, then 37 R-K3 decides .

37 P-R7

White can afford to sacrifice his NP.

37 • • • 38 K-B3 39 P-R8=Q 40 RxR

RxPch R-KR4 RxQ Resigns

Black's Pawn gets there too late . For instance, 40 . . . P-N6 41 K-K3 K-B4 42 K-Q3 K-N5 43 R-R8 , etc .

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Petroff Defense 59

Black wa.s defeated because , having lost time in the 8 . . . N-N5 line , he had to postpone castling . White took advantage of this in an imaginative way ( 14 B-R6) and chose the right lines in the ensuing complications .

In the instructive Rook endgame White did very well by advancing his own Pawns without , however , losing sight of Black' s ever­advancing passed Pawn .

Page 70: Chess Master

Game 4

The gambit

The King's Gambit and the Falkbeer Countergambit

The power of the White Knight on eS

Too passive a development

The importance of good defense when threatened by attack

The pawn storm against the unweakened King castled K-side

Getting the opponent's King into a mating net

The Attack against the Castled King behind an Unweakened Pawn Structure

In games in which the opposing sides castle on different wings , it is common for both sides to play for an attack against the opponent' s castled King . The side that can launch a successful attack first has a considerable advantage .

One of the most effective ways of attacking the King castled on the K-side is to advance one's Pawns toward it . The purpose of this pawn storm is to open a file along which to attack the defender's King . Since the attacker's King is castled on the Q-side , the pawn advance does not weaken his K-position .

If one of the Pawns in front of the defender's castled King has advanced, it is much easier for the attacker to make contact and to open the desired file . But if the defender's Pawns are still on his KB2 , KN2, and KR2 squares , then the problem i s much more difficult , for as the attacker's Pawns draw near the defender's Pawns , the latter can advance his Pawns in such a way as to close the position rather than allow it to be opened .

Once the defender has closed the position , the only opportunity the attacker has to open the file is by a piece sacrifice, with all the risks that this entails . The attacker must then consider the various pos­sibilities at his disposal , and the defender must also take these pos­sibilities into account .

If the attacker cannot force the situation , the advanced Pawns may

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Falkbeer Countergambit 61

become weak in the endgame . On the other hand , these Pawns may restrict the movements of the defender' s King and lead to threats along the attacker's 7th or Sth rank.

Falkbeer Countergambit Budapest - 1 971

Josef Farkas - Hungary

1 P-K4 2 P-KB4

The King's Gambit .

Lajos Szell - Hungary

P-K4

A gambit is the offer of one or more Pawns in return for a more rapid development . If the opponent accepts the gambit by taking the Pawn, the game becomes a struggle of time versus material . The player offering the gambit gets a lead in development ; his opponent captures one or more Pawns .

B y 2 P-KB4 White hopes through an exchange of Pawns to open his KB-file . If he succeeds , the possibilities of developing a strong attack against f7 are great . White will try to put his KB on c4 , his KN on e5 or g5 , his Queen on f3 , and his KR on f1 . With normal resistance from his opponent White will never be able to attain this position complete­ly , but he will strive for it .

If Black accepts the gambit by 2 . . . PxP, White will also have the possibility of eventually building a strong center by moves such as P-Q4 .

2 • . • P-Q4

The Falkbeer Countergambit . Instead of opening the KB-file by acceptipg the King's Gambit or

by allowing White to open it later by PxKP, Black poses a problem for White by this bold answer . If White replies 3 PxQP, as he usually does , Black's 3 . . . P-K5 acts as a deterrent to White 's development, and Black can win back his QP later . Moreover, White will not yet have been able to accomplish his design of opening the KB-file .

For some time the Falkbeer Countergambit seemed so strong that it was considered a kind of refutation of the King's Gambit. Nowadays opinion has changed . In most cases the Falkbeer Countergambit leads to equality . One of its main variations continues 3 PxQP P-K5 4 P-Q3 N-KB3 5 N-Q2 PxP 6 BxP NxP 7 Q-K2ch B-K2 with an even game .

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62 Game 4

3 N-KB3

Instead of the usual 3 PxQP, White chooses another system in which Black will still get a Pawn on e4, but White then gets his KN on the powerful outpost e5 .

3 • . . PxKP 4 N:xP

White now has a powerful Knight on e5 ; Black has a Pawn on e4 which restricts White's development but which has not prevented White from developing his KN freely , as is the case in the 3 PxQP P-K5 line .

4 . • • N-Q2

Black wants to eliminate White 's strongly posted Knight as soon as possible , even if he has to open the KB-file to do so .

Other possibilities :

1 ) 4 . . . P-KB3? 5 Q-R5ch P-N3 6 NxP, etc . ;

2) 4 . . . N-KB3 5 B-B4 2a) 5 . . . N-Q4? 6 NxP KxN 7 Q-R5ch K-K3 8 Q-K5ch , etc . ; 2b) 5 . . . B-K3 6 BxB PxB 7 P-Q4 , and White has a good game ; 2c) 5 . . . B-QB4 [see 4)] ;

3) 4 . . . B-Q3 5 Q-K2 Q-K2 6 QxP (a promising sacrifice) 6 . . . P-KB3 7 P-Q4 PxN 8 BPxP with a strong attack for White ;

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Falkbeer Countergambit 63

4) 4 . . . B-QB4 (an interesting gambit) 5 B-B4 N-KB3, and now after both 6 BxPch K-K2 and 6 NxP Q-Q5 the situation is very complicated (material against time) .

S P-Q4

White strengthens his center and his KN. But Black cannot allow White this strong center , so he plays

s . . . PxP e.p.

Now

l) 6 BxP NxN 7 PxN Q-R5ch 8 P-N3 Q-N5 is favorable for Black ;

2) 6 QxP NxN 7 QxQch KxQ 8 PxN B-K3 is also favorable for Black, for White's KP must become weak .

So 6 NxQP

The game is now about equal .

6 . • • 7 Q-B3

KN-B3

White 's Queen is rather active here . The disadvantage of playing the Queen out early is , in general , that it can then be attacked by the hostile Knights and Bishops , but here such attacks do not come into the picture .

The Knight , although well placed at d3 irrthat it controls b4 and c5 , does hamper the development of the White KB .

White 's KBP could be the cause of a weakness in a positional game, for e4 is not adequately protected, and the KBP at f 4 prevents White's QB from attacking at once . Here, however, that KBP proves to be a powerful first step in the pawn storm which will follow.

7 • • • B-K2

The best way for Black to build up a solid position would be by

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64 Game 4

7 . . . N-N3 followed by 8 . . . B-Q3 . This setup would also delay White's castling long because of a possible . . . B-KN5 .

8 N-BJ 9 B-Q2

0-0

Both sides have developed pieces , Black has castled, and White is about to castle . However , the White pieces are a little more actively placed, and White's KBP will prove to be the good beginning of a K-side attack .

9 • • • P-BJ(?)

A solid move played to deny White access to d5 . However, the move loses a tempo, and that Black should not be careless with his tempos in this position will be evident from what follows.

Black could have made a move with a threat and ought to have done so . Therefore 9 . . . N-N3 , preventing White from castling because of 10 . . . B-KN5 , would have been preferable . White would then have had to lose a tempo with 10 P-KR3 , and in this opening position a tempo does count .

10 0-0-0

White is now almost ready for his K-side attack .

10 • • • Q-B2(?)

Black is playing too passively and thereby facilitates White's at­tacking chances . Even now 10 . . . N-N3 would have been prefer­able , for among other things it threatens 1 1 . . . B-KN5 .

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Falkbeer Countergambit 65

11 P-KN4!

The beginning of a remarkable and powerful pawn storm, unusual because Black's K-wing has not been weakened by a pawn advance .

11 • • • P-QN4(?)

Black wants to counterattack against White' s castled King, but he would do better to look to his own defense . The right move is still 1 1 . . . N-N3 , for then if 12 P-N5 KN-Q4, where that Knight would be supported by the QN . Black should not answer 1 2 P-N5 by 1 2 . . . B-KN5 , for then 1 3 Q-N3 BxR 14 PxN, and White gets two pieces for R + P .

12 P-NS

Not 1 2 NxP? PxN 1 3 QxR B-N2 1 4 QxP R-R l , and Black regains the sacrificed material with advantage : 1 5 Q-N l BxR 1 6 QxB RxP 17 P-B3 (forced) 1 7 . . . NxP.

12 • • • N-Q4 13 R-Nl

To support the KNP so as to be able to advance the KBP. Not 1 3 NxN PxN 14 QxP because of 14 . . . B-N2 .

13 • • • N/2-N3

This frees Black's QB and strengthens his N/4 .

14 P-BS

The pawn storm continues . Now 15 P-B6 would be deadly . If , for instance, 14 . . . B-Q3 1 5 P-B6 and 1) 1 5 . . . P-N3 , White could continue either with 1 6 P-KR4 or 1 6 Q-B2 and 1 7 Q-R4; and 2) if Black played anything else on his 1 5th move, then White could continue with 1 6 PxP or 1 6 N-K4 followed by 1 7 PxP, etc .

Therefore, practically forced is

14 • • • P-B3

With 1 5 PxP White could open the KN-file for himself, but that

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66 Game 4

would not accomplish much after 1 5 . . . BxP, for Black would be able to defend, and the White pieces would not be well placed for a vertical attack against the well-defended Black KNP.

Instead, White now gives Black the opportunity to close the posi­tion, since his own position is so strong that he can afford to break open a Black closed position with a sacrifice .

15 P-N6

White is now threatening 1 6 PxPch KxP 1 7 Q-R5ch K-N l 1 8 RxPch KxR 1 9 B-R6ch and wins . Therefore , Black cannot allow White to open his KR-file and plays

15 . . . P-KR3

Now White's attack seems to be stopped, but Black has to take into consideration the sacrifice BxP PxB ; P-N7 ! followed by placing the Queen on the KR-file , as happens later . White cannot afford to sacrifice his Bishop immediately , for if 1 6 BxP PxB 1 7 P-N7 R-B2 1 8 Q-R5 B-Q3 1 9 QxP RxP 20 B-K2, and Black can defend himself with 20 . . . B-B l .

16 N-K4

Before attacking , one must put one's pieces on the best squares . Moreover, White did not like the possibility of . . . NxN; BxN, which would deflect his QB from its proper diagonal .

16 . . . R-Ql?

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Falk.beer Countergambit 67

Now White's sacrifice will be decisive, since after the sacrifice 17 BxP and 1 8 P-N7 , Black's Rook can no longer go to f7 . Black should have played 1 6 . . . B-Ql , giving added protection to Black's 2d rank .

17 BxP

White must not delay the sacrifice , for after a possible . . . B-B 1 the combination may be unsound. It will be unsound as soon as it is impossible for White to play P-N7 and if Black's KRP is protected by his Bishop.

17 • • • PxB 18 P-N7

White now threatens 1 9 Q-R5 , 20 QxRP, 2 1 Q-R8ch, and Black has little possibility of defense .

18 • • • N-QBS

Hoping in two more moves to bring his Knight to f7 .

19 Q-RS 20 NxN

N-Q3

Not 20 QxP because of 20 . . . N-B2, which defends against mate

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68 Game 4

so th!lt the attack is momentarily stopped. Notice that the Knight White brought to e4 on the 16th move has prevented Black's N/3 from going to the rescue on f7 .

20 • • • 21 QxP

BxN

Note that because Black has a Rook on d8 , the simplifying 2 1 . . . B-B5ch does not work on account of 2 2 NxB QxNch 2 3 QxQ NxQ 24 Rx.Reh.

21 • . • BxBP

This threatens to simplify by 22 . . . B-B5ch, for now the Black KR is protected by his QR and g8 is protected by both Black Rooks . As long as it was protected by only one Rook, White could queen successfully . Now he cannot .

But White still has the initiative and a number of open lines at his disposal . He must find the right moves to get the Black King into a mating net . With all his resources this should not be difficult .

22 Q-R8ch 23 Q·RSch

K-B2

Notice how White takes advantage of the presence of Black' s loose Bishop. For that reason the Black King cannot return to g8 , for after 24 QxB White has a plus Pawn and a powerful position .

23 • • • K-K3

The only way to prevent the loss of the B/4, for if Black lost it , White would have a won game .

24 R-Klch B-K4

The only move . If 24 . . . K-Q2 25 QxB mate .

Page 79: Chess Master

Falkbeer Countergambit

25 QxBch! !

25 • • • K-Q3

If 25 . . . KxQ, then 26 B-R3 mate .

26 Rx8 27 QxPch 28 B-R3 mate

PxR K-Ql

69

Black lost this game partly because he played too passively at the beginning of the middle game . As a result , White's attack-a pawn storm against an unweakened King's position-developed very rapid­ly and met with complete success when Black , at a certain point , failed to make the proper defense .

Page 80: Chess Master

Game 5

General ideas behind the French Defense

The 3 • . • N-KB3 line of the Tarrasch Variation

Pawn chain technique

Advantage and dangers of the extended pawn chain

Demolishing the pawn chain

Playing against the uncastled King without Queens on the board

The Pawn Chain As opposed to the opening and the endgame, the middle game is the

phase of chess about which it is most difficult to generalize or to give specific rules because its positions are so numerous and so varied . There are , however, certain types of middle game positions which have been studied and which may often be handled by a standard type of procedure .

One of these is the interlocking pawn chain , in which two or more White and Black Pawns are in diagonal formation on adjacent squares . The most advanced Pawn of the chain is known as its head or spearhead; the least advanced is called the base of the pawn chain .

The usual way of trying to undermine the opponent's part of the pawn chain is to attack the base of his chain with a Pawn . If the latter wishes to maintain his pawn chain-as he usually does-he is forced

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French Defense: Tarrasch Variation 71

to reinforce it by protecting its base with an adjacent Pawn . This gives the attacker the option either of extending the pawn chain by pushing his own Pawn forward or of exchanging Pawns at the base , in which case that base may become weak and subject to attack .

Since it is usually desirable to break up an opponent ' s pawn chain, it is sometimes also effective to attack the head of his pawn chain . In such cases , the pawn chain will either be broken up if the other side exchanges Pawns or if he reinforces it with one of his own Pawns , a file may be opened which could lead to attacking possibilities .

Referring to the above diagram in which the interlocking pawn chain consists of the White Pd4 + Pe5 and the Black Pd5 + Pe6 , what follows illustrates the various types of moves which can be made under pawn chain circumstances :

(a) 1 . . . P-QB4

(b) 2 P-QB3 • . .

(c) 3 . . . P-BS

(d) 3 • • • P-KB3

(e) 4 P-KB4 . . .

(f) 4 PxKBP • . •

attack on White's base d4

strengthening of White's pawn center

extension of Black's pawn chain

attack on White's spearhead eS

strengthening of White's pawn chain

breaking up the pawn chain

If , after White has strengthened his pawn chain by 4 P-KB4, it is possible for Black to attack both the head at e5 by 4 . . . P-KB3 and the adjacent base of the pawn chain at f4 by 5 . . . P-N4, the whole pawn chain may be broken up with good prospects for the attacker .

Pawn chains are normally found i n openings such as the French Defense and the King's Indian , and in such openings the pawn-chain technique described above is regularly employed .

French Defense - Tarrasch Variation Team Match, Poland vs. EasJ Germany

Zacopaane, Poland - 1 974

Jezzy Kostro­Poland

1 P-K4

Wolfgang Uhlmann­East Germany

P-K3

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72 Game s

Instead of occupying the center by 1 . . . P-K4, Black p1ans to al1ow White to build up his center by 2 P-Q4 and then to undermine it by such moves as 2 . . . P-Q4 and, after preparation , by . . . P-QB4. He also leaves to White the question of whether to advance his KP to KS , to exchange it by PxP, or to retain tension in the center by N-QB3. Each of these lines leads to a different type of game.

The French Defense is in reality a preparation for an attack against White 's center . Sometimes it can lead to a strong counterattack against the White position , but often it results in a cramped position for Black and especial1y in an inadequately protected K-side .

2 P-Q4 P-Q4

Now White could reply 3 N-QB3 (the Classical Line) , 3 PxP (the Exchange Variation) , or 3 P-K5 pushing his Pawn , but instead he replies

3 N-Q2

The Tarrasch Variation . This move has become more usual than the Classical 3 N-QB3 because when the latter is answered by 3 . . . B­N5 (the Winawer Variation), White does not have sufficient pos­sibilities to play for a win . On the other hand, White has more opportunities after 3 N-QB3 N-KB3 4 B-KN5 B-K2 5 P-K5 .

White ' s advantage in the Tarrasch Variation is that although his QN is still directed toward the center as far as White' s KP is concerned, the possibility of Black's pinning the White Knight by 3 . . . B-N5 is avoided . One of its disadvantages is that his QN is not directed against Black' s QP, which makes it possible for Black to play 3 . . . P-QB4 advantageously at once .

Usual1y Black now answers 3 . . . P-QB4, and for a long time this was considered the strongest reply . But this reply simplifies after 4 PxQP KPxP 5 KN-B3 N-QB3 6 B-N5 B-Q3 7 PxP BxP 8 N-N3 B-Q3 9 0-0 KN-K2 , and although Black has an isolated QP, his develop­ment is quite an right , and many games , especial1y in the Karpov­Korchnoi match in 1974, have proved that it is difficult , if not impossible , for White to get an advantage in it .

On the other hand , Black also has only drawing chances . Therefore

3 . . . N-KB3

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French Defense: Tarrasch Variation 73

This variation is not inferior and affords Black more opportunities to struggle. It immediately poses a problem for White , whose KP is attacked. On the other hand, it is a more difficult variation for Black to handle .

The game could now continue 4 B-Q3 P-B4 and

1) 5 KPxP, which is doubtful because of 5 . . . QxP, attacking White's QP and KNP simultaneously ; or

2) 5 P-K5 KN-Q2 6 P-QB3, which results in almost the same position as in the game.

Or White could play 4 PxP, which leads to the Exchange Variation of the French (usually arising after 1 P-K4 P-K3 2 P-Q4 P-Q4 3 PxP PxP) , which often results in an early draw.

But this game continues

4 P-KS 5 P-KB4

KN-Q2

,. White wishes to give additional support to his advanced KP, and he

is apparently very eager to maintain his advanced pawn chain . In many variations of the French Defense White ' s advanced KP is attacked by . . P-KB3 and in most cases the White KP disappears , a consequence of which may be that Black will get good counterchances .

White seems to consider having an advanced pawn chain very important , and, in this game , consistent with his idea, he tries to maintain his spearhead on e5 . Whether this is good or bad is difficult to say . Eventual attack on e5 , the spearhead of White' s pawn chain ,

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74 Game s

by . . . P-KB3 does not accomplish anything if Black cannot follow up with . . . P-KN4, thus trying to demolish the whole White pawn chain . This will be illustrated later in the game .

The normal continuation at this point is 5 B-Q3 P-QB4 6 P-QB3 N-QB3 7 N-K2 .

5 • . . P-QB4

The usual way to attack the base of an interlocking pawn chain . By continuing . . . PxP , Black now has the possibility of opening the QB-file as an avenue of attack whenever he · wishes .

Attacking not only the base of a pawn chain but also attacking its head (in this case e5) is often useful for breaking up the opponent' s pawn chain . But in this game Black should not attack White' s spearhead a t e5 too early because then after a move like 6 B-Q3 White threatens 7 Q-R5ch .

It is interesting to note that long before the hypermoderns the idea of first allowing White to build up a center and then undermining it was developed in the French Defense . However , in the French the idea of bringing pressure against the center from afar by fianchettoed Bishops is not normally found, and therein the French Defense differs from the Indian defenses .

6 P-B3

White supports his QP, and so Black could now play 6 . . . P-B5 , extending the pawn chain and making c 3 White 's new base . However, then the center is completely closed , which may give White an opportunity to intensify his play on the K-side .

Or Black could open the QB-file by 6 . . . PxP , but there is nothing in particular to be gained by it. So instead he increases the pressure on d4 by

6 . . . N-QB3

Black develops his QN to its most effective square and is now attacking White' s QP twice , so that the Pawn must be defended once more or be exchanged.

The normal way to defend it would be by 7 KN-B3 , but experience has shown that developing the Knights in this way does not contribute most effectively to White's mobility . Rather , the KN should be developed to e2 so that the QN has the choice of going to b3 or f3 now

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French Defense: Tarrasch Variation 75

or later . However, for attacking purposes QN-B3 is preferable . In order to protect his QP without shutting in his KB , White plays in accordance with the general strategy .

7 QN-B3 B-K2

According to current opinion, 7 . . . Q-R4 (which Black will play on his next move) should be played at this point . In accordance with White 's concept, the White King would have to go to f2 after 7 . . . Q-R4. But Black postpones . . . Q-R4 until his 8th move , and at that point the White King need not go to f2 but should instead go to f 1 , which the White KB will have vacated in the meantime . Explana­tions follow Black' s 1 0 . . . P-B3 .

8 B-Q3

The normal attack square for White' s KB . From here it is directed against Black's K-side and in particular against h7 . In due time White can develop his KN to e2 , where it will furnish additional support to his QP.

8 • • • Q-R4

Threatening 8 . . . PxP and even 8 . . . NxQP. If White now protects his QP by 9 N-K2, there may follow 9 . . .

PxP 10 KNxP, when the idea behind Black' s 8th move becomes clear and the p�wn chain has been weakened . Black can , for instance , continue by 10 . . . NxN 1 1 NxN N-B4 1 2 B-B2 Q-R3 .

9 K-B2(?)

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76 Game s

White gets his King off the a5/e I diagonal just to maintain his pawn chain at its full strength . So far this is consistent , but 9 K-B l would have been better , for the King is more exposed on f2, as we shall see . According to Uhlmann' s notes Black would then have followed a completely different line : 9 . . . P-QN4 followed by 1 0 . . . P-N5 , attacking the pawn chain from the other end .

On the other hand, 9 B-Q2 to break the indirect diagonal attack on the White King is not good because of 9 . . . Q-N3 , attacking White' s Pawns a t b2 and d4 simultaneously .

The reader may wonder why White does not mind giving · up castling . The function of castling is to put the King in a safe spot and to develop the Rook. If the King can go to a safe square without castling , this may be just as good as castling . We'll see that on the KB-file the White King is eventually exposed to some dangers . They are not too serious , and by continuing properly White could have avoided them.

9 • . . Q-N3

Black attacks White' s QP a third time.

10 N-K2 P-B3

Black attacks the spearhead of the pawn chain , which is the more appropriate now because the White King is on the KB-file . Another disadvantage of the position of the White King is that White's QP is pinned , so that Black threatens I I . . . PxQP, and if 1 2 BPxP PxP 1 3 PxP KNxP 14 NxN NxN, winning a Pawn; if 1 2 N/2xP PxP, etc . , and the White KP is also lost .

We now see the difference between the King's being on f2 or f l . If White had played 9 K-B l instead of 9 K-B2, the threat of I I . . . PxQP followed by 12 . . . PxKP, winning a Pawn, would not exist , and White could continue by 1 1 P-KN3 and 1 2 K-N2 .

1 1 Q-N3

This is perhaps the only move which will parry Black's threat . After the exchange of Queens the direct attack against White' s KP is over .

White could not have played 1 1 PxKBP, for after 1 1 . . . BxP the pressure against White 's QP is increased; in addition, with 1 1 PxKBP White would have given up his original idea of maintaining the advanced pawn chain .

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French Defense: Tarrasch Variation 77

For the same reason White does not play 1 1 Q-B2 with the continua­tion 1 1 . . . PxQP 1 2 N/2xP ( 1 2 PxQP does not work because of 1 2 . . . N-N5) 1 2 . . . PxP 1 3 PxP N/2xP 1 4 BxP NxN/6 1 5 PxN NxN, and White can keep Black from castling by giving a check on g6 . Nonetheless, Black's chances in this wild variation are best, for the White King is more vulnerable than the Black one .

11 • . • QxQ

Black has confidence in his possibilities in the endgame .

12 PxQ 13 PxQP

PxQP

White now has a doubled isolated Pawn, but practical play indicates that in many cases the open R-file is adequate compensation .

Also, after 1 3 N/2xP (attacking Black's KP) 1 3 . . . N-B4 1 4 B-B2 PxP 1 5 PxP O-O (threatening both 1 6 . . . NxKP and 1 6 . . . N­K5ch) 1 6 R-K1 NxN 1 7 PxN N-R3 Black has somewhat the best of it .

13 • • • 0-0

Before going into action Black first mobilizes his KR.

14 B-Q2?

To develop his Bishop and to be prepared for defense . Correct was 1 4 P-R4 in order not to allow Black' s next move, which really breaks up the �awn chain and throws White's position into disarray .

14 • • . P-KN4!

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78 Game s

An optimal attack against what is left of White' s pawn chain . After 1 5 PxNP there would follow 1 5 . . . PxKP with clear

superiority for Black . We see here how the unfavorable position of White' s King has promoted the success of Black's maneuvers .

Black also attains superiority if White should try to maintain his pawn chain by 1 5 P-N3 . Black answers 1 5 . . . P-N5 , and now 1 ) 1 6 N-R4 PxP 1 7 PxP N/2xP, winning a Pawn; 2 ) 1 6 PxP BxP 17 N-R4 ( 1 7 N-K5 BxN 1 8 PxB N/2xP) 1 7 . . . NxP, also winning a Pawn .

The text involves an eventual pawn sacrifice .

15 .PxBP 16 PxP

BxP B-N2

Black could . have recaptured the Pawn immediately by 1 6 . . . BxPch 1 7 NxB NxN , but he rightly preferred to keep his Bishop since he was convinced that he would recapture his Pawn under better circumstances in the long run because of the possibility of advancing in the center . Again we see how unfavorably situated the White King is on a semiopen file . Moreover , according to Uhlmann' s analysis White stands better after ( 1 6 . . . BxPch 1 7 NxB NxN) 1 8 B-N4 R-B2 1 9 P-N6 PxP 20 BxP R-B3 2 1 B-B3 P-K4 22 BxN PxB 23 B-B2 N-B4 24 KR-Ql .

17 B-B3

Directed against the advance of Black ' s center Pawns, but his gesture is futile .

17 • . • P-K4

This is in accordance with Black's strategic plan to open up the center in order to take maximum advantage of the badly placed White King .

18 PxP

Forced , for otherwise 1 8 . . . P-K5 wins a piece for Black both by the Bishop-Knight fork and by the Knight pin .

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French Defense: Tarrasch Variation 79

18 . • • N/2xP

If now 1 9 B-B2 , then 1 9 . . . B-N5 , and in order to protect his KN White must play 20 N-N l , shutting in his KR .

19 KR-Ql

At the same time protecting his Bishop and getting his KR into play before N/2-N l becomes necessary .

19 • • • B-NS

The beginning of the attack on the Knight , which is a buffer for the White King .

20 N-Nl P-QS.

With White' s Knight pinned by both Bishop and Rook , Black can now advance his center Pawn to restrict White 's activity even more .

21 B-Kl

It does not matter whether the Bishop first goes to R5 , after which 2 1 . . . P-N3 would drive it back to K l .

21 • • • 22 RxN

NxBch N-K4

Notice how Black has strengthened his attack by this exchange . White' s Rook cannot remain on its 3d rank . Neither can White answer 23 RxP, for then 23 . . . NxN, attacking the Rook with both Knight and Bishop, wins either the Exchange or a piece .

23 R-Q2 R-84

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80 Game s

This move serves two purposes : to enable Black to double the Rooks and to capture White's advanced KNP, each at the proper time .

24 P-R3?

To force Black' s QB to a decision . It also keeps the Black Knight from going to g4, but this is only incidental .

After 24 P-R4! QR-KB 1 25 RxRP BxN 26 NxB NxN 27 PxN RxPch 28 K-N2 RxP Black will probably win due to the greater activity of his Rooks and the possession of a passed Pawn . But he would have had more trouble in winning than after the text .

After 24 P-R3? things go more easily for Black .

24 • • • 25 NxB

BxN P-QR3

Black is not in a hurry . Before continuing the attack he protects his QRP.

26 K-K2

It is understandable that White wishes to get out from under the annoying pin . He moves his King to e2 because his Knight must be protected by two pieces . It would have been a little better to play 26 K-N3 , but after 26 . . . NxN 27 PxN RxNPch Black also stands better .

26 • • . NxN

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French Defense: Tarrasch Variation 81

To win back his Pawn and to give White a still less favorable pawn configuration .

27 PxN 28 K-Ql

R-Klch

After 28 K-B2 Black has the choice between capturing the KNP and playing 28 . . . R-K6.

28 • • • RxBP 29 P-R4

Now 29 . . . RxNP would be too meager a reward for all of Black's activities . After 30 K-B2 R-KR6 31 R-Q3 White can stop Black's further advance .

29 • • • P-Q6

With the text Black threatens to win immediately by 30 . . . R-B8.

30 R-KR2

To make room for the King on the 2d rank . But 30 R-KB2 would not do because of 30 . . . RxR 3 1 BxR R-K7 .

30 • • • 31 K-Q2

32 R-R2

R-B8 BxP

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82 Game s

If 32 R-Nl B-R6 (threatening 33 . . . B-N5ch) 33 P-N4 R/8xB ! 34 RxR BxPch .

32 • • • 33 R-KB2 34 Resigns

B-K4 B-BSch

For if 34 RxB (giving up the Exchange) 34 . . . RxR, and if 34 KxP R/ l xB . In both cases Black's material advantage is amply sufficient for the win .

White set for himself an ambitious goal of maintaining a strong but vulnerable advanced pawn chain; this gave him on the one hand a promising development , on the other the obligation to fight against Black's attempts to break up his pawn structure . When White failed to prevent the most dangerous Black move aimed at destroying his pawn formation, Black emerged with an advantageous endgame position which, thanks to his ingenious moves , he turned into a won ending .

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Game 6

The ideas behind the Alekhine Defense

The pawn salient

A Knight sacrifice to take advantage of the weakness of the diagonal

The problem of a safe retreat for the Knight

The King exposed to the combined attack of the Queen and the Rook

Maintaining the balance through exchanges

The Pawn Salient

Another pawn formation which requires a special type of play is the pawn salient . This formation is in reality an interlocking pawn chain in which one side (White in the diagram) has two spearheads (Pc5 , Pe5) and one base (Pd4) and the other (Black in t'he diagram) two bases (Pc6, Pe6) and one spearhead (Pd5) .

The side whose salient has two spearheads will try to advance the Pawns adjacent to his spearheads (in the diagram White will try to advance his QNP and his KBP) in order to attack the bases of his opponent' s salient . The side whose salient has two bases will attempt to attack the spearheads of his opponent' s salient (in the diagram Black will try to attack with his QNP and his KBP) since the base of White's salient cannot be attacked .

Sometimes the side with the salient having two spearheads has

83

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84 Game 6

doubled Pawns in a file adjacent to the opposing spearhead; in this situation, too, the salient can be attacked . For example, if White in the diagram had a second and less advanced Pawn on either his QB- or K-file , he could advance it in such a way as to attack the spearhead of Black's salient at d5 .

In still other cases , where neither the base nor the spearhead of the salient can be attacked by Pawns, the player can sometimes try to break up his opponent' s pawn salient by tactical means , that is , by the timely and adequately compensated sacrifice of a piece.

Alekhine Defense World Championship Match, Game 1 9

Reykjavik, Iceland - 1 972

Boris Spassky - USSR

1 P-K4

Robert Fischer - USA

N-KB3

As in the French and Caro-Kann defenses , Black does not occupy his K4-square with a Pawn in the Alekhine Defense; rather he leaves White the option of deciding what to do about the center , that is , whether or not to continue 2 P-KS . In the Alekhine Defense the Black KN attacks the White KP directly , but by 2 P-KS White can drive away the Black Knight and build up a strong center .

Alekhine first played this defense at a time when the occupation of the center with Pawns was considered all important , and the fact that with 2 P-KS White could drive the Black Knight away caused other masters of that time to take this defense very lightly and not to consider it seriously . Later these masters began to realize that the resultant White pawn center can often become vulnerable and can constitute a welcome target of attack for Black . This is also the case in certain other modern openings , especially in some variations of the Griinfeld Defense and of the King's Indian , which begin with a QP open­ing .

2 P-KS

The usual continuation , which will lead to the type of center described above . If White plays 2 N-QB3 instead, Black has the choice of returning to classical lines by playing 2 . . . P-K4 (the Vienna Opening) or he can play 2 . . . P-Q4 .

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Alekhine Defense 85

2 • • . N-Q4 3 P-Q4

White occupies the center and opens lines for piece development .

3 . . . P-Q3

Black develops an immediate attack against White 's center-and in this defense the sooner he does so the better . His further plans will depend on White's reaction to the text.

If Black should fail to do this and play, for instance , 3 . . . N-QB3, then Black would get into difficulties after 4 P-QB4 N-N3(?) 5 P-Q5 NxKP 6 P-B5 N/3-B5 7 Q-Q4 P-QN4 8 PxP e .p . B-R3 9 P-QN3 and wins one of the Knights . If 3 . . . P-K3 4 P-QB4 N-N3 5 P-B4 P-Q3 6 N-QB3, Black has shut out his QB , which is often very effective on f5 . Thus White has been able to build up a broader and stronger center with P-KB4 soon to be followed by N-KB3, against which Black will scarcely be able to play successfully . Compare this comment to the second paragraph under White 's next move .

4 N-KB3

White strengthens his center to support the attacked KP so that if the game continued 4 . . . PxP 5 NxP, White' s Knight would have an excellent outpost at e5 . The Knight cannot be driven back by 5 . . . P­KB3 because of 6 Q-R5ch; Black cannot answer 5 . . . N-Q2 because of 6 NxP KxN 7 Q-R5ch K-K3 8 P-QB4, and Black has nothing better than to return the piece, for after 8 . . . N/4-B3 9 P-Q5ch K-Q3 10 B-B4ch K-B4 1 1 P-N4ch KxP 1 2 Q-B3, etc .

D

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86 Game 6

The game could also continue 4 P-QB4 N-N3 5 P-B4 PxP 6 BPxP N-B3 7 B-K3 (not 7 N-KB3 because of 7 . . . B-N5) 7 . . . B-B4 8 N-QB3 P-K3 . This variation has advantages and disadvantages which counterbalance each other . Again , compare with the last paragraph of the comment on Black's previous move .

4 • • • B-NS

The normal reply. Black prepares to play . . . PxP after which White will have to retake with his Pawn , which may then become weak . This move constitutes a second unit of pressure against White ' s KP .

In Game 1 3 of the same match , Fischer played 4 . . . P-KN3 . But after 5 B-QB4 N-N3 6 B-N3 B-N2 . White can launch a promising initiative by 7 N-N5 , and if 7 . . . 0-0 8 P-K6. In that game Spassky replied 7 QN-Q2 and did not get any special advantage out of the opening .

5 B-Kl

In order to be able to answer 5 . . . PxP by 6 NxP .

5 • • • P-K3

All according to the theoretical line . Black could have tried to saddle his opponent with a vulnerable

Pawn on e5 by 5 . . . BxN 6 BxB PxP. However, in this position White can continue with 7 P-B4, winning the Exchange (7 . . . N-N3 8 BxP) . In general , it is doubtful whether Black's exchange of a Bishop for a Knight would give him concrete results . He loses the minor exchange and brings White ' s Bishop to a better square .

6 0-0 B-Kl

Sometimes Black develops his QN at this move or soon after . With 6 . . . N-QB3 Black threatens 7 . . . BxN, winning a Pawn . Be­cause this Knight move is postponed, White is not obliged to exchange Pawns at d6 at this time; that this makes some difference in the continuation becomes clear after Black's l Oth move and is explained there .

With 6 . . . N-QB3 Black can force his opponent to simplify more

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Alekhine Defense 87

rapidly in the center , but this is not to his advantage ; e .g . , 7 P-B4 N-N3 8 PxP PxP 9 N-B3 B-K2 10 P-Q5 ! PxP 1 1 NxP, which will lead to a better game for White . It would be risky for Black to play for the win of a Pawn by 1 1 . . . BxN 1 2 BxB NxP, for White recaptures the sacrificed Pawn with a better position by 1 3 R-Kl 0-0 1 4 NxBch NxN 1 5 BxP R-N l 1 6 B-B3 and Black has a weak Pawn, whereas White has the Bishop pair. At this point Black cannot continue 1 6 . . . NxP? , for he loses a piece after 1 7 Q-K2, attacking both Knights .

7 P-KR3

Usually this move is played at a later stage of the game, but it seems to be quite playable here also , since 7 . . . BxN 8 BxB N-QB3 (again not 8 . . . PxP because of 9 P-B4 N-N3 10 BxP, etc . ) leads to an excellent position for White after 9 P-B4 N-N3 1 0 PxP PxP 1 1 P-QN3 . This move is made now because in such positions if Black does not exchange, in general White will later have the possibility of eliminat­ing the pin by P-KN4.

7 • • • B-R4 8 P-B4

This move has to be played sooner or later in order to extend the center and to make it more useful . But now White' s QBP may become more vulnerable .

8 • . . N-N3 9 N-B3

White maintains the tension in the cente�. but by so doing he enables Black to win a Pawn .

At this point most games continue 9 PxP PxP 10 N-B3, for it is easier for White not to be faced with the continual possibility of . . . PxP; PxP QxQ or . . . PxP; NxP BxB ; QxB QxP.

9 . . • 0-0

The plausible alternative 9 . . . BxN 10 BxB NxP fails against both 1 1 Q-R4ch and 1 1 BxP. Furthermore, it should be noted that 9 . . . PxP I 0 NxP BxB I I QxB QxP is very risky on account of I 2

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88 Game 6

R-Ql Q-B4 1 3 P-QN4 QxNP 1 4 N-N5 N-R3 (if 1 4 . . . B-Ql then 1 5 RxBch, etc . ) 1 5 B-R3 Q-R4 1 6 BxB KxB 1 7 Q-N4 with all sorts of threats . White has ample compensation for the sacrificed material .

10 B-K3

A developing move which centralizes and at the same time prevents the above-mentioned 9 . . . PxP combination because now White's QP is protected .

10 • • • P-Q4

If instead 1 0 . . . N-B3 , then after l l PxP PxP 1 2 P-Q5 positions similar to those in the comments under Black' s 6th move would come about. Some possibilities :

1 ) 1 2 . . . PxP 1 3 NxP BxN (playing for the win of a Pawn, but this is not correct) 14 BxN! BxB ? (after 1 4 . . . PxB 1 5 BxB White also stands better) 1 5 BxQ BxQ 1 6 BxB ! , and White wins the Exchange: 1 6 . . . B-K7 1 7 KR-K l or 16 . . . KR-K l 1 7 QRxB NxB 1 8 N-B7 .

2) 1 2 . . . BxN 1 3 BxB 2a) 1 3 . . . PxP 1 4 BxP NxB 1 5 NxN with some advantage to White ; 2b) 1 3 . . . N-K4 1 4 PxP PxP 1 5 B-N4! (much better than l 5 BxP , after which 1 5 . . . R-N l recaptures the Pawn with a satisfactory position) . In the final position, White stands a little better .

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Alekhine Defense 89

Our conclusion is that with 10 . . . N-B3 Black could not have obtained complete equality . The same is the case after 10 . . . QN­Q2 1 1 PxP PxP 1 2 P-QN3 with a clear preponderance in space for White . Fischer' s continuation, also possible , leads to great complications .

However the text is not without risk , as is shown by what follows .

11 P-BS

To gain terrain and to put Black' s Knight into a bad position . If White had prepared this advance by first playing l l P-KN4 B-N3 1 2 P-B5 N-B5 1 3 BxN PxB , the advanced and separated B P would have gotten help from its QB .

To be considered was 1 1 P-QN3 , but apparently White was of the opinion that Black could not afford . . . N-B5 .

After 1 1 P-B5 an immediate 1 1 . . . N-B5 would lose a Pawn after 1 2 BxN PxB 1 3 Q-K2. Black therefore inserts

11 • • • BxN

To make 1 2 . . . N-B5 possible . If now 1 2 PxN BxB 1 3 PxBP QxP 14 QxB , chances are equal .

It is always necessary to calculate all possible moves in advance, especially when there is a series of take and retake moves and many pieces en prise . One has to continue the analysis to the point where no more pieces can be exchanged .

12 BxB N-BS

It is better to play the Knight here where it commands greater space than to retire it to c8 which would cramp the Black position .

13 P-QN3

White does not wish to leave the Black Knight in this commanding position, and he does not mind if Black answers 1 3 . . . NxB , for then after 14 PxN he gets the open KB-file .

After 1 3 B-B 1 Black gets a good game with 1 3 . . . P-QN3 , for if 14 P-QN4 P-QR4, and White has no time to take advantage of the vulnerable position of Black' s Knight . To be considered is 1 3 P-QN4

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P-QN3 14 R-B l with the pretty threat 1 5 NxP! PxN 16 RxN, which Black parries however by 14 . . . P-QB3 and maintains equality .

13 • • • 14 PxN

NxB

A pawn salient (Pc5-Pd4-Pe5) has arisen on the board, and Black has to consider how to deal with it . It has two spearheads , one at c5 , the other at e5 . These spearheads give White a considerable prepon­derance in space, and Black should therefore attack one of them immediately . The question is : Should he attack c5 or e5 ?

14 . • • P-QN3

The disadvantage of this move for Black is that the a8/h 1 diagonal is partially opened, but the continuation of the game will show that despite the inconveniences this will cause him, he can hold his own in practically all variations .

It would be safer to attack the e5 spearhead, perhaps by first preparing the attack with 14 . . . N-B3 . For instance :

1 ) 14 . . . P-KB3 l a) 15 P-K4 PxP/5 1 6 BxP N-B3 17 BxN (practically forced because White cannot protect d4---if 1 7 N-K2? NxQP! , etc . ) 17 . . . PxB 1 8 Q-N4 P-B4, and in spite of Black's doubled Pawns his chances are certainly as good as White' s , for the latter' s QP is weak and his Knight has no good way of becoming active; lb) 15 B-N4 Q-Q2 (after 15 . . . P-B4 16 B-K2 White has a freer game) 16 PxP BxP 17 P-N4 with slight superiority for White .

2) 14 . . . N-B3 ! (to prevent the 1 5 P-K4 defense) 1 5 R-N l (so as to be able to play P-QN4) 15 . . . P-B3 16 PxP BxP 17 P-QN4, and White 's advantage, if any, is minimal . If after 17 . . . P-QR3 1 8 P-QR4, White should succeed in driving away Black's QN by 19 P-N5 , this Knight will find a good square on c4 after . . . Px­NP; PxNP N-R4.

15 P-K4!

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Alekhine Defense 91

A very strong reply which accentuates the weakness of Black's 14 . . . P-QN3 by pressing along the diagonal at the end of which Black's QR is stationed .

15 . • . P-QB3

Black must protect his QP, and with this move Black creates an interlocking pair of pawn chains.

Not 15 . . . PxBP because of 16 PxQP BPxP 17 PxP (stronger than 1 7 P-Q6 PxP 1 8 BxR PxN, and the situation is unclear) 1 7 . . . P­QB3 ( 1 7 . . . PxN? 1 8 BxR) 1 8 PxPch RxP 19 N-K4 with clear superiority for White .

16 P-QN4

The logical move to support White's QBP. White also plans to follow up with P-N5 , undermining Black's pawn formation and taking away the protection from Black' s QP. There is an attack against both the base and the head of Black's pawn chain .

16 • . . PxBP

Black makes this exchange to avoid a possible P-N5 and to open up the possibility of . . . Q-R4.

If 1 6 . . . P-QR4, which is more consistent with the type of play recommended by the pawn chain theory, White would simply answer 1 7 P-R3 , and the situation would not have changed .

17 NPxP Q-R4

Black now counterattacks because he feels that if he fails to do so, White will develop a strong pressure position which would inhibit Black from developing freely . The disadvantage of the text is that White can now make a very promising sacrifice .

Another possibility is 17 . . . B-N4 1 8 Q-R4 Q-B2 19 K-Rl , but then it is White who determines the course of affairs .

18 NxP!

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92 Game 6

A brilliant sacrifice which Black cannot afford to accept :

1 ) 1 8 . . . KPxN 1 9 PxP and White gets at least the Exchange or a third Pawn for the sacrificed Knight, and so one must conclude that acceptance would have led to Black' s defeat ;

l a) 1 9 . . . PxP 20 BxP N-Q2 2 1 BxR RxB 22 RxP! KxR 23 Q-B3ch, and White has material superiority ; lb) 1 9 . . . N-R3 20 P-Q6 B-N4 2 1 BxP, and the connected passed Pawns will soon prove their force .

2) 1 8 . . . BPxN 1 9 PxP N-Q2 20 P-Q6 B-N4 2 1 BxR RxB 22 RxP, etc .

Since Black cannot accept the sacrifice , White would seem to win a Pawn by the combination . However , a new element enters into the picture : Can the Knight return safely? If White had a Pawn at a3 instead of a2 , there would be no problem in this regard .

18 . . . B-N4!

Black refuses the sacrifice but now controls e3 and f 4 and thus eliminates the possibility of the Knight' s returning safely . This may enable him to accept White's proffered sacrifice at a more favorable time .

If White's Pawn were on a3 (a seemingly unimportant detail) , his

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Alekhine Defense 93

Knight could go to b4, and with his sound plus Pawn White would have practically a winning position . As the situation now stands , White has to seek other ways of providing a safe retreat for his Knight ; and although even after the text Black cannot afford to accept the sacrifice of a piece, White's task is not very simple here . Some possibilities :

1 ) 19 Q-Q3(?) (attempting to save the Knight by 20 N-K3 , after which White has a sound plus Pawn) 19 . . . N-R3 ! ( 19 . . . BPxN 20 PxP still does not work out satisfactorily for Black, but after the Knight makes room for the QR by 19 . . . N-R3 , Black threatens to accept the sacrifice) 20 N-K3 QR-Q 1 (threatening both White's QP and QBP) 2 1 N-B4 QxBP 22 N-Q6 N-N5 , and Black stands better after 23 Q-Q l B-K6ch.

2) 1 9 Q-K2(?) N-R3 20 N-K3 Q-B6 2 1 N-B2 N-N5 22 NxN QxQPch, and Black stands better .

3) 1 9 Q-K l(?) Q-Q l (threatening to win the Knight) 20 N moves away, and Black wins the QP.

4) 1 9 P-KR4 BxP 20 N-B4 followed by 2 1 N-K2, and at the cost of one Pawn White can withdraw his Knight safely . This variation seems to lead to equality .

5) 1 9 P-R3 (in order to withdraw the Knight via b4) 19 . . . N­R3 ! 20 N-N4 (the only move) 20 . . . NxN 2 1 PxN QxNP, and Black stands better for White's QP is very weak .

6) 1 9 P-N3 N-R3 20 N-B4 QR-Q l (threatening to titke White's QBP with his Knight) 2 1 R-B l Q-N5 (less risky and better than 2 1 . . . QxRP) , and Black regains the Pawn with an overwhelm­ing position .

From all this , White concludes that he cannot safely retreat his Knight (or cannot be sure of being able to retreat his Knight safely) , so he must continue his attack at any cost . He does find a very strong attacking continuation .

19 B-RS!

Now White has new threats , beginning with the sacrifice on f7 :

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94 Game 6

20 BxPch RxB 2 1 RxR KxR 22 Q-R5ch, with an irresistible attack. This threatened sacrifice is possible because Black's Bishop is loose .

The situation has now become very complicated. Since White has taken his Bishop from the h l /a8 diagonal , Black is able to accept the sacrifice of the White Knight and is, in fact, forced to do so, because then he has e3 at his disposal .

19 • • • BPxN

Black cannot play 19 . . . P-N3 because of 20 N-B6ch, and if Black accepts the sacrifice , White will have an all-out attack :

I ) 20 . . . BxN 2 1 PxB PxB 22 QxP K-R l 23 R-B4, with a mating attack;

2) 20 . . . K-R 1 2 1 B-K2 (in this way White has temporarily maintained his plus Pawn) 21 . . . B-K6ch 22 K-R l Q-N5 23 P-Q5 ! QxBP 24 PxKP QxP 25 N-N4 and wins . This last variation is not forced on the part of either side but shows how White can under some circumstances use his attacking chances .

After the text a new situation has arisen, and it is very important to keep the material relationships in mind. White has a plus Pawn, but he is a piece down.

20 BxPch

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It is tempting to precede this sacrifice by 20 Px.P, for after 20 . . . PxP, the sacrifice is much more effective than in the game : after 2 1 BxPch RxB 22 RxR Q-Q7 23 Q-N4 protects the QP and then after 23 . . . KxR 24 R-B lch K-K2 25 Q-B5 is decisive . However , after 20 PxP Black is not forced to answer 20 . . . Px.P. He can better reply 20 . . . N-R3 , and after 2 1 PxP PxP 22 Q-N4 B-K6ch 23 K-R l N-B2, Black can hold the position .

20 . . • RxB

After 20 . . . K-R l White continues 21 PxP, and 21 . . . N-R3 is answered by 22 PxP, giving White too many Pawns for the sacrificed piece .

21 RxR

Black cannot now afford to retake White's Rook , for

1 ) 2 1 . . . KxR 22 Q-R5ch , winning the Bishop, after which White with two Pawns for a piece and with a strong attack by Q + R against a vulnerable King has by far the better of it (we omit the detailed analysis , which might be confusing) ;

2) 2 1 . . . B-K6ch 22 K-R l KxR (now the situation is quite different-White is two pieces down, so he must win in the attack) 23 Q-R5ch K-K2 ! (the only move) 24 R-KB I !

2a) 24 . . . N-Q2 25 Q-B7ch K-Q l 26 P-B6 and wins ; 2b) 24 . . . K-Q2 25 Q-B7ch K-B3 26 Q-K8ch K-N2 27 R-Nl ch K-B2 28 Q-K7ch N-Q2 29 P-B6! and wins .

Against a Queen and a Rook a King is very much at their mercy in open positions and rarely escapes an eventual mate .

Given that Black cannot afford to retake the Rook, we must again consider the material situation : White has R + 2 P's ; Black has B + N. Also, White still has attacking chances , but Black has the possibili­ty of recapturing some White Pawns , for White's QP is weak and his KP may become weak .

21 • • • Q-Q7?!

This continuation was considered the saving move . It is difficult to

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96 Game 6

say whether 2 1 . . . Q-B6 would have been stiJJ better . Both Pach­man and Robert Byrne considered this move . One variation is 22 PxP PxP 23 R-Nl N-B3 24 QR-N7 B-R3 25 Q-N4 QxPch 26 QxQ NxQ 27 RxRP, and the outcome is doubtful . However one thing is sure: White wiJJ either win or draw.

The same is the case after the text . The struggle between R + 2 P' s against B + N is not easy for Black . According to the comment after White's 24th move White could even have gotten better chances for a win . Whether 23 . . . Q-Q7 or 23 . . . Q-B6 was better or not as good remains an open question .

22 QxQ

White must exchange, for after 22 Q-KB 1 QxQPch 23 K-R l N-83 , he has no continuation to his attack .

22 • • • BxQ 23 QR-KBl

White protects his KR and threatens mate .

23 • • • N-B3 24 PxP

Fine is of the opinion that 24 R-B7 would have given winning chances . One example : 24 . . . NxQP 25 R/ 1 -B7 B-R3 26 P-N4 (threatening 27 P-N5 , etc . ) 26 . . . P-N3 (if 26 . . . PxP 27 P-N5 N-B6ch 28 RxN PxR 29 PxB PxP 30 P-B6 R-N l 3 1 R-Q7, and the White passed Pawn can no longer be stopped) 27 RxKRP B-B l 28

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Alekhine Defense 97

PxP PxP 29 K-N2, and White should win with a Rook and two Pawns for two pieces , considering that he has command of the 7th rank .

24 • • • PxP

Now 25 R-B7 would be inferior to the 24 R-B7 line (analyzed under 24 PxP) for Black's K3 is now free for the Knight ; e .g . , 25 R-B7 NxQP 26 R/ 1 -B7 N-K3 !

25 R-Q7 26 K-Rl 27 P-K6

B-K6ch B:xP

Doubling Rooks on the 7th rank would not be very effective because of 27 . . . BxKP, protecting the critical point g7 .

27 • • • B-K4

It would not do for Black to take White' s QBP because of 28 R-QB7 .

28 RxQP R-Kl

Black thus prepares to win White's KP.

29 R-Kl 30 R-Q6

A last try .

30 • • •

RxP

K-B2

Not 30 . . . . RxR 3 1 PxR BxP? 32 R-K6. Instead of 3 1 . . . BxP? Black can better play 3 1 . . . K-B2, but then White answers 32 R-QB I and maintains winning chances. In most variations he will be able to capture Black' s QRP.

31 RxN 32 RxB

RxR

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White has a plus Pawn, but it does not mean much . Black will soon be able to regain his Pawn .

32 • • • 33 R-QS 34 R-RS 35 K-R2

K-B3 K-K3 P-KR3 R-R3

With this move , Black is assured of winning back his Pawn.

36 P-B6 RxBP

Not 36 . . . RxRP? , for then 37 R-QB5 wins . With the text a draw is assured.

37 R-RS 38 K-N3 39 K-B3 40 K-B2 41 Draw

P-R3 K-B3 R-B6ch R-B7ch

The inventive play of both sides kept the game in balance . For a long time it looked as if White had the best of ic , but in view of Black' s stubborn defense, White could never reach a position in which he had a forced win .

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Game 7

Ideas behind the Pirc Defense

Black's efforts to break up the White center formation

Pawn sacrifices to realize a strategic goal

Indirectly preventing the opponent from castling by making threaten-

ing moves

The indirect attack

Exchange of a piece in order to facilitate carrying out a special plan

Driving the King into the open field in order to force mate

Castling Steinitz said , "Don' t castle too early in the game, for you will give

your opponent a hint as to where he can attack . ' ' Nonetheless , castling is a very important move in chess . It places the King in a safer position , and it brings one of the Rooks into active play . The uncastled King in the center of the board can easily become a target for an enemy attack, and one of the Rooks of the player who has not castled is usually out of play .

So important is it to bring the King into safety by castling that the opposite side can often afford to sacrifice material in order to prevent his opponent from doing so and in order to get an attack ;Jgainst the King in the center of the board.

But the player who has sacrificed a Pawn or more to prevent his opponent from castling must make sure to follow up the sacrifice with very active play so that he gets full value for the material sacrificed . He must make moves which develop his own pieces and at the same time threaten his opponent . An opponent who is kept busy making defensive moves has no opportunity to assume the initiative , which would eventually make his own material advantage count .

The uncastled King is in a precarious position, especially when the Queens are still on the board , for the opponent' s Queen is a powerful agent in harassing the King in the center of the board.

Once the Queens are exchanged , the situation is less dangerous , and the greater the number of pieces exchanged, the less important it

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100 Game 7

becomes to castle . As a matter of fact, when a sufficient number of pieces have been exchanged, the King begins to assume an active role in the struggle , and it can enter the play more directly from the center of the board than from its castled position .

Pirc Defense USSR Championship Semifinals

Tscheljabinsk - 1 972

Genna Timoshenko­USSR

Vladimir Karasev­USSR

1 P-K4 P-Q3

The Pirc (also called Yugoslav) Defense . This defense is brought about after 1 P-K4 P-Q3 2 P-Q4 N-KB3 3

N-QB3, after which Black prepares to fianchetto his KB with 3 . . . P-KN3 . Black 's strategic aim is to press against the White center from his N2-squares . One of its thematic ideas is to strike at the White center by means of . . . P-QB4 .

One of the great advantages of the Pirc Defense is that Black can adjust his center policy to whatever method of development White chooses . This is at the same time its most serious drawback, for White has much greater freedom in the center all the way through . As a result, if White plays aggressively, Black must spend so much time opposing White's schemes that he is afforded but little opportunity to further his own .

Practice has indicated that in refuting White' s attack Black often attains a positional advantage . Furthermore, it should be noted that in view of Black ' s solid build-up, it is not easy for White to attack successfully .

2 P-Q4

In the Pirc Defense , Black allows White a strong center in order to strike back at it. Black's 1 . . . P-Q3 already discourages White ' s P-K5 , as i t does in the King's Indian .

2 • • • N-KB3

The Black attack against the White center has already started .

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Pirc Defense 101

White's KP must now be protected . This setup is similar to that in the Alekhine Defense except that White does not have the possibility of playing P-K5 successfully .

3 N-QB3

In thus protecting his KP, White gives up the possibility of convert­ing to a King's Indian, in which he would have played P-QB4 before bringing out his QN .

The alternatives to the text , 3 B-Q3 and 3 QN-Q2, are both slightly disadvantageous because to a certain extent they restrict the mobility of White's pieces .

3 . . . P-KN3

Black develops along lines described under his l st move . The opening now has some similarity to the King's Indian except

that White has brought out his QN without advancing his QBP. In so doing , he has gained a tempo in development ; however, under certain circumstances, a broad center consisting of Pc4-Pd4-Pe4 could be preferable to the more restricted one here with Pd4-Pe4.

4 P-B4

A very energetic continuation by which White indicates hi� inten­tion of playing P-K5 at the earliest possible moment-but this entails certain risks . More solid would have been 4 N-B3 or 4 B-KN5 .

4 • • • S N-BJ

B-N2 0-0

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Here 5 . . . P-B4 is tempting in order to answer 6 PxP with 6 . . . Q-R4, threatening 7 . . . NxP . However the game could in­stead continue 6 B-N5ch B-Q2 7 P-K5 N-N5 (7 . . . BxB ? 8 PxN, winning a piece, since both Black Bishops are en prise) 8 P-K6 BxB (8 . . . PxKP 9 N-N5 , threatening both 10 QxN and 10 NxKP) 9 PxPch K-Q2 (9 . . . KxP 1 0 N-N5ch) 1 0 NxB Q-R4ch 1 1 N-B3 , and White stands best , for Black has lost a Pawn and the right to castle .

6 P-KS

Consistent with intentions expressed under 4 P-B4 but probably not the best . The postponement of castling will eventually weigh heavily . Better is 6 B-K2, after which 6 . . . P-B4 7 PxP Q-R4 8 0-0 leads to equality .

6 • • . N-KI

The text is very sharp ; that is, it leads to complications and acceler­ates the crisis . It should be considered as an attempt to refute White' s domination of the center by his Pd4 , Pe5 , Nc3 , and Nf3 . White 's center looks fine here , but i t is vulnerable , as the continuation shows.

Also possible is 6 . . . PxP 7 BPxP N-Q4, and after 8 N-K4 B-B4 9N-N3 B-N5 10 B-K2 P-QB4, Black has an acceptable game.

7 B-K3

Directed against the attack that follows . But Black continues his strategy despite White 's countermeasures.

7 . . . P-QB4

A strong pawn sacrifice made to break open White ' s center, a follow-up of Black 's 6 . . . N-K l . The sharpness of that move is demonstrated only by this one .

If White were now to ignore Black' s attack on his center and play 8 B-B4 in order to be able to castle , then 8 . . . PxQP 9 BxP N-QB3 , and the White center is destroyed and Black' s strategy has won out .

8 PxBP N-QB3

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Black is interested only in bringing out his pieces as quickly as possible and in pressing against what is left of White' s center . He does not mind losing a Pawn if he can realize his strategic aim of annihilat­ing the White center and opening the diagonal for his own KB .

9 KPxP

A safer way was 9 B-K2. White need not fear 9 . . . PxKP 10 QxQ NxQ 1 1 NxP, for then it will not be easy for Black to regain the sacrificed Pawn. The continuation 1 1 . . . N-QB3 1 2 NxN BxNch 1 3 PxB PxN 1 4 B-B3 is certainly favorable to White in spite of the ugly appearance of the tripled Pawns . But Black would do better to answer 9 B-K2 by 9 . . . Q-R4, and after 10 BPxP PxP, White cannot afford to continue 1 1 PxP because of 1 1 . . . BxNch 1 2 PxB QxPch 1 3 K-B2 N-B3 with advantage to Black . In this line White has to play 1 1 Q-Q5 , and after 1 1 . . . QxQ 1 2 NxQ PxP chances are about equal .

9 • . . PxP 10 Q-Q2(?)

After this move White's position becomes inferior . White made the move, however, to avoid the ugly doubled Pawns along the QB-file .

Best still would have been 10 B-K2 followed immediately by castling .

Certainly White could also play l O PxP, but then after 10 . . . NxP Black maintains a powerful initiative in return for the sacrificed Pawn . For instance, 1 1 B-B5 R-Klch 1 2 B-K2 BxNch 1 3 PxB N-K5 1 4 QxQ RxQ 1 5 B-Q4 B-N5 , and Black either saddles his opponent with two

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104 Game 7

doubled isolated Pawns or he regains the Pawn with a good position; e .g . , 1 6 0-0 BxN 1 7 BxB N-Q7 1 8 R-B2 ( 1 8 KR-Q l NxBch 1 9 PxN and White can keep the plus Pawn if he is willing to put up with two sets of doubled isolated Pawns) 1 8 . . . NxBch 1 9 RxN NxB .

After the text, not 1 0 . . . PxP because of 1 1 QxQ NxQ 1 2 BxP, winning the Exchange.

10 • • • Q-R4

This is the key move in all the complications that follow. Although the White Knight is no longer pinned , through the combined action of his Queen and his KB Black is threatening to attain his strategic aim simply by playing 1 1 . . . PxP . After that move Black's situation is certainly superior. He has the open diagonal for his fianchettoed Bishop , and, in general , his pieces have better possibilities than White' s pieces .

11 PxP

Practically forced unless White is willing to allow Black to attain his strategic aim.

If 1 1 B-K2 PxP, Black stands definitely better .

11 • • • NxP

White will not answer 12 QxN because of 12 . . . BxNch, etc .

12 B-Q3

Hoping to castle in time. Now White has a plus Pawn, and it looks as if he can meet Black's subsequent attempts to obtain compensation for his sacrificed Pawn.

12 • • • R-Ql

Now the threat 13 . . . N-BS practically prevents White from castl­ing . After 1 3 0-0 N-BS 14 Q-K2 and

1) 14 . . . NxB 1 5 QxN BxN 1 6 PxB QxP, and Black has regained his Pawn with a good position;

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Pirc Defense 105

2) 1 4 . . . NxP 1 5 N-K4 NxB 1 6 PxN BxR is certainly still stronger , for it wins back the Pawn and wins the Exchange in the bargain .

13 N-Ql

Defending his QNP and threatening to exchange Queens . How­ever, the move looks better than it is, as Black will soon prove . But there was no longer any really satisfactory defense which would give White complete equality .

13 . . . N-N5

This prevents the exchange of Queens , which would not be in Black' s interest at this point , and presses against White' s KB . Black is still threatening . . . N-BS and the capture of White 's QNP, which would then be attacked by Black' s Knight and Bishop .

14 P-B3

This parries the immediate threat, but White gets into one problem after the other .

The alternative 1 4 P-QR3 is not sufficient either, for with 14 . . . NxBch 1 5 PxN Q-R3 Black would soon regain the Pawn with an overwhelming position, as will become clear from the following analysis :

1 ) 1 6 N-B3 N-B5 17 Q-KB2 NxB 1 8 QxN B-B4, regaining the QP, since Black also threatens 19 . . . R-K 1 ;

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106 Game 7

2) 1 6 N-B2 N-B5 17 Q-K2 NxNP, etc . ;

3) 1 6 0-0 N-K5 1 7 Q-K2 QxP, with superiority for Black ;

4) 1 6 P-Q4 B-N5 4a) 17 Q-KB2 BxN 18 QxB N-B4, etc . ; 4b) 1 7 N-K5 BxN/8 1 8 QxB ! ( 1 8 RxB P-B3 followed by 1 9 . . . N-B5 wins) 1 8 . . . P-B3 1 9 N-B3 N-B4 20 B-B l (20 B-B2 R-K l ch) 20 . . . Q-B5 21 P-QN3 Q-B6ch 22 B-Q2 Q-Q6, and Black at least regains his Pawn .

14 • . • lS QxN 16 Q-K2

NxBch N-B4

Not 16 Q-B2 because of 16 . . . RxNch, followed by 17 . . . NxB .

For one Pawn Black has succeeded in getting a much more active attacking position and has kept White so busy that he has not had time to castle . Notice how active Black 's combined Queen , KR, and Knight are and how cramped White' s position is . Black now continues his attack in form of a threat .

16 • . . P-N3

Threatening 1 7 . . . B-QR3 , which would definitely prevent White from castling .

17 K-B2

White takes care of his King in another way , but this does not prevent Black from developing his Bishop with a threat .

17 • • • 18 Q-B2

B-QR3 QR-Bl

An important move , the purpose of which will become very clear at Black' s 2 l st move . The point is that Black' s Rook indirectly attacks the White Queen , therefore pinning White ' s QBP.

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19 R-Kl B-N2

Black's QB has performed its work at a6 . It now has a job to do at b7 , since in the combination that follows it is important that White' s KN be removed from the board .

20 R-K2(?)

Not the best , but White is in a difficult situation . Relatively best is probably 20 Q-N3 , which is answered by 20 . . .

B-Q4 2 1 Q-N4 Q-R3 , threatening among other things 22 . . . B-B l , trapping the Queen . White must therefore play 22 P-QR4, and after 22 . . . Q-N2 Black maintains his advantage .

With the text White hopes to continue by 2 1 R-Q2 and get some air .

20 • • • 21 KxB

BxN

Objectively 2 1 PxB would be better, alth�ugh White would not be able to save the game .with such a mutilated K-side . For instance , 2 1 PxB B-Q5 2 2 R-Q2 BxBch 2 3 NxB NxN 24 KxN Q-B4ch 25 K-K2 Q-KR4, winning at least a Pawn and maintaining the attack against the naked White King .

21 • • • B-QS!

The deciding move ! White cannot answer 22 BxB because of 22 . . . NxBch, winning the Queen . Black now threatens 22 . . . BxB and after 23 NxB N-Q5ch .

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22 P-KN4

Other possibilities are not sufficient either :

1 ) 22 R-Q2 l a) 22 . . . NxB ! 23 NxN Q-R4ch 24 K-B2 (the only move) 24 . . . QxP 25 K-B3 BxN 26 KxB Q-N6ch . l b) 22 . . . NxB 23 NxN Q-R4ch 24 K-B2 (24 P-N4 Q-R6ch is killing !) 24 . . . QxRP, with an easy win for Black ;

2) 22 Q-N3 BxB 23 NxB R-Q6, threatening 24 . . . N-Q5ch , against which White has no sufficient defense ; e .g . , 24 Q-N4 QxQ 25 PxQ R-K l 26 QR-K l N-Q5ch .

22 • . • Q-Q4ch

Notice how this move contributes to Black's combination by bring­ing the Queen into it very actively .

23 K-B2

The only move, for 23 Q-K4 loses the Queen because of 23 . . . N-R5ch .

23 . . . N-RS

Threatens 24 . . . Q-N7ch and mate on the following move .

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Pirc Defense 109

24 K-N3

White has no choice : 24 BxB Q-N7ch 25 K-K3 (25 K-K l N-B6 mate) 25 . . . Q-B6ch 26 K-Q2 RxBch, etc .

24 • • • 25 KxN 26 P-NS

Q-B6ch B-B3ch BxPch

When a hostile King is driven into the open, one can often (as here) sacrifice more than one piece in order to force mate . But everything must be calculated exactly-the combination must be correct; other­wise one is lost materially .

27 KxB

If 27 PxB R-B5ch 28 B-Q4 R/ l xBch is decisive .

27 • • • 28 K-B6 29 Resigns

For if 29 K-K5 Q-K2 mate .

Q-R4ch Q-RSch

Black won because the position he obtained by sacrificing a Pawn in the opening allowed him to maneuver with all kinds of threats against which White , in the long run, was not able to defend himself .

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Game 8

General ideas behind the Sicilian Defense

Postponing the development of the Black QN

Advantages and disadvantages of the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian

The 13 Line-a dangerous weapon agaimt the Dragon Variation

The White attack agaimt the Black King castled K-side

Black's slight weakness, • • • P-KN3, favors the White pawn storm

The pawn sacrifice to open up further attacking possibilities

Attempt to drive away Black's Nf6 in order to complete the mating net

The overworked piece

The closing and opening of files and ranks in order to bring the final

combination to a successful conclusion

Attack against the Opponent's King Castled K-slde One of the most spectacular feats in a game of chess is the success­

ful attack against the opponent ' s King castled K-side . Such an attack is usually made when some weakness exists on the defender' s K-side, and this often occurs when the latter has played either P-KN3 or P-KR3 or when the defender has no protecting pieces in the vicinity of his K-side .

In order to carry out such an attack successfully , the attacker must have a number of his pieces directed against his opponent' s K-side, and he must strive to open files on that side either by a pawn storm or by rapidly bringing his pieces to that area of the board and making advantageous exchanges . If he is confident that his attack will suc­ceed, he can afford to sacrifice material--especially a Pawn-in order to carry out the attack more rapidly and effectively.

In such attacks , before sacrificing material the attacker must be absolutely sure that the attack will end in mate or that he will emerge with some other advantage which will compensate for the material sacrificed . He must also calculate carefully when making exchanges so that in the end those of his pieces which will pose the most serious problems to the enemy King will be posted on the squares where they will be most effective .

1 10

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On the other hand, the attacker must not delay his plans either. If the attack moves too slowly , the opponent has time to bring up reinforce­ments which may enable him to stop it . Even if no material sacrifices are made, the all-out attack often leads to an advantage for the defender because after the smoke has cleared the forces of the attacker may be directed toward the wrong part of the board .

Variations of certain defenses, the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian and the Simisch Variation of the King's Indian Defense among others , lend themselves especially well to an attack against the oppo­nent's King castled K-side .

Slclllan Defense - Dragon Variation Candidates' Match - Moscow - 1974

Anatoly Karpov • USSR 1 P-K4

Viktor Korchnoi • USSR P-QB4

The Sicilian Defense--one of the most intriguing replies to 1 P-K4. It develops in such a way that it is impossible for White to attain the type of play he normally gets in the KP openings .

Instead of meeting White's occupation of the center with counter­play for possession of the center, Black attempts to secure play on the Q-side. In the Sicilian Black tends to control the center from afar as in the Indian defenses , thus forcing White into a type of play that he may neither be familiar with nor want to play .

By 1 . . . P-QB4 Black exercises control over d4 and hopes to open the QB-file for counterplay on the Q-side after White has played P-Q4, which he normally does.

2 N-KB3

The most common reply in the Sicilian . White exerts pressure on d4 and threatens to gain control of it by 3 P-Q4.

2 • • • P-Q3

One of the principal replies at this point . On the one hand, it guards against a possible P-K5 by White ; on the other, it allows Black to decide later whether he wishes to develop his QN to c6 or d7 .

The other common replies are 2 . . . N-QB 3 , which gives Black

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1 12 Game s

more pressure on d4, and 2 . . . P-K3 , which is more flexible in that it postpones the decision of exactly which line of the Sicilian Black will choose.

3 P-Q4

White usually answers in this way , taking possession of the center , but by so doing he gives Black the opportunity to exchange Pawns , to open his QB-file, and subsequently to get play along that file .

3 . . . 4 NxP

PxP N-KB3

Black develops his KN , attacking White' s KP.

5 N-QB3

White protects his Pawn in the most economical way ; but as a result he is prevented from later playing P-QB4, which would give him a very strong grip on the center square d5 and on b5 ; this could be important if Black should later consider playing . . . P-QR3 followed by . . . P-QN4.

s . . . P-KN3

The Dragon Variation of the Sicilian . Black will develop his KB to g7 , from which point it will exert strong pressure all along the diagonal on the White center and directly or indirectly on White 's Q-side .

The disadvantage of the text is that it slightly weakens Black's K-side, which enables White to attack later by P-KR4-R5 . In view of the course of this game, one may get the impression that this weakness has a great significance . However, this is not the case . With good counterplay Black should not have lost .

6 B-K3

To prepare 0-0-0 and to support White's Knight on d4. This support may become especially necessary after Black has played . . . N-B3, attacking that Knight directly , and . . . B-N2, attacking i t indirectly .

Normally, White would hesitate to place his Bishop on e3 because

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Sicilian Defense: Dragon Variation 1 13

of 6 . . . N-N5 , but here that move would be answered by 7 B-N5ch. If 7 . . . B-Q2 8 QxN; if 7 . . . N-B3 8 NxN, and Black must lose material .

6 • • • B-N2

In the course of the game White must be sure to neutralize the pressure of the Black KB along the diagonal . He must also look to the safety of his QR which, although now separated from the Black KB by a number of pieces , will never be entirely safe as long as it remains on its QRI .

7 P-83

This move has several functions : (a) like its counterpart in the King's Indian, the Samisch Variation, it solidifies the center: (b) it prepares for an attack on Black' s K-side by an advance of White's KNP and KRP; and (c) i t prevents . . . N-N5 (which is possible at this point) since B-N5ch , mentioned under White's 6th move, could now be answered by . . . K-B l , and Black would not lose any material .

7 • • • N-B3

The QN is now more effective on c6 than it would be on d7 for (a) it helps Black's KB bring pressure on the White center, and (b) if White should play B-QB4, it could threaten to exchange that Bishop by . . . N-QR4.

8 Q-Q2

" This makes it possible for White to castle Q-side and strengthens his

attack against Black's fianchettoed Bishop by enabling him to play B-R6.

8 • • • 0-0

This game shows that the Dragon Variation poses more serious problems for Black than was formerly supposed .

9 B-QB4

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114 Game s

On c4 White's KB is now directed against Black's K-side .

9 • • . B-Q2

The Bishop must be developed, and this is the square to which it is normally developed by Black in this system.

To be considered is 9 . . . NxN 10 BxN B-K3 . Practice has shown that Black need not fear the exchange on e6 despite the somewhat strange pawn formation that would result from 1 1 BxB PxB .

10 P-KR4

White now starts his pawn advance against Black' s castled and fianchettoed K-side . He can castle long later. This early attack is possible because Black has somewhat weakened his K-side by 5 . . . P-KN3, which usually leads to an open file for the attack. Such a wing attack is in general most successful if Black has no way to counterattack in the center .

10 • • • R-Bl

Indirectly attacking White's loose KB , Black treats this game in harmony with the usual concept of the Sicilian . In some modem games, 1 0 . . . Q-Nl followed by an advance of the Q-side Pawns has been tried . It is difficult to evaluate this line, but up to now Black has always managed to keep the game in balance.

Leading to the same position as the game continuation is 10 . . . N­K4 1 1 B-N3 R-B 1 .

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Sicilian Defense: Dragon Variation 115

11 B-N3

White brings his KB to a safer square, from which it still exercises pressure against Black's K-side .

11 • • • N-K4

In order to continue with 1 2 . . . N-B5 , which practically forces White to exchange his KB for Black's Knight . This situation also occurs in many other variations of the Sicilian . Black could have attained the same result by 1 1 . . . N-QR4.

12 0-0-0

White calmly castles into Black's attack . He needs his QR for his own attack and is convinced that he can parry the Black counterattack .

12 • • • N-85

A powerful position for the Knight .

13 BxN

White exchanges partly in order not to lose a tempo, partly because he does not want to leave the Black Knight in such a powerful position , and partly because he needs his QB for his K-side attack .

13 • • • 14 P-RS!

RxB

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116 Game s

Contrary to his usual style, Karpov goes in for a sharp attack . Contrast this with his technique against Spassky in Game 10 .

White sacrifices his KRP in order to open the KR-file and advance his attack . The side with the better developed attack often finds that it is worthwhile to give up a Pawn in order to open up additional attacking possibilities .

14 • • • NxRP

After 14 . . . PxP the attack would continue more rapidly, for 15 B-R6 threatens 16 Q-N5 , etc .

15 P-KN4 N-B3

We can now see the net results of White's pawn sacrifice on his l 4th move: (a) he has opened up the KR-file for attack, and (b) he has gained a few tempos, among others the advance of his KNP.

16 N/4-Kl!

To render ineffective an eventual . . . RxQN after the sacrifice of the Exchange has been prepared by . . . Q-R4 and . . . KR-B l . Al-so, the text makes it possible for the Knight to go to g3 or f 4 to participate in the attack.

An immediate 16 B-R6 is not favorable because of 1 6 . . . NxKP (threatening 17 . . . RxKN), and after 17 Q-K3 Black can continue with 17 . . . RxQN (the sacrifice of the Exchange at which Black was aiming) or simply with 1 7 . . . N-B3, and in either case he is two Pawns up.

16 • • • Q-R4

Black brings support to his 4th rank and a piece to attack White's Q-side .

The standard move 16 . . . R-Kl , in order to answer 17 B-R6 by 17 . . . B-Rl , is refuted here by 17 P-K5 ! PxP? 1 8 P-KN5 , winning a piece.

17 B-R6

�ite's plan is to eliminate Black' s defensive KB and then to bring

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Sicilian Defense: Dragon Variation 1 17

pressure to bear on h7 . Moreover, he threatens 1 8 BxB KxB 19 Q-R6ch K-Nl 20 P-N5 N-R4 2 1 N-B4.

White can play B-R6 at his 1 7th move (although it was not good at his 16th move) because now White's KN is no longer indirectly attacked by Black's fianchettoed Bishop.

17 • • • BxB

Whether Black exchanges Bishops himself or allows White to exchange, the same position will result , with the White Queen going to h6; e .g . , if 1 7 . . . KR-B l 1 8 BxB KxB 1 9 Q-R6ch K-Nl .

18 QxB KR-Bl

Black hopes eventually for . . . RxN; NxR RxN; PxR, which might give him the opportunity to take advantage of White's weakened Q-side . The two exchanges would be made to open up White's position and give Black the possibility of perpetual check .

Notice that in the present position White 's QN is also tied down in order to keep Black from playing . . . RxPch, so that White cannot now answer 19 N-Q5 , undermining Black's protection of his KRP. Nor can White play 19 P-N5 followed by 1 9 . . . N-R4 20 N-B4 because of 20 . . . RxN.

19 R-Q3!!

This affords added protection to White's QN. White now threatens to continue the attack by 20 P-N5 and , after. 20 . . . N-R4, by 2 1 N-B4.

E

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118 Game 8

19 • • • R/5-B4

Black protects his 4th rank once more for the purpose of preventing White's threat of 20 P-N5 .

With other lines Black cannot reach equ�ity either:

1 ) 19 . . . Q-Q l 20 P-N5 N-R4 2 1 N-B4 Q-B l 22 QxQch KxQ 23 NxN PxN 24 RxP with advantage to White . This line is relatively best for Black.

2) 19 . . . B-K3 20 P-N5 N-R4 2 1 N-B4 RxN 22 PxR RxP 23 NxN Q-R6ch 24 K-Q2 RxRch 25 PxR PxN 26 QxP/5 K-B 1 27 QxRP, etc .

In all lines White maintains some superiority . but the text is certain­ly inferior and leads to a very rapid denouement.

20 P-NS!

Nevertheless White pushes his KNP, which can now be captured . The reason for this sacrifice becomes apparent at White's next move .

20 • • • RxP

If 20 . . . N-R4 21 N-B4 RxP 22 QN-Q5 , etc .

21 R-QS

By attacking both the Black Queen and Rook , Karpov forces

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Sicilian Defense: Dragon Variation 119

exchanges which will further his own K-side attack. The simplicity of it is astounding ! He takes advantage of the fact that the Black Knight is overworked since it has both to protect its KRP and to guard its Q4-square .

21 • • • RxR

If 21 . . . NxR, mate in two. The Black Knight is needed to protect Black's KRP.

22 NxR

White is now two Pawns down, but he has the initiative , the attack , and threats . He threatens both 23 NxNch and 23 NxPch, the latter being the more formidable because it will win the Exchange.

22 • • • R-Kl

To ward off the threatened 23 NxPch. At the present time, 23 NxNch doesn't offer too much . After

23 . . . PxN 24 QxPch K-B l , the King escapes via e7 .

23 N/2-B4

With the text White threatens 24 NxNch, and there follows 24 . . . PxN 25 QxRPch K-B l 26 N-Q5 ! and mate on h8 .

23 • • • B-B3

Black hopes to eliminate one of the Knights. If 23 . . . B-K3 , then 24 NxB PxN 25 NxNch PxN 26 QxRPch

K-B 1 27 QxQNP R-K2 28 Q-N8ch R-Kl 29 QxPch wins a Pawn for White . If now 1 ) 29 . . . K-N2 30 Q-Q7ch ; 2) 29 . . . K-B2 30 Q-Q7ch R-K2 3 1 R-R7ch K-N l 32 RxR, and there is no mate for Black; 3) 29 . . . R-K2 30 R-R8ch K-N2 3 1 QxRch KxR 32

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120 Game s

QxBPch, etc . ; 4) 29 . . . K-N l (relatively best) 30 Q-Q7, and White wins a few more Pawns .

24 P-KS! !

To open the K-file and close White' s 5th rank. If instead 24 NxNch PxN 25 N-R5 Q-N4ch (White ' s 5th rank is not

closed) 26 QxQ PxQ 27 N-B6ch K-N2 28 NxRch BxN , and Black has two Pawns for the Exchange and can still fight .

24 • • • BxN

If 24 . . . PxP 25 NxNch PxN 26 N-R5 PxN 27 R-Nl ch followed by mate .

2S PxN PxP

Now that the K-file is open, the Black King can no longer escape.

26 QxRPch 27 Q-R8ch

K-Bl Resigns

For if 27 . . . K-K2 28 NxBch and 1 ) 28 . . . QxN 29 R-K l ch, etc . , 2) 28 . . . K-Q l 29 QxPch, and White is a piece up .

Notice that Black also had mating threats , but he did not have the chance to make use of them; e .g . , if 27 NxB? (instead of 27 Q-R8ch !) 27 . . . R-K8ch 28 RxR QxR mate .

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Sicilian Defense: Dragon Variation 121

White won because he made a straightforward attack against the opponent' s K-position, which was just slightly weakened by the fianchetto .

At his 9th or I Oth move Black could have presumably gotten into a less dangerous position . Several times later he could have put up stiffer resistance and by so doing could have reduced his disadvan­taged to a minimum.

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Game 9

The Paulsen Variation of the Sicilian

Advantages in the Sicilian of • • • QN-Q2 over • • • QN-B3

The purpose of • • • P-QR3 in the Sicilian

The importance of getting to play • • • P-Q4 in the Sicilian

The sacrifice of the Exchange to improve the position of a passed Pawn

and to stop the opponent's assault

The strong pressure exerted by an advanced Pawn

The inadvisability of exchanging Queens when one has the attack

Attack and counterattack

Attack and Counterattack In the Sicilian Defense White tries to develop a K-side attack and

Black a Q-side attack. White usually directs Pawns and pieces against the Black King castled K-side ; Black's attack normally develops along the QB-file (the QR on c8 and the Queen on c7) , accompanied by an advance of the QRP and QNP (P-QR3 , P-QN4, and possibly P-QN5) , while the QN (either QN-B3-R4-B5 or QN-Q2-N3-B5) and the fianchettoed QB (B-N2) also play their part .

When each side succeeds in developing a strong attacking initia­tive , the respective players must analyze more carefully and more deeply than they do in quieter games to ascertain that each move is accurate , and they must make the very best use of each piece . A single miscalculation can turn a very promising position into a catastrophe . The application of the old adage , "First come, first served, " is especially appropriate in these circumstances .

In case of attack and counterattack it is desirable for each player to try to get his opponent' s King into as open and unprotected a position as possible . Other things being equal , it will be more difficult for the King in the open field to withstand an attack than the King which is somewhat protected and therefore less subject to attack .

122

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Sicilian Defense: Paulsen Variation

Sicilian Defense - Paulsen Variation Second Annual World Open Championship

New York - 1 974

John Peters - USA

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3 3 P-Q4 4 NxP S N-QB3

Bent Larsen - Denmark

P-QB4 P-K3 PxP N-KB3 P-Q3

123

In the preceding game Black played . . . P-KN3 , in this game . . . P-K3, which from both the White and the Black side implies two different strategic plans .

In the present game White occupies four ranks, Black three . White' s 5th rank may be considered a demarcation line . White must try to convert his greater mobility into attack , and the basic point of attack may be considered White' s KP, eventually supported by his KBP when pushed to its 4th square .

Black's plan is much clearer than White 's . He will operate on the Q-wing with his semi-open file as a base and c4 as the point of penetration . It will give him good chances , especially if White fails to combine his attacking moves on the K-side with defensive moves on the Q-side .

6 B-K2

This position has three traits which are characteristic of many variations of the Sicilian at this point : (a) superior freedom of move­ment for White ; (b) numerical , if somewhat backward, pawn superiority in the center for Black ; and (c) the semi-open QB-file for Black .

6 • • • QN-Q2

The strategic basis for Black' s formation is not new. Already some one hundred years ago the Paulsen brothers made a successful attempt to work out a system which would enable Black to take advantage of the QB-file and his center majority . Their system was characterized

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124 Game 9

by . . . P-QR3 , . . . Q-B2, . . . QN-Q2, and the Black pawn for­mation Pd6-Pe6.

With the text this original Paulsen Variation is in the process of being reached. The development of the QN to d7 (rather than to c6) has several advantages : (a) the QB-file is open for Black; (b) if Black should fianchetto his QB , its diagonal would remain free ; (c) if White should play B-KN5 followed by BxN, Black could recapture with his QN.

.

However, if White should develop his Bishop to c4 instead of to e2 , then . . . QN-Q2 might lead to a quick catastrophe because of the possibility of a sacrifice on e6 . For example , 6 B-QB4 (instead of 6 B-K2) 6 . . . QN-Q2 7 B-KN5 P-QR3 8 0-0 Q-B2? 9 BxKP ! PxB 10 NxP Q-B5 1 1 N-Q5 , and White gets an overwhelming attack (Keres­Sajtar , Amsterdam 1954) .

7 P-B4

If White wants to attack-and this is what he must do in the Sicilian to compensate for Black' s Q-side attack-then he needs to secure more freedom by putting his KBP on f 4 and his KB on f3 and to play P-K5 as soon as Black plays . . . P-Q4. There may then arise pos­sibilities of P-KB5 such as occur in this game .

7 • • • P-QR3

Also a very common Black move in other variations of the Sicilian . It is usually played on the 4th move in the Paulsen Variation and on the 5th move in the Najdorf Variation (Games 1 1 and 1 2) . It prevents White from bringing his Knight or Bishop to b5 , and it forwards Black' s characteristic Sicilian Q-side development by preparing for-

. . . P-QN4 followed by . . . B-N2 .

8 P-QR4

To prevent Black from successfully continuing with . . . P-QN4.

8 • • . Q-B2

Black nonetheless takes command of his open QB-file and exerts

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Sicilian Defense: Paulsen Variation 125

indirect pressure on c2 . The original Paulsen build-up has now been realized .

9 0-0 P-QN3

Since Black' s QNP cannot safely go to b5 , Black must play the text in order to develop his QB .

10 B-B3

The White Bishop now presses indirectly against d5 and against Black's QR, and the mobility of the White Queen is increased .

10 • • • 11 K-Rl

B-N2

On g 1 the White King could be exposed to an attack from the Black Queen (e.g . , . . . Q-B4; . . . P-K4) which would win the White N/4 if the latter did not take countermeasures . Also, the KN-file is White's attacking avenue against Black' s K-side , So that White's King is usually more advantageously placed on hl than on gl .

11 • • . B-K2 12 Q-Kl

The attacking move in this variation . White 's general plan will be P-KN4 followed by Q-N3 , bringing the White pieces to the vicinity of the hostile King, although there are as yet no direct threats . If at any time Black should play . . . P-Q4, White could then answer P-K5 , and the attack would be intensified and possibly followed by P-B5 .

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126 Game 9

12 . . . 0-0 13 P-KN4

The beginning of the above-mentioned pawn storm.

13 . . . Q-B5

The Black counteraction . His Queen is now attacking White's loose Knight , and he is preparing to play . . . P-Q4, one of Black's aims in almost all variations of the Sicilian .

14 B-K3 P-Q4

Black thus gets to play the important . . . P-Q4, for which Black strives in almost all variations of the Sicilian . It is made (a) to gain more influence in the center and (b) to increase the mobility of the Black pieces .

Black usually tries to make this move in such a way as not to allow White to reply P-KS , which would give him a real preponderance on the K-wing and much pressure . In this game Black does not care whether White plays P-KS , for then his KN can go to e4 .

White must now play with a keen understanding of the strategy involved . If , for instance , he should now answer 15 PxP, his attack would lose force and he would be left with weaknesses on his K-side . He therefore continues his attack by

15 P-K5

9

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Sicilian Defense: Paulsen Variation 127

This gives White a greater command of space and drives Black's defenders away from the K-side .

If 1 5 PxP NxP 1 6 NxN BxN 1 7 BxB QxBch, the White King would be left in a naked position . and White' s KNP would no longer have any attack and would simply constitute a weakness .

15 • . • N-KS

Quite superior to 1 5 . . . N-Kl , his only other option .

16 NxN

White does not want the Black Knight posted in such a commanding position nor does he wish to permit . . . NxN, which would leave him with a pair of doubled isolated Pawns .

16 • • . PxN

As a result of the exchange , Black gets a Pawn on e4 . This Pawn is strong and weak at the same time-strong because it presses against the White position , weak because it is temporarily isolated .

17 B-N2 QR-BI

Black now controls the QB-file , one of Black's principal aims in the Sicilian .

18 Q-N3

White continues with his attacking maneuver .

18 • • • Q-NS

Black, for his part , becomes aggressive on the Q-side .

19 P-BS

White does not try to save his QNP by 1 8 P-N3 , which would create

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128 Game 9

a hole in his position at c3 . This hole could be occupied by Black's Queen or , after preparation , by his QR .

White , leaving his QNP en prise , tries to attack . His pieces are well directed against the Black King , and he can regain his Pawn immediately .

19 . . . QxNP

The exchange I 9 . . . PxP 20 PxP would be too dangerous for Black , since White would then be threatening 2 1 P-B6.

20 PxP

White does not get sufficient compensation after 20 P-B6 PxP 2 1 PxP BxP.

20 . . . PxP 21 KR-QNl

An important in-between move , for both materially and positional­ly 2 1 NxP RxRch 22 RxR QxP looks very good for Black .

21 . . . Q-B6

This move has several implications and purposes : (a) it is the only square to which the Queen can go without being captured ; (b) it ties down White 's KR to the protection of his QR, which is being threatened by the Black Queen ; (c) White' s B/3 cannot move now without giving Black the option of exchanging Queens ; and (d) from its present diagonal , after preparation , the Black Queen may eventual­ly get some play against the White KP.

22 NxP

Suddenly the position becomes electrified ! White' s KP and Black's KR are en prise , and other dynamic situations will become evident in the moves that follow .

22 • • • R-B6!

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Sicilian Defense: Paulsen Variation 129

Black offers the sacrifice of the Exchange, relying on the force of his advanced KP, which is supported by his QB .

23 BxR 24 B-B2

PxB

For if 24 Q-B2 QxB ! ! 25 QxQ P-B7 dis eh followed by mate . This shows how dynamic the position is for both sides and how dangerous it is for White .

24 • • • NxP

Not 24 . . . QxP 25 QxQ NxQ 26 RxP. Black has to play for the attack-not for the exchange of Queens , which would now be good for White , who is the Exchange up .

25 K-Nl

To remove the King from the dangerous .diagonal so as to continue with threats . Both 25 RxP? QxRch and 25 BxP? P-B7 dis eh are unsatisfactory .

25 • • • N-N3!

Threatening both 26 . . . B-R5 and 26 . . . QxP. Black could not play . . . QxP earlier , for his Knight would have then been en prise .

If now 26 BxP B-R5 27 Q-Q6 P-B7ch 28 BxP Q-B6, and White cannot parry both 29 . . . Q-N7 mate and 29 . . . QxB mate .

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130 Game 9

26 P-NS

This move not only prevents . . . B-RS but also enables White to play Q-N4, which may be important in some variations . On g4 the White Queen protects its Knight and prepares for Q-Q4, forcing the exchange of Queens . This does not happen in the game but it could happen.

26 • • • P-QR4

To obtain a firm bold on b4 so as to be able to play . . . B-NS .

27 Q-N4

As suggested above, this gives protection to the White Knight and prepares for 28 Q-Q4 and the exchange of Queens .

If 27 BxP, then 27 . . . Q-B3 , threatening both 28 . . . P-B7ch and 28 . . . QxN. This variation illustrates how White can never move his Bishop on account of possibilities arising from . . . Q-B3.

27 • • •

Black foresees the possibility of 28 Q-Q4 and makes the best of it by indirectly threatening the White Knight . With the text , Black frees c8 for his Bishop, which can then pin the White Knight .

28 N-Q4(?)

White hesitates to offer an exchange of Queens and protects his QBP instead, but 28 Q-Q4 was relatively better . Then the game might

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Sicilian Defense: Paulsen Variation 131

have continued 28 . . . B-N5 ! (showing the importance of 26 . . . P-QR4) and e .g . ,

1 ) 29 QxQ BxQ 30 R-R3 (30 RxP BxR) 30 . . . B-K4 3 1 RxNP B-Q4 32 N-Q4 BxN 33 BxB N-B5 with a strong attack (34 R-K3 N-R6ch 35 K-B l B-B5ch) ;

2) 29 QxNP B-QB 1 2a) 30 N-Q4 N-B5 (threatening both 3 1 . . . N-R6ch and 3 1 . . . N-K7ch) ; 2b) 30 N-B7 Q-K4

2b l ) 3 1 NxR QxPch 32 B-N3 (the only move) 32 . . . B-B4ch, etc . ; 2b2) 3 1 RxB (to eliminate the Black KB) 3 1 . . . PxR, after which White's QR is hanging, and 32 R-Kl is refuted by 32 . . . QxPch . The game might continue 32 R-Ql QxNPch 33 B-N3 R-K7 , and Black stands best .

28 • • • B-B4

This more or less holds the White Knight on d4 (e .g . , 29 N-N5 ? BxBch 30 KxB Q-K6ch, etc . ) .

29 R-Kl

White wishes to exchange Rooks , partly to reduce the attack, partly to bring his QR into play .

29 • . • R-KBl

Black has no desire to exchange. He protects his BP once more and prepares for 30 . . . N-B5 . It is not a good idea for the aggressor to exchange pieces during the attack unless he has a special reason for doing so .

30 QR-Ql N-BS

Depriving White's Knight of the protection of its Queen and also threatening 3 1 . . . N-K7ch 32 NxN (32 K-B l B-R3 or 32 K-Rl NxN) 32 . . . BxBch 33 KxB PxN dis eh 34 KxP B-R3ch, etc .

Not as good is 30 . . . R-B5 because of 3 1 Q-K6ch.

31 K-Rl?

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132 Game 9

With this move, the White King goes into "the comer of death, " but the game i s lost in any case , for if 3 1 R-K3 Q-B5 , how can White parry threats such as 32 . . . N-K7ch and 32 . . . BxN?

31 • • • BxN!

The decisive blow! White cannot answer 32 RxB because of 32 . . . QxRch 33 BxQ P-B7 dis eh, and mate follows.

32 Q-N3 33 Q-R4

N-K7 R-BS

The White Queen is being chased from pillar to post ! In addition to a strong attack Black has a decisive material advantage . There followed

34 Q-RS 35 Q-R3

P-N3 R-Bl

So as to be able to attack the White Queen by . . . B-B l .

36 R-KBl 37 Q·R4 38 QxB 39 QxNP

B-Bl BxB QxP B-R6

Now mate can no longer be avoided: 40 R-B2 QxRch, etc .

40 R-QNl

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Sicilian Defense: Paulsen Variation 133

Desperation-and he may have been short of time.

40 . . . B-N7 mate

Black won by esthetic play and by making good use of the attacking chances at his disposal . White managed to maintain the balance for a long time, but his opponent's dynamic play on both wings with the great complications resulting from it posed problems which were, in the long run, too much for White . A single misjudgment brought him rapidly to a hopeless position .

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Game JO

The modified Paulsen System of the Sicilian

The Scheveningen System of the Sicilian

The meaning of White's N-QN3 in the Sicilian

A move with more than one goal in general a more successful move

The struggle for c4

Penetrating the opponent's position

Using all pieces near the opponent's King with maximum efficiency

Strategy vs. Tactics In each chess game the player's thought must be concentrated on

two entirely different areas of endeavor : (a) strategy , the general plan to be followed for a certain number of moves to attain a specified end, and (b) tactics , the handling of the needs of the immediate position . With strategy the player defines his general aims and gives himself an objective toward which to work; with tactics he tries to make the most of the opportunities offered by each successive move of his opponent.

Although the characteristics of the position which arises from a given opening may indicate a general overall strategy , a chess game can usually be divided into various sections , each one of which has its own strategic aim . The more clearly the player can define his chang­ing aim, the more likely he is to attain it .

In each succeeding position and especially in positions with certain types of indications, such as the loose piece, the double threat , or an unsafe position of the hostile King, the player must ask himself what tactical opportunities and what tactical pitfalls are offered to him and to his opponent . He must consider to some extent not only the result of each plausible reply, but in wild positions he would also profit by looking into implausible moves--for such a position sometimes offers hidden tactical resources.

Annotated master games contain analyses of numerous lines which could have been chosen by the players at various points in the game but which were not . Such analyses could have been the consequence of prescribed strategy or tactics and might help one understand why

134

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certain lines were rejected and why certain lines would have been preferable to the one chosen .

Sicilian Defense - Schevenlngen Variation Candidates' Match - Leningrad - 1 974

Anatoly Karpov - USSR

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3 3 P-Q4 4 NxP 5 N-QB3

Boris Spassky - USSR

P-QB4 P-Q3 PxP N-KB3 P-K3

The position is now identical with that of the Peters-Larsen game and remains so through White 's next move .

6 B-K2

Another possibility is the aggressive 6 P-KN4, the idea of which is to continue with P-N5 in order to disturb the normal position of the Black K-side pieces and to bring them into disorder at the cost of weakening the White K-side . But Karpov is a positional player who does not like this type of aggressive continuation in the opening . He prefers the strategic approach by White , which consists of a K-side attack prepared systematically, the defense of the White Q-side , and tJ:ie prevention of Black's center attack by . . . P-Q4 and . . . P-K4.

6 • • . 7 0-0 8 P-B4

B-K2 0-0

As in the Peters-Larsen game, this is essential to White 's strategy of building up a K-side attack . Usually it is preceded by the preparatory moves K-R l and/or B-K3 , but in this game those moves are not necessary at this point since the Black QN has not yet been developed to c6.

8 . . • N-B3

From the classical Paulsen Variation, described in Game 9, the

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136 Game 10

modified Paulsen Variation has developed. The main difference be­tween them is that in the classical Paulsen Black's QN is developed to d7 , whereas in the modified Paulsen it is played to c6.

On c6 the Black QN now presses against d4, which is the more significant because of the open diagonal from b6 to f2 .

When in 1 923 Maroczy developed a promising White system to combat the modified Paulsen system, it was called the Scheveningen Variation because it was first played at the Scheveningen tournament held that year . The Maroczy system is characterized by moving the White King to h I and by pushing the White KBP to its 4th square before developing White' s QB .

9 B-K3

Rather than move his King to h I , Karpov protects his KN a second time and closes the b6/f2 diagonal to a certain extent .

9 • • • B-Q2

Also playable at this point is 9 . . . P-K4 with the idea of obtaining more influence in the center , but after 10 PxP PxP 1 1 N-B5 White still maintains some initiative . Or White can safely answer 9 . . . P-K4 with 10 N-N3 . But 10 N-B3 would cost a Pawn after 10 . . . PxP 1 1 BxP Q-N3ch 1 2 K-R l QxP.

10 N-N3

In many variations of the Sicilian this is an important move by which White accomplishes several objectives : (a) he anticipates a

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possible . . . P-K4 by moving away his KN; (b) he softens Black's pressure on d4, for although this pressure is not so important right now, it could be increased with a move such as . . . Q-N3 , made after careful preparation; and (c) he takes the force out of the maneuver . . . N-QR4-B5 , which can be very disagreeable for White in the classical variations of the Sicilian .

A more aggressive way to proceed at this point is 10 Q-K l in order to bring the Queen to the K-side . That variation might continue 1 0 . . . R-B l 1 1 P-N4 N-QR4 1 2 R-Ql N-B5 1 3 B-B l followed by 14 Q-N3 . But Karpov prefers not to be aggressive in the opening .

10 . • • P-QR4

This move, frequently played under such circumstances , threatens to advance Black' s QRP to a3 in order to weaken White' s Q-side pawn structure .

1 1 P-QR4

Black is thus prevented from carrying out the above plan . But to prevent this White had to permit the creation of a weakness on b4, on which square Black will immediately install a Knight .

11 • • • N-QNS

From b4 the Black Knight exerts pressure on White 's QBP and on the vital 45-square with the result that White now has somewhat less freedom of movement.

12 B-B3

As was also the case in the Peters-Larsen game, the White Bishop now presses against d5 and increases the mobility of the White Queen . True , this Bishop no longer controls c4, but that is not so important now . Since Black's QN is already on b5 , the sometimes common Black maneuver . . . QN-R4-B5 is now out of the question .

12 • • • B-B3

This is inconsistent. Black invites the White Knight to return to d4 ,

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138 Game 10

but because he wants to play . . . P-K4, Black must then play . . . g6 in order to keep the Knight from going to f5 .

Correct here was 1 2 . . . P-K4 so as to be able to continue with . . . P-Q4 without giving White the opportunity of answering P-K5 , in which case his KP is still supported by his KBP. Black's plan, after preparation , would be . . . P-K4; . . . PxP; . . . P-Q4.

After 1 2 . . . P-K4, with the possible continuation 1 3 K-Rl ( to avoid an eventual . . . Q-N3) 1 3 . . . B-B3 1 4 PxP (after 14 Q-K2 PxP 15 BxP P-Q4 could follow, and Black' s position is satisfactory, for another function of Black 's QN is to support the advance of Black's QP to d5) 14 . . . PxP 1 5 Q-K2, eventually to be followed by QR-Q I and N-Q5 .

13 N-Q4

White '§ QN now returns to d4 to attack Black's QB and to discour­age Black from playing . . . P-K4, which could now be answered by N-B5 .

13 • • • P-KN3?

To prevent White 's Knight from going to f5 after a possible . . . P-K4. However , the text results in a weakening of Black' s K-position which may later become important . Therefore, 1 3 . . . Q-Q2 fol­lowed by 14 . . . KR-B l would have been preferable .

14 R-Bl!

A good move with several ideas behind it : (a) it affords the QBP

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additional protection; (b) it offers the possibility of Q-KB l or of doubling the Rooks along the KB-file; and (c) it also creates the possibility of the White KR's going to d2 and exerting additional pressure along the Q-file and, after preparation the possibility of doubling Rooks on the Q-file .

14 • • • P-K4

The realization of Black's strategic idea of playing . . . P-K4 in order to exert more influence in the center and to have a greater opportunity of defending against a K-side attack.

In general , in all modern strategic concepts of the Scheveningen Black cannot sufficiently deploy his forces without this key move .

15 NxB

Without permitting this exchange Black could not realize his much desired . . . P-Q4-and Black is very eager for the chance to make this move-because the Pawn in the center will give him greater freedom.

15 • • • PxN

After 1 5 . . . NxN the reply 1 6 P-B5 is very strong, for then Black's QP and his Q4-square are both incurably weak, and White gets attacking chances on the K-wing .

16 PxP

This opens the KB-file for White and saddles Black with two isolated Pawns . For the moment this is not too important , but as soon as White gets a grip on either c4 or c5 , Black will be in a difficult situation, as will be seen later .

16 • • • PxP

Black does not get to play his . . . P-Q4 after all , but he has obtained equality in the center in another way , for his KP now controls the center just as much as does White' s KP.

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140 Game 10

17 Q-KBl

This move (a) clears the Q-file so that White can station his Rooks on it , (b) doubles on the KB-file with all the implications that such a move has, and (c) could lead to an eventual Q-B4. We have already noted that c4 could be very important in exploiting the Black Q-side weaknesses .

Black is already in a difficult position . His situation is bad for (a) his QRP and his QBP are vulnerable ; (b) White ' s attack on f7 could be very difficult to parry , given the possibility of B-KR6 (driving away the Rook) and the support White 's KB or Queen would afford if either should come to c4; and ( c) White action along the Q-file as well as the KB-file could become awkward for Black.

At this point White has several promising possibilities, and Black must keep all of them in mind.

17 • • • Q-Bl

A good move, for it removes the Queen from the Q-file and enables Black to answer a possible 1 8 Q-B4 with 1 8 . . . Q-R3 , thus negating White' s control of c4.

18 P-R3

To prevent Black from playing . . . N-N5 , although this would not be effective immediately , for if Black answers some White move other than the text by 1 8 . . . N-N5 , then 19 BxN QxB 20 B-R6.

18 • • • N-Q2?

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A positional error, for it leads directly to White ' s occupation of c4 by his Queen .

1 ) Better is 1 8 . . . K-N2, to prevent an eventual B-R6, and 1 9 . . . P-R4, to be able to follow u p with 20 . . . N-R2 without giving White control over g4 . If pressure against f7 should be­come too strong, Black could continue with . . . P-KB4, although such a risky move on Black's K-side should be very carefully planned .

2) Another possible try for Black is 1 8 . . . Q-K3 , making use of '

the fact that White cannot play 1 9 B-K2 at once because of 1 9 . . . NxBP. Black could make an interesting sacrifice of the Exchange with . . . KR-Ql -Q5 , as proposed by Tai .

3) Still another idea is 1 8 . . . R-N l , to answer 1 9 Q-B4 with 1 9 . . . N-KI and 20 . . . N-Q3 .

19 B-N4!

This opens the KB-file for White . It is curious to note how strong this move is . Its aim is simply to enable White to take possession of c4, as will become clear from the next few moves . It also prevents . . . B-B4 by pinning the protecting N/2 . Were 19 . . . B-B4 pos­sible , it would not only stop White 's aggressive plans but also give Black considerable possibilities for counterattack . For example, if instead 1 9. QR-Q l B-B4 20 BxB NxB 21 Q-B4 (but circumstances have changed so that c4 is no longer so important) 2 1 . . . N-K3 followed by 22 . . . N-Q5 or 22 . . . N-B5 .

White does not play 19 Q-B4 at once, since it would be answered by 1 9 . . . Q-R3 . The creation of a safe harbor Jor his Queen on c4 is a long-term objective for White .

White is now threatening 20 R-Ql , winning material , for if 20 . . . R-Q l 2 1 RxP.

19 • • • P-R4

Keres terms this a rather risky move in a bad position. The text certainly represents a weakening of Black' s K-side , and if White' s Knight could come over to that side , which i t eventually does, Black would be finished .

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142 Game 10

Preferable is 1 9 . . . Q-B2, which at least avoids weakening the Black K-position .

20 BxN

Tai suggests the interesting sacrifice 20 BxP ! ? PxB 2 1 Q-K2, but Karpov prefers to work with positional weapons .

20 • • • QxB

Now an immediate 2 1 B-R6 would be answered by 2 1 . . . B-B4 . So . . .

21 Q-B4

White's maneuverings are crowned with great strategic success . He threatens both 22 QR-KB l and 22 B-R6, and then Black cannot prevent 23 RxP, which demolishes the entire Black position. This shows among other things the great importance of having the White Queen on c4.

21 • • • B-RS

The best way to parry White ' s threats . Black has prevented the doubling of the White Rooks on the KB-file .

22 R-Q2 Q-K2

Perhaps accepting a further mutilation of his pawn structure by 22 . . . Q-K3 23 QxQ PxQ would have been Black's best chance .

But the text is a neat trick . If White now plays the obvious 23 B-B5 then there follows 23 . . . Q-N4 (White' s R/2 is now attacked) 24 R-Q7 NxP 25 R-KB 1 N-K6 26 BxN QxBch 27 K-R l K-R l 28 R/7xP RxR 29 QxR R-KN l , and while White's position looks very threaten­ing, he cannot do much and will have to be careful on his own K-wing because of threats such as . . . B-N6 and . . . B-B5 .

23 R-KBI !

Now 24 B-B5 i s a real threat .

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Sicilian Defense: Scheveningen Variation 143

23 • • • KR-Ql

This weakens Black's vulnerable f7 , but 23 . . . QR-Ql would not have been much better . Then 24 B-B5 would not have won material because of 24 . . . Q-N2, but White could have proceeded as in the game with 24 N-Nl ! with the double threat of 25 B-B5 and 25 P-B3 . It appears that there is no adequate defense for Black at this point .

24 N-Nl!

This move serves a number of important purposes : (a) i t makes possible P-B3 , driving the Black Knight from its powerful outpost ; (b) it supports the R/2 , which frees the Bishop for other play, especially for B-B5 ; and (c) it is the first step toward bringing the Knight to KB3 via d2 and into the attack.

24 • • • Q-N2

Anticipating a later B-B5 , and perhaps Black still hopes to play . . . Q-R3 eventually . However, this woulc;J be possible only after Black's KBP gets further protection .

25 K-R2!

A mysterious-looking move which shows that White is in no hurry and will prepare his attack very carefully and in a leisurely manner . It actually offers White possibilities , none of which need be a part of his direct plan . It threatens 26 P-KN3 , after which the Black Bishop has no satisfactory retreat (if 26 . . . B-K2, then 27 QxPch, and after

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144 Game 10

26 . . . RxRch 27 NxR B-Q l 28 N-B3 , and White ' s attack is speeded up) .

25 • • • K-N2

In order to be able to bring the Bishop back to f6 if necessary .

26 P-B3 N-R3

The Knight has nowhere else to go . From being a mighty restraining force on White' s actions, it is now relegated to a position where its only function is to guard c5 .

27 R-K2!

White makes room for his Knight on d2 and prevents the simplify­ing liquidation of Rooks, which might have facilitated the Black defense .

27 • • • 28 N-Q2

R-KBl B-Ql

Anticipating 29 N-B3 with a simultaneous attack on Black's KP and Bishop. As will soon be seen , 28 . . . B-K2 would have saved an­other tempo, but this is no longer of much importance . The battle is strategically lost , for Black' s Pawns are weak and his pieces are not very actively posted; White is pressing against f7 , and with open lines for his Rooks and Bishop and accessible squares for his Knight he can steadily increase his hold on the Black position . It is only a matter of time .

29 N-B3

Attacking Black's KP, which will have to be defended .

29 • • • P-B3

This not only defends the KP but also prevents the penetration of the White Knight via g5 .

If 29 . . . B-B3 , then 30 R/2-KB2 followed by 3 1 N-N5 .

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Sicilian Defense: Scheveningen Variation

30 R-Q2

Threatening 3 1 Q-K6 and 32 R-Q7ch .

30 . . . 31 Q-K6

Threatening 32 R-Q7 .

31 • • • 32 RxR

B-K2

QR-Ql

145

If now 32 . . . RxR 33 NxP decides : 33 . . . Q-B2 (33 . . . PxN 34 R-B7ch, etc . ) 34 Q-B7ch K-R l 35 QxB PxN (35 . . . QxQ 36 NxPch; w,ith 35 . . . QxNch 36 QxQ PxQ 37 R-B6, Black could have prolonged the hopeless struggle) 36 R-B8ch RxR 37 QxRch K-R2 38 Q-R6ch K-Nl 39 QxPch, etc ..

32 • . . 33 R-Ql 34 B-BS 35 RxB

BxR N-Nl R-Rl Resigns

After 35 . . . RxR, White replies 36 B-K7 and the Black King is unable to withstand the combined force of White' s Queen , Knight , and Bishop: 36 . . . R-Kl 37 QxPch, and now

1 ) 37 . . . K-N l 38 QxPch K-R l 39 B-B6ch followed by mate ;

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146 Game 10

2) 37 . . . K-R2 38 Q-B7ch K-R3 39 B-N5 mate ;

3) 37 . . . K-R3 38 N-R4 R-NI 39 N-B5ch K-R2 40 Q-B7ch K-Rl 41 B-B6ch, etc .

White won this game because he knew superbly well how to combine strategy and tactics . His strategy consisted of two important elements : strengthening the attacking possibilities against the Black K-position and at the same time keeping Black's Q-wing under control in such a way that Black could never get counterchances . Black's positional error strongly increased his difficulties and enabled White to finish the game with several forceful moves .

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Game 1 1

The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian

A White K-side attack vs. Black's plans against the other wing

A temporary pawn sacrifice by White with unfortunate consequences

for the uncastled Black King

The sacrifice to open an important file and to give access to a square

which will lead to a dynamic attack

Luring the opponent's Queen into an apparently strong but in reality

inactive position

A marvelous combined attack and defense by a strongly posted Bishop

Double sacrifice of the Exchange to keep lines open and to bring pieces

into a commanding position

Careful prevention of the consolidation of the defender's position

The Initiative One of the important advantages one can get in the course of a chess

game is the initiative . A player can often afford to give up some material to attain it and can sometimes continue to sacrifice to main­tain it .

The target of such initiative is normally the opponent's King, which is usually continually threatened and given no respite by the attacker' s various pieces. The player with the initiative �annot allow his oppo­nent to intercept the attacking lines by interposing pieces unless those pieces can be eliminated through exchange or sacrifice and the enemy King thus drawn more deeply into the mating net .

The order in which the attacker makes his moves is of paramount importance . If he has sacrificed to get the initiative, under no circum­stances can he afford to lose it, for he might then find himself in a position where his opponent' s material superiority would count .

Sicilian Defense - Najdorf Variation FIDE Zonal Tournament - Sio Paul�� Brazi l - 1 972

147

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148

Ernesto Rodriguez - Peru

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3 3 P-Q4 4 NxP S N-QB3

Game 1 1

Miguel Quinteros - Argentina

P-QB4 P-Q3 PxP N-KB3

We have already seen this sequence of moves in the Karpov­Korchnoi Dragon Defense in Game 8 . But now the present game branches off into another system.

s . . . P-QR3

As already remarked, this move prevents the White Bishop and Knights from going to b5 and prepares for a possible . . . P-QN4 later . Black postpones the development of his QN which, in the course of this game, will go to d7 .

6 B-NS

The so-called Najdorf Variation . By the text White brings his QB to a good square and makes a Black K-side fianchetto positionally unwise, since 6 . . . P-KN3 7 BxN PxB would give Black an isolated QP and a doubled Pawn on his K-side .

In many other variations of the Sicilian and particularly in those in which Black has already fianchettoed his KB , the White QB goes to its K3 to support the Q4-square . This was the case in the Karpov­Korchnoi Dragon .

6 . . . P-K3

With this move Black avoids a doubled Pawn after a possible BxN and is now able to develop his KB .

7 P-B4

White endeavors to make full use of his superiority in space to build

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up a strong center, which may lead in the middle game to a K-side attack , often begun by P-K5 .

7 • • • QN-Q2

With the text Black prefers the positional struggle in harmony with the aims of the Sicilian: pressure along the QB-file by . . . Q-B2 and . . . QR-QB 1 and the fianchetto of the QB after . . . . P-QN4.

Had Black played 7 . . . N-B3 instead, then 8 NxN PxN 9 P-K5 with advantage to White, for then 9 . . . PxP 10 QxQch KxQ 1 1 PxP, and Black loses at least a Pawn after 1 1 . . . P-R3 1 2 BxNch PxB 1 3 PxP.

At this point 7 . . . Q-N3 is sometimes played. This leads to an interesting gambit after 8 Q-Q2 QxP 9 N-N3 . It is debatable whether this line is advantageous for White or for Black .

8 Q-K2

The role of the Queen at e2 will become more evident at Black's 9th and lOth moves .

More often 8 Q-B3 is played llt this point . It has the advantage over the text of enabling the Queen to participate in a K-side attack more rapidly by moving either to g3 or h3 . On the other hand, at f3 the Queen may come into line with Black's Bb7 (where it will be posted after . . . P-QN4) ; also on f3 the Queen does not constitute a direct threat to Black's King .

8 • • • Q-B2

Black establishes control over the QB-file, unpins his KN, and strengthens his control over e5 so that White cannot successfully push his KP.

Leading to the same position is 8 . . . B-K2 9 0-0-0 Q-B2 . In this variation Black could also play 9 . . . 0-0, but in that case White gets the K-side attack he wants with 10 P-KN4, although it is not certain that this will decide the game.

F

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150 Game 11

9 0-0-0

The logical continuation because White wishes to attack on the K-side . On his Sth move White had already decided to castle on the Q-side, and this must give best attacking chances . In general , this is the case when the opposing players castle on different wings. If Black castles short , he has the half-open QB-file for an attack against White' s King , but much later .

For 9 P-KN4, see the following Savon-Mecking game .

9 • • • B-K2

Black could have played 9 . . . P-N4, but he probably feared the sacrifice 10 N-Q5 PxN 1 1 PxP dis eh B-K2 12 N-B6, and White gets a tremendous attack for the sacrificed piece . Whether or not it is correct, it poses difficult problems for the defender . Here we see the role of the Queen on e2 . If after the move mentioned Black continues 1 2 . . . N-QN l , then 1 3 BxN PxB 14 P-KN3 NxN 1 5 PxN . True, White has lost a piece in the process , but his Pc6 is strong and neither of Black's Bishops can do much, so it is difficult to say which side stands bet­ter .

10 P-KN4

A very aggressive move . Under certain circumstances White could eventually continue with BxN and P-KN5 .

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10 . . . P-R3?

The beginning of a maneuver of dubious value . Black probably had nothing better than castling , after which White would get exactly what he wanted-an opportunity to attack the Black castled King .

Because of White' s Q/K2 , 10 . . . P-N4 would not be quite suffi­cient in this position because of 1 1 B-N2 B-N2 12 P-K5 ! , and if 1 2 . . . PxP 1 3 PxP NxKP? 14 BxB QxB 15 QxN, winning a piece . If 1 0 . . . P-N4 1 I B-N2 R-QN I I 2 P-K5 PxP I 3 N-B6( ! ) , also with advantage to White .

1 1 B-R4

Not good is I I BxN, for it simplifies the position and makes things easier for Black . The exchange can be considered here only if it can be followed by P-N5 , and that is not possible at this point . The attacker should not exchange pieces without a definite reason .

1 1 . . . P-KN4?

Because Black's King is still in the center of the board and not castled Q-side , the text is not very satisfactory , although it has been played in similar positions. However, Black has been playing for just this setup, hoping for a favorable continuation .

At this point, I I . . . 0-0 would not be recommendable either , since with 1 2 P-N5 White can force the opening of a file for attack . Nor is I I . . . P-QN4 I 2 B-N2 satisfactory for Black for the reasons given under Black 's lOth move . No move is satisfactory for Black in this position , but the text move turns out to be the worst . "

12 PxP N-R2

This is the point of Black's maneuver-with it he wins back his Pawn . However , White now has a multitude of sacrifices at his disposal .

After I 2 . . . PxP I 3 BxP Black would simply lose his Pawn .

13 N-BS!

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152 Game 1 1

A fine sacrifice , based on the fact that Black's KP i s overworked since it must guard d5 and f5 at the same time ; and to a lesser extent because of the fact that if Black accepts the sacrifice , he opens the K-file for White .

13 . . . PxN

Practically forced. Let us examine what happens if he does not accept :

1 ) 1 3 . . . NxP 14 NxB KxN 1 5 B-N3 , and White's position is superior, for he is threatening 1 6 BxPch; 1 5 . . . P-K4 does not work because of 16 N-Q5ch;

2) 1 3 . . . PxP 14 NxB PxB 1 5 NxB RxN, and White stands better because the Black King cannot find a safe place and Black's QP is weak;

3) 1 3 . . . B-B l 14 NxRP, and White is two Pawns up and has a beautiful position;

4) 1 3 . . . BxPch 14 BxB NxB 1 5 NxPch, and White is a Pawn up in a wonderful position .

14 N-QS

In return for the sacrificed Knight White gets dynamic attacking

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possibilities by occupying the outpost on d5 and, on the following move, by opening the K-file .

14 • • • Q-R4

The most active place for the Queen, for he is now attacking White's QRP.

However, also to be considered is 14 . . . Q-Q 1 to protect the Black KB . There could follow 1 5 KPxP PxP ( 1 5 . . . K-B 1 1 6 P-B6) 16 B-N3 N-B4 ( 1 6 . . . K-B l ? 17 NxB QxN 1 8 BxP! or 16 . . . N-K4 17 BxN PxB 1 8 QxP P-B3 19 N-B7ch) 17 P-B6 or 17 NxB QxN 1 8 QxQch followed by 19 BxPch.

15 KPxP

Threatening mate .

15 • • • 16 NxB

N-K4 KxN

After 16 . . . QxP 17 P-N6 N-N4 1 8 BxN PxB 19 P-N7 the one-piece sally on the Q-wing is not sufficient to counter White's powerful attack, which leads to material advantage .

17 B-Kl

The obvious 17 P-N6 dis eh would be answered by 17 . . . N-N4, and White has no way to continue the attack . The variation chosen by White is a clear combination of attack and def ense. against the intru­sion of the Black Queen.

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154

17 • • • 18 B-B3

Game 1 1

QxP

With the deadly threat of 1 9 BxN PxB 20 QxPch, etc . It is important for White to maintain his Pawn on g5 for a few moves to prevent Black both from consolidating his position and from protecting his Ne5 by . . . P-B3, which would completely stop White's attack .

Instead of the text , 1 8 B-N4 is tempting, but after 1 8 . . . Q-R8ch 19 K-Q2 QxP 20 B-B3 Q-N4 White's attack comes to an end .

18 • • • R-Ql

Preventing 19 BxN, for if White now answers 19 BxN, then 1 9 . . . Q-R8ch 20 K-Q2 PxB dis eh ! and Black wins .

19 P-N3!

Another very strong move which prevents Black from checking on a 1 . White again threatens 20 BxN. Here we can clearly see the function of White's Pg5 . Without it simply 19 . . . P-B3 would follow, and Black should be practically out of danger .

19 • • • N/2xP!

A very fine defense. Now after 20 BxN PxB 2 1 QxPch Black saves himself by 2 1 . . . B-K3 , and if 22 PxB ? , Black wins by 22 . . . Q­R6ch. With the text Black threatens 20 . . . P-B3 with consolidation.

20 R-QS!

The threat of 2 1 R-R5 , winning the Queen , forces Black to play 2 1 . . . P-QR4, and then 2 1 RxNch comes into the picture .

20 • • • P-QR4

To prevent 2 1 R-R5 , winning the Queen . And 20 . . . Q-R6ch does not change the situation after 2 1 K-N l .

21 RxNch

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Now after 2 1 . . . PxR 22 QxPch

I ) 22 . . . K-Q2 23 B-N5 mate ;

2) 22 . . . K-B I 23 Q-R8ch K-K2 24 B-B6ch is decisive ;

3) 22 . . . B-K3 23 Q-B5ch R-Q3 24 P-B6ch K-Q2 25 B-N5ch R-B3 26 R-Q l ch K-B2 27 B-K5ch, etc . ;

4) 22 . . . N-K3 23 B-N5 B-Q2 (Black has hardly anything else) 24 PxN

4a) 24 . . . BxP 25 Q-B5ch R-Q3 26 R-Q l (26 Q-B7ch is also possible) 26 . . . R-Q I 27 B-K5 , etc . ; 4b) 24 . . . BxB 25 PxP dis eh KxP 26 Q-B6ch K-K I 27 R-K l ch K-Q2 28 Q-K6ch K-B2 29 B-K5ch , etc .

21 • • . 22 R-K3

K-81

Now White threatens 23 P-R4 , driving the Black Knight to an inactive post .

22 • • . P-Q4

In order to be able to play . . . N-K5 and thus block the K-file . If 22 . . . P-R5 23 P-R4 N-R2 is forced , since 23 . . . PxP 24 PxN

does not give Black any real chances . If 23 . . . N-R2 24 B-KN2 (with equal material) , White' s position is overwhelming . His pieces

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156 Game 11

are active , whereas Black's pieces are more or less paralyzed . Black' s counterattack has come to a dead end .

23 Q-NS

White now threatens 24 Q-B5ch followed by 25 Q-Q4 . So Black has nothing better than to close the K-file and at the same time prevent 24 Q-B5ch, but this appears to be inadequate .

23 • • • 24 RxN

N-KS

White does not need his Rook for the mating attack so he sacrifices the Exchange, eliminating the Black Knight and thus clearing the way for his Queen .

24 • • • Px:R 25 Q-BSch

If now 25 . . . K-KI , then 26 B-N5ch B-Q2 27 B-KB6 wins immediately .

25 • • • 26 Q-KS

K-Nl

And if 26 . . . K-B 1 27 Q-R8ch K-K2 28 B-B6ch wins .

26 • • • 27 B-B4ch

P-B3 Resigns

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For White mates in a few moves : 27 . . . K-R2 28 Q-K7ch, etc .

Black lost the game because of an unfavorable maneuver which enabled White, at the price of one piece, to make a number of strong aggressive threats which , interspersed with pretty sacrifices ; brought Black into a hopeless position . Remarkable is the fact that within a few moves White was able both to paralyze Black's attack and to breathe new life into his own attack .

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Game l2

Typical Black development i n the Sicilian

Vigorous play by Black along the QB-file

The indirect attack

The sham sacrifice

The surprising combinative tum

The great value of the Exchange in the endgame

Pawn sacrifice to open a file for activity

Restricting movements of the opponent's pieces

Discovered check and the mating net

Winning a Game through Small Advantages Some chess games are won by overwhelming attacks which lead to

direct mate in the middle game. But it is not always possible to reach such a mate , the more so in games between masters , whose defensive powers are considerable .

An alternate method of procedure is to attain some sort of advan­tage, material or otherwise , during the opening or middle game and then to reduce through exchange the number of pieces on the board so that the advantage gained weighs more heavily than it did when most of the pieces were on the board in order that this advantage can eventually lead to victory .

There are various types of small advantages . The winning player may have stronger pieces , a material advantage such as R vs . B + P or two light pieces vs . R + P; in some cases he has a more active Rook than his opponent , in others the Bishop pair; he may have a more advanced Pawn or his Pawns may be posted in such a way that he has greater chances to queen first ; in an ending where both sides have a King and the same number of Pawns , his King may be in a better position; or one of the players may be able to force his opponent into Zugzwang .

Given the fact that many games must be decided in the endgame rather than in the middle game, it is always desirable to keep in mind

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the endgame that could arise from the middle game, especially with respect to pawn formation and K-position , and to work toward achiev­ing a favorable endgame through a judicious exchange of pieces .

Sicilian Defense - Najdorf Variation lnterzonal - Petropolls, Brazil - 1 973

Vladimir Savon - USSR

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3 3 P-Q4 4 NxP S N-QB3 6 B-PNS 7 P-B4 8 Q-K2

Henrique Mecking - Brazil

P-QB4 P-Q3 PxP N-KB3 P-QR3 P-K3 QN-Q2 Q-B2

Up to this point the moves are the same as those in Game 1 1 .

9 P-KN4

This is good for a later K-side attack and consistent since White ' s KB is to be developed to g2 ; for that purpose 9 P-KN3 would not be good since it blocks the free movement of White ' s QB .

Another system is 9 0-0-0, which clears the K-file and prepares for the sacrifice N-Q5 or N-B5 . In the Bronstein-Gheorghiu game, played in the same round as this one, there followed 9 . . . P-N4 1 0 P-QR3 R-QN I ? (this error enabled White to make the sacrifice which fol­lows) 1 1 N-Q5 PxN 1 2 PxP dis eh B-K2 1 3 N-B6 N-N3 14 BxN PxB 1 5 NxR with a bad position for Black .

9 • • • P-N4

Consistent with the Black strategy in the Sicilian . Black' s QB will be developed to b7 , his QR to c8, and his QNP will be ready to advance in order to drive away the White Knight at c3 .

10 P-QR3

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It is customary not to allow . . . P-N5 as long as White ' s QN has no good square to which to move .

Again after 10 0-0-0 P-N5 White could sacrifice with 1 1 N-Q5 Px.N 12 PxP dis eh B-K2 1 3 N-B6 N-N3 , but it is not sure that this compensates for the sacrificed piece .

10 • • • 1 1 B-N2

Regular Sicilian development .

12 0-0-0

B-K2 B-N2

An immediate 12 P-K5 does not work, for after 12 . . . Px.P 13 Px.P NxKP 14 BxB QxB , White' s KR is en prise . But after the text 1 3 P-K5 is a threat .

12 • • •

Continuing the Black strategy of commanding the QB-file in the Sicilian . This could be particularly effective since White has castled long.

Black must feel certain that White cannot afford to play 1 3 P-K5 , which is, however, not so easy to meet . Some variations :

1 3 P-K5

1 ) 1 3 . . . Px.P l a) 14 BxB QxB 1 5 PxP N-Q4

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l a l ) 16 N-K4 NxP and Black can hold his own, for 1 7 BxB is answered by 17 . . . QxB ; l a2) 1 6 B-Q2 NxN 1 7 BxN BxP! and Black stands best ;

l b) 14 PxP BxB 1 5 PxN PxP ( 1 5 . . . BxR 16 PxB is risky for Black) 1 6 QxB PxB , and as compensation for the Pawn White has more mobility and the Black King is not safe .

2) 1 3 . . . BxB 1 4 PxN PxP ( 14 . . . BxR is risky : 1 5 PxP R-KNl 1 6 BxB KxB 1 7 RxB) 1 5 QxB PxB 1 6 P-B5, and although White is a Pawn down he has counterchances .

We may conclude that White should have played 1 3 P-K5 . It does not lead to any advantage, but especially in variations l b) and 2) White gets good chances for the sacrificed Pawn .

13 B-R4(?)

With the intention of playing B-N3 and eventually P-K5 . But the White Bishop is now a loose piece, that is , one which is unprotected by another White piece, and it is indirectly attacked by Black's KB . White must continually take into consideration the possibility of a direct attack by Black's KB if the Black Knight should move in such a way as to capture some other White piece or Pawn . Then White might have to deal with that move, and meanwhile his B/4 would be en prise .

The main theme of the game for the next five moves is governed by (a) the possibility of P-K5 for White, which we have already explored under 1 2 . . . R-QB l ; and (b) the possibility for Black of 1 3 . . . NxKP, which can be illustrated by the following variations :

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162 Game 12

1 3 . . . NxKP

I ) 1 4 BxB ? NxN (otherwise Black is a piece down) 1 5 PxN BxB ( 1 5 . . . KxB ? 1 6 N-B5ch, etc . ) 1 6 QxB KxB , and Black has won a Pawn;

2) 14 NxN BxB ? 1 5 NxKP ! PxN 1 6 NxPch , etc . ;

3) 1 4 NxN BxN 1 5 BxQB BxB 1 6 P-N5 ! (threatening to win the Bishop by 1 7 N-B3)

3a) 16 . . . Q-B4 (to answer 1 7 N-B3 by 1 7 . . . B-B7) 1 7 R-Q2 and wins ( 1 7 . . . P-R3 1 8 Q-R5 B-B7 1 9 NxKP or 1 7 . . . P-Q4 1 8 B-N2 P-R3 19 Q-R5 or 1 9 NxKP) ; 3b) 1 6 . . . N-B4 1 7 B-Q3 P-R3 1 8 N-B5 PxP 1 9 NxQPch QxN 20 BxPch .

The last variation is a bit tricky . If White plays 1 8 Q-R5? (instead of 1 8 N-B5) then 1 8 . . . P-K4 ! , and the White Knight cannot afford to move because of 19 . . . NxBch 20 RxN?? QxP mate .

From these variations it can be seen that the time for this sham sacrifice is not yet ripe .

13 . • . Q-BS!

This is a very strong move . After the exchange of Queens , White 's KNP is threatened , and the possibility of a successful sham sacrifice with . . . NxKP increases . We have seen in the analysis under 1 3 B-R4 that the White Queen played an important part in the refutation of 1 3 . . . NxKP.

14 QxQ(?)

Not the best. Protecting White 's KNP by 1 4 P-R3 or 1 4 B-B3 should be considered ; for example ,

1 ) 1 4 P-R3 QxQ 1 5 N/4xQ l a) 1 5 . . . NxKP? (Black is not yet ready for this move) 1 6 BxN QBxB 1 7 NxB BxB 1 8 NxPch ; l b) 1 5 . . . N-B4 1 6 BxN PxB , and although Black has some initiative the White position is certainly defensible;

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2) 1 4 B-B3 offers exactly the same possibilities as 1 4 P-R3 .

14 • • • 15 B-B3

RxQ

As far as what happens in the game, 1 5 P-R3 would have accom­plished the same purpose, but White hopes to maintain the threat of P-N5 in order to displace the Black KN and then his B/3 controls h5 . The text does not lead to control . Preferable was 1 5 BxN or 1 5 P-N5 . In either case Black seizes the initiative .

15 • • • N-B4

Attacking White ' s KP a third time. This position deserves serious analysis . Let us consider 1 ) 1 6

P-K5 ? , 2 ) 1 6 KR-K 1 , and 3 ) 1 6 B-K2 (the continuation of the game itself) :

1 ) 1 6 P-K5? PxP 1 7 PxP ( 1 7 BxB NxB 1 8 PxP NxP winning a Pawn for Black) 1 7 . . . BxB 1 8 PxN ( 1 8 NxB NxP again win­ning a Pawn for Black) 1 8 . . . BxQR! and wins ( 19 RxB PxP or 19 PxB RxN/5) ;

2 ) 1 6 KR-K l KNxKP (at last the indirect threat , which u p to now did not work, comes into play)

2a) 17 BxB NxN 1 8 PxN ( 1 8 BxB NxR) 1 8 . . . BxB 1 9 NxB KxB , and Black has a plus Pawn; 2b) 1 7 BxN BxQB , and White loses a Pawn in all variations ;

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164 Game 12

2c) 17 NxN BxN 18 BxKB ( 1 8 BxQB ? BxB) 18 . . . BxB 19 NxB KxB with advantage to Black .

16 B-K2 KNxKP

Again the indirect attack on White's QB with its pretty point . If now 1 7 BxR BxB : 1 ) 1 8 B-K2 N-B7, winning back the Ex­

change ; 2) 1 8 BxPch PxB 19 QNxP K-K2, and Black has two pieces and a promising position for a Rook and a Pawn . If 1 7 BxB NxN 1 8 BxR NxR with advantage to Black .

17 NxN 18 BxB

BxN

White hopes for 1 8 . . . KxB ( 1 8 . . . BxR results in the same position) 1 9 BxR BxR 20 BxNP (and if 20 . . . PxB 2 1 RxB) with equal chances.

18 • • • N-N6ch! !

A fatal surprise by which Black not only avoids the loss of the Exchange but even wins it . The point is that after 1 9 NxN RxPch 20 K-Nl Black has a powerful discovered check: 20 . . . RxB dis eh 2 1-K-R2 BxR.

19 K-Nl RxN

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This is a little stronger than 19 . . . NxN 20 BxR KxB(!) 21 RxN BxR 22 B-K2, after which Black is "only" one Pawn ahead .

20 BxQP 21 PxN 22 BxR

BxR RxRch K-Q2

After the smoke of the battlefield has lifted Black is the Exchange up .

23 B-K5 24 B-QB3

P-B3

The Exchange down, but with the Two Bishops White will try to get a draw .

24 • • • B-K5ch

Black's strategy will be (a) to exchange one of the Bishops ; (b) to restrict the diagonals of the Bishops (the diagonal of White' s QB is already restricted) ; and (c) to play for a passed Pawn.

25 K-R2

In general , a2 is a safer place for the King to take refuge than c 1 , but in this position we' ll see that it is not .

25 • • • K-B3 26 P-QR4

In order to get rid of his doubled Pawn, but the situation is risky if Black does not take. If White has to play PxPch and Black answers . . . PxP, mate already threatens .

26 • • • 27 B-K2

R-Ql P-K4

Black sacrifices a Pawn for the final attack.

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166

28 PxP 29 BxP

Game 12

PxP

If White does not take , Black keeps his passed Pawn . Perhaps 29 K-R3 is a little better , but after 29 . . . B-Q6 30 BxB

(30 B-B3ch P-K5) 30 . . . RxB 3 1 BxP P-N4 there is no longer any hope.

White now tries to exchange as many Pawns as possible thus increasing his drawing chances , but he does not realize how very bad the position of his King is .

29 • • • 30 B-Bl

R-Q7 R-Q8

Black is gradually getting White into a mating net . White ' s King has no place to go . Now 3 1 B-K2 fails against 3 1 . . . R-KS . If 3 1 B-R3 , there are two possible lines, taking into consideration that the White King is hemmed in and that Black has a discovered check in reserve :

1 ) 3 1 . . . PxP 32 PxP B-Q4ch 33 P-N3 R-Q6, winning a Pawn;

2) 3 1 . . . P-N5 ! (stronger because it prevents the White King from going to a3) 32 BxP P-KR4 (threatening 33 . . . B-N8ch 34 K-R l B-B4 dis eh 35 K-R2 PxP 36 B-N2 B-N8ch, etc . , and if 33 PxP B-N8ch 34 K-R l B-B4 dis eh, etc . , winning the Bishop in either case) 33 B-BS P-R4 (keeping the White King confined) 34

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B-K7 R-KN8 , winning the Bishop either by 35 . . . PxP or if 35 PxP by 35 . . . B-N8ch 36 K-R l B-B4 dis eh , etc .

Line 1 ) goes after small booty-a Pawn ; line 2) goes out for bigger game-the Bishop .

31 PxPch

This hastens the end, but the game is lost anyway , as we have shown in the preceding comments .

3 1 . . . 32 B-R3

PxP P-NS

Black hammers the nail in White ' s coffin .

33 BxP R-Q2 34 Resigns

For Black threatened both 34 . . . R-R2 mate and 34 . . . RxB.

White lost the game because he was put under pressure by Black 's build-up of powerful initiative along the QB-file and his continual threat of a sham sacrifice . He then became a victim of his opponent ' s refined combination accompanied by a sham sacrifice which had been

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168 Game 12

in the offing for some time but the execution of which was not possible sooner . In the endgame the cooperation between the Black Rook and Bishop was decisive , considering the unfavorable position of the White King .

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Game 13

White's maneuvers to get a superior pawn position in the opening

The isolated Pawn

Working toward the endgame when one has a better pawn position and a

pawn majority on the Q-side

Play against two isolated Pawns

Restricting the movement of an opponent's pieces by binding him to the

protection of a Pawn

Exchange of pieces in order to gain control of a file

Forcing the opponent to weaken his pawn structure in order to prevent the

enemy King from penetrating the pawn position

The power of two Rooks on the 7th rank

The Isolated Pawn

An isolated Pawn is one which stands "alone" because the Pawns of the adjacent files are no longer on the board. Consequently , this isolated Pawn cannot be protected by its own Pawns . In the above diagram Pd5 is isolated.

An isolated Pawn can constitute a serious weakness for the side that has it for two reasons : (a) since it cannot be supported by its fellow Pawns, it must be protected by pieces , and this necessity of protecting the Pawn restricts the activity of the pieces needed to protect it ; (b) in

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addition , the opponent can often place one of his own pieces in front of the isolat.ed Pawn with the assurance that it cannot be driven away by his adversary's Pawns . Thus the square in front of a player's isolated Pawn is a strong square for his opponent . In the diagramed position a White Knight on d4 would be very strong .

A player with two isolated Pawns has an even greater problem , since each one of the isolated Pawns can become the target of the opponent's attack and must therefore be protected by pieces .

The task of defending two weaknesses at the same time can become very difficult , for it requires great flexibility on the part of the defender-at least as much as that of the attacker. If the latter moves one or more of his attacking pieces from one target to the other , the defender often has to do the same in the same number of moves . Because of the difficulty of defending against two weaknesses , the symbolic statement is sometimes made that two weaknesses in a player's position are far more serious than twice one weakness .

Sici lian Defense - Irregular Candidates' Match - Buenos Aires - 1 971

Robert Fischer - USA

1 P-K4 2 N-KB3

Tigran Petrosian - USSR

P-QB4 P-K3

This can lead by transposition to the Paulsen , the Scheveningen , the Najdorf , or to quite different lines , as will be shown below .

With it Black opens a diagonal for his KB and postpones playing his QN until it becomes evident whether that Knight will be more useful on c6 or d7 .

3 P-Q4 4 NxP

PxP

The game can now develop in various directions:

(a) the Paulsen Variation, characterized by . . . P-QR3 , QN-Q2, and . . . Q-B2 (Game 9) .

(b) with 4 . . . N-QB3 , to the Taimanov System , which aims at developing Black's KB to c5 instead of to e7 (see the comment in the last paragraph under Black's 4th move) .

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(c) 4 . . . N-KB3 5 N-QB3 P-Q3 and ( 1 ) 6 B-K2, the Scheveningen (Game 1 0) ; (2) 6 B-KN5 P-QR3 , the Najdorf Variation, in which Black usually plays . . . P-QR3 and . . . P-Q3 before . . . P­K3 (Games 1 1 and 1 2) ; (3) 6 B-QR4, the Fischer Variation .

4 . • . P-QR3

Like 5 . . . P-QR3 in the two previous games , this is a good move in the Sicilian because it prevents White from bringing his Knight or Bishop to b5 , makes possible a later . . . P-QN4, which allows Black to fianchetto his QB , and again postpones the decision of whether Black should play his QN to c6 or to d7 .

On the other hand, White, who in many other variations of the Sicilian is busy defending his KP (because Black has already played . . . P-Q3 or . . . N-QB3 followed by . . . N-KB3) , now has much more freedom and could , for instance , now play 5 P-QB4, which gives him one extra unit of control over d5 and is also directed against b5 .

Also playable here is 4 . . . N-QB3 5 N-QB3 P-QR3 6 P-KN3 Q-B2 7 B-N2 N-B3 8 0-0 NxN 9 QxN B-B4, Ieading to the Taimanov Variation .

5 B-Q3

This reply leads to a kind of irregular line . White develops his KB and protects his KP, reserving the possibility of advancing his QBP and developing his QN to either c3 or d2 .

Two other possibilities are

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172 Game 13

1) 5 P-QB4 N-KB3 6 N-QB3 B-N5 l a) 7 B-Q3 N-B3 8 N-B2 BxNch 9 PxB P-Q4; l b) 7 B-Q2 0-0 (7 . . . BxN? 8 BxB NxP 9 Q-N4!) 8 P-K5 BxN 9 BxB N-K5 10 Q-B2 P-Q4 1 1 PxP e .p . NxB and 1 2 . . . QxP; l e) 7 P-K5 N-K5 8 Q-N4 NxN 9 P-QR3 B-B J ! 1 0 PxN P-Q3 .

In all these variations (some of them complicated) the theory of openings concludes that both players emerge with about equal chances .

2) 5 N-QB3 Q-B2 6 B-Q3 N-QB3 7 B-K3 N-B3 8 0-0 NxN 9 BxN B-B4, again with equal chances.

s . . . N-QB3

If you can force a hostile piece that has already made two moves to exchange itself for another piece, you win a tempo for development , although this does not count very much in closed openings like the Sicilian .

In this game, 5 . . . N-QB3 turned out to be unfavorable for Black, but it need not have been disadvantageous since Black had two or three satisfactory alternatives before reaching the unsatisfactory position in which he found himself at his 1 Oth move .

6 NxN

Fischer made this exchange because he had a special setup in mind. The game could also have continued 6 B-K3 N-B3 7 N-QB3 P-K4

(or 7 . . . Q-B2) 8 KN-K2 P-Q4. Or White could have played 6 N-N3 or 6 N-K2 . As a matter of fact , these last two lines result in the loss of a tempo, but , as already remarked, this is not so important in this type of game .

6 . . . NPxN

Now Black has a pawn majority in the center, but this gives him a great responsibility , as we shall soon see .

Perhaps Black did not like 6 . . . QPxN because it would make 4 . . . P-QR3 look like a wasted move, since in that case b5 is protected by both the QRP and the QBP and 4 . . . P-QR3 does

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Sicilian Defense: Irregular 173

represent a loss of tempo unless Black continues with . . . P-QB4 and . . . P-QN4. On the other hand , after 6 . . . QPxN Black can develop more easily ; e .g . , 7 0-0 P-K4 8 N-Q2 B-Q3 or 8 . . . Q-B2. This line would have been less risky for Black .

7 0-0 P-Q4

Logical but not definitely best . It gives Black the center majority but also entails the responsibility of playing in such a way that he will not end up with an isolated Pawn in the center. Instead, 7 . . . P-Q3 could have been played, and that certainly would have been safer .

8 P-QB4

The purpose of this move is to give Black an isolated QP. Black will not answer 8 . . . PxBP or 8 . . . PxKP, for either of these moves would leave him with a pair of isolated Pawns . If 8 . . . P-Q5 , Black would have a passed but blocked Pawn, and then i.f 9 P-K5 White would probably be better off since his KB is well posted, and it would be controlling the important center square e4. Still , 8 . . . P-Q5 is relatively better than what follows in the game itself .

8 • • • N-B3

Better than exchanging Pawns . It develops a piece and supports the center .

9 BPxP lO PxP

BPxP

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174 Game 13

If now

l ) 10 . . . QxP (which may not be as bad as the text) 1 1 N-B3 Q-B3 (or 1 1 . . . Q-Q2) 12 B-K2 (to counter with B-B3 a possible Black attack along the a8/h l diagonal) 12 . . . B-N2 1 3 B-B3 Q-B2 14 B-N5 , and White has better development and a majority of Pawns on the Q-side, but Black has more influence in the center.

2) 10 . . . NxP 1 1 B-K4 B-N2 12 N-B3 2a) 12 . . . Q-Q2 ( 1 2 . . . NxN 13 QxQch RxQ 14 BxB is better for White) 1 3 NxN BxN 14 BxB QxB 1 5 QxQ PxQ 1 6 R-Q l with a clear advantage for White ; 2b) 1 2 . . . B-K2 1 3 Q-R4ch, and Black has the choice be­tween two evils :

2b l ) 13 . . . Q-Q2, which loses a Pawn after 14 QxQch KxQ 1 5 R-Q l , and 2b2) 1 3 . . . K-B l , which loses for Black the possibility of castling and in addition enables White to maintain pressure on the Black position by 14 R-Q l .

Conclusion : The text is the second best way to retake .

10 • . • 1 1 N-B3

PxP

Now after 1 1 . . . P-Q5 1 2 N-K4 White gets excellent attacking chances : 1 2 . . . B-K2 ( 1 2 . . . B-N2 1 3 Q-B3 !) 1 3 NxNch BxN 14 R-K l ch, and

l ) 14 . . . B-K3 1 5 Q-R5 ( 1 5 B-QB4 wins a Pawn in the long run , but the text is still better since it threatens 1 6 RxBch and prevents Black from castling) 1 5 . . . P-N3 1 6 Q-R6;

2) 14 . . . B-K2 1 5 Q-R5 , again very strong , 2a) 15 . . . B-N2 1 6 B-KN5 ; 2b) 1 5 . . . P-R3 1 6 B-KN5 ! ! ( 1 6 . . . P-N3 1 7 BxNP or l 7 BxB) .

1 1 • • • B-K2 12 Q-R4ch

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Hoping for an exchange of Queens, for then the advantage of White' s better position can be more easily realized in the endgame . This advantage consists in the fact that Black's Pawns are weaker and that White has the initiative .

If now 1 2 . . . B-Q2 1 3 Q-B2 0-0(?) would cost a Pawn after 1 4 B-KN5 (after 1 5 BxN , both Black's KRP and his QP are en prise) .

12 • • • Q-Q2

White could now win the Exchange by 1 3 B-QN5 , but it is very doubtful that this would have been profitable : 1 3 . . . PxB 14 QxR O-O 1 5 Q-RS P-QS 1 6 NxP B-N2, and Black has very good attacking chances as compensation for the Exchange and the Pawn . Note how helpless the White pieces are at the end of this variation . They have no coordination at all . Black threatens a direct decision by 1 3 . . . Q-B3 14 P-B3 R-Rl .

So instead White develops by

13 R-Kl

It makes a difference whether White or Black makes the exchange of Queens . If White makes it , Black' s development is furthered . Moreover, the text prevents 1 3 . . . 0-0, for then 14 QxQ and 1 5 RxB .

13 • • • QxQ

If instead 1 3 . . . P-Q5 , 14 QxQch (forced) 14 . . . BxQ 1 5 N-K2 B-N5 1 6 R-Q l B-QB4 1 7 B-KB4 followed by 1 8 B-K5 loses a Pawn for Black .

" 14 NxQ

If now 14 . . . B-Q2 1 5 N-N6, Black's QRP becomes weaker because White is now attacking both Black's QR and QB and has the possibility of eliminating the latter.

14 • • • B-K3

To cover the KB , thus enabling Black to castle K-side .

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176 Game 13

15 B-K3

It is generally important to prevent the advance of an isolated Pawn, for by advancing , it increases the opponent 's space control , and its advance of ten obliges the other player to regroup his forces . The text has still another purpose: to control two important squares in the enemy position-c5 and eventually d6 .

After the text White could occupy d4, the square in front of the isolated Pawn, but he chooses another system and focuses his atten­tion on Black's weak QRP, which offers much better prospects .

15 • • • 0-0

Now 1 6 N-N6 would lead to the win of a Pawn, but Black would get counterchances ; e .g . , 1 6 N-N6 QR-N I 1 7 BxQRP N-N5 ! and 1) 1 8 B-Q4 B-Q l 1 9 N-R4 R-N5 , which is difficult for White ; 2) 1 8 N-R4 R-Rl 1 9 B-QN5 KR-N l 20 B-B6 R-R3 , and again White has prob­lems. With 1 6 N-N6 the most White can hope for is a draw.

16 B-QB5

Black cannot now afford to answer 1 6 . . . BxB because after 17 NxB White threatens both 1 8 BxQRP and 1 8 NxB PxN 1 9 RxP; Black would therefore be forced to play 17 . . . B-B l , after which he would not have much development .

16 • • • 17 BxB

KR-Kl

White's strategy continues to consist in developing an attack on Black's QRP and in getting an advantage in the center . How he realizes these aims will become evident in the next few moves .

17 • • • RxB 18 P-QN4!

Instead of playing 1 8 N-B5 at once White first plays 1 8 P-QN4 to prevent . . . P-QR4. If now at any time . . . P-QR4, White answers P-N5 and has a formidible passed Pawn .

18 • • • K-Bl

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Sicilian Defense: Irregular 177

It is important for Black to protect his KR, as we shall see after White's 1 9th move.

19 N-BS

To force Black to protect his QRP. Now 19 . . . P-QR4 would be answered by 20 P-N5 , as remarked above.

19 • • • B-Bl

This move is now possible because Black has protected his KR by 18 . . . K-B l . Now it looks as if White cannot do much .

20 P-B3

To prevent Black from playing his Knight to e4 at some later time and to allow White to eventually move his King to d4 via f2 and e3 .

20 • • • R/2-Rl(?)

Black wishes to protect his QRP a second time so as to be able to get some play with his Bishop. This proves to be a false plan which leads to disaster. The game was difficult to hold in any case, but after the text things go more easily for White .

The only way to try to hold the game would be 20 . . . RxRch 2 1 RxR N-Kl followed by . . . N-B2, and although Black's position is absolutely passive, he can still hope to escape from catastrophe. Let us examine as an illustration what White might have done after these moves:

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178 Game 13

1) 22 P-KR4 N-B2? 23 BxKRP P-N3 24 P-R5 , and now 24 . . . K-N2 does not work on account of 25 PxP PxP 26 R-K7ch;

2) 22 P-KR4 P-R3 23 P-B4 N-B2 24 P-B5 (White has advanced his KBP in order to prevent Black from playing . . . N-K3 , which would considerably facilitate Black's defense) 24 . . . R-N l 25 P-R3 R-Rl (25 . . . N-N4 would cost a Pawn after 26 BxN and 27 R-K5 ; and the counterpush 25 . . . P-QR4 would best be an-swered by 26 P-N5 , since 26 . . . NxP?? fails against 27 R-N l ) 26 K-B2 N-N4 (if 2 6 . . . P-QR4, then again 2 7 P-N5) 2 7 P-R4 N-B2 (27 . . . N-Q5 or 27 . . . N-Q3 would result in the loss of a Pawn after 28 R-K5) 28 P-N4 R-N l 29 R-QN I K-K2 30 K-K3 K-Q3 3 1 K-Q4 . In this position Black can do nothing but wait , and White can push his QNP at the right time .

These variations do not prove that White has a forced win . They only show how powerless Black is against all kinds of maneuvers.

21 R-KS

Attacking Black's QP in order to force the Black Knight to remain on f6 to protect it . Once Black can play . . . N-Q2, he can liberate his game, for then White' s Knight is forced to exchange or to retreat . If Black tried to find a way out by playing 2 1 . . . R-K2, he would not succeed, for after 22 QR-Kl RxR 23 RxR the relative position would remain the same, and Black could not play 23 . . . N-Q2 without losing his QP.

21 • • • B-Q2

In order to continue with . . . B-N4.

22 NxBch RxN

Now it looks as if Black has improved his position, since White's strong Knight has been exchanged for Black's Bad Bishop . But now White has another strong trump in his favor, namely, the open QB­file , over which he will have absolute control .

23 R-QBl

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Sicilian Defense: Irregular 179

Powerful , for in addition to threatening the direct win of a Pawn by 24 BxQRP and if 24 . . . RxB 25 R-B8ch followed by mate, White also threatens to get a passed Pawn with 24 R-B6 P-QR4 25 P-N5 .

If therefore 23 . . . P-QR4, White has the choice between two winning continuations : 1) 24 PxP (and Black cannot retake because of 25 R-B8ch) and 2) 24 P-N5 .

23 • • • R-Q3

The only way to parry both threats.

24 R-B7

White gratefully takes advantage of the opportunity to occupy his 7th rank . He is already threatening R/5-K7 with a quick decision .

24 • • • 25 R-K2

N-Q2

White now threatens 1) 26 BxQRP, and l.4lack cannot afford to answer 26 . . . R/3xB because of 27 RxN nor 26 . . . R/ l xB be­cause of 27 R-B8ch followed by mate; and 2) 26 B-B5 and, after Black moves his Knight , 27 R/2-K7 . In order to prevent this Black plays

25 • • • 26 K-B2

P-N3

The White King is now ready to participate in the struggle either by advancing to d4 or by supporting its K-side Pawns .

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180 Game 13

Now the exchange of one Rook does not facilitate Blac:k's game. For instance, 26 . . . R-Kl 27 RxRch KxR 28 R-R7 R-N3 29 P-QR3 N-Nl 30 K-K3 , and the loss of a Pawn cannot be prevented . Of course, White must play 3 1 R-R8 first to hold down the Black Knight and then 32 K-Q4, since 3 1 K-Q4 fails against 3 1 . . . N-B3ch.

26 • • • P-KR4

Black has no good moves.

27 P-B4

With the intention of playing K-N3-R4-N5 .

27 • • • P-RS

To prevent the above-mentioned maneuver .

28 K-B3

Threatening 29 K-N4. By threatening to penetrate , the White King is gradually weakening the Black pawn position .

28 • • • P-B4

This prevents the White King's advance on the K-side, but White 's threats have done their work, for now the Black position is full of holes .

29 K-K3

With the intention of bringing his King to d4, which would practi­cally paralyze Black .

29 • • • P-QSch

The cure is worse than the disease . This frees c4 for White's Bishop .

30 K-Q2 N-N3

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Sicilian Defense: Irregular 181

This permits White to double his Rooks on the 7th rank , but Black no longer had any good moves . For instance, 30 . . . K-B2 would be answered by 3 1 R-K5 ! K-B3 32 R-R5 , winning Black's QRP-if necessary with the help of P-N5 .

31 KR-K7 32 R-B7ch 33 R-QN7

N-Q4 K-Kl

A fine demonstration of the power of two Rooks on their 7th rank . Among other things White is threatening 34 R-KR7 followed by mate .

If now 33 . . . R-N3 34 RxR NxR 35 R-KN7 K-B l 36 RxP N-Q4 37 B-B4, and White wins as many Pawns as he likes .

33 • • • NxNP

;• If 33 . . . NxBP, White also plays 34 B-B4 with the same quick

win .

34 B-B4! Resigns

For now there is no way to parry the deadly 35 R-N7 . For instance, 34 . . . N-B3 35 R-N7 R-B3 36 R-KN8ch R-B 1 37 B-B7ch followed by mate .

G

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182 Game 13

White won by saddling Black with a pair of isolated Pawns which he then attacked in such a way that Black was compelled to use all his forces to defend them. Consequently , White got all the opportunities to decide the struggle with his own active pieces .

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Game 14

Advantages of the Slav Variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined over the

Classical Variation: Black's QB outside the pawn formation

Consequenr.es of the acceptance of the gambit Pawn in the Slav Variation

White's �� ::.�::opts to form a broad center-seductive but possibly bad

A danger of the pin: indirect attack by the pinned side

The Queen sacrifice

Driving the King into the open field

Continuation of the threats by Rooks and light pieces based on the open

position of the King and the vulnerability of the Queen

Emerging from a combination with two plus Pawns

Fixing the opponent's Pawns on the same color as the opponent's Bishop

Bringing the King to the support of a Pawn so as to free the piece which

was protecting it for active play

The Combination A combination is a series of moves which taken separately do not

perhaps make sense but which taken as a unit accomplish a given end . The combination normally involves a sacrifice of some kind : a Pawn , a piece , the Exchange , sometimes even the Queen. There are combi­nations without sacrifices , but in these the moves of the combination must involve threats in order to limit the opponent' s possible replies . The player making the combination can analyze the entire complex of moves only if the opponent does not have too great a choice of replies .

The starting point of a combination must be a weakness or a vulnerable spot in the opponent ' s position . A century ago Steinitz stated that without such a weakness the combin.ation could not lead to success .

There are four steps to the combination : ( I ) its basic idea; (2) the calculation of its steps ; (3) the execution; and (4) the evaluation of the results . The details of the combination must be calculated in ad­vance-a player cannot rely on intuition alone . But since the combi­nation usually consists of forced moves , the calculation is not impos­sible for players with imaginative powers .

The result of a successful combination may be mate or some sort of advantage : the initiative , greater space control , material gain .

There are many types of combinations , but none is more devastat-

183

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184 Game 14

ing than the one in which the King is brought into the open field and becomes the object of all sorts of threats and checks which may eventually drive it into a mating net .

Queen's Gambit Decllned - Slav Variation Championship Prelimlnarles - Gomel, USSR - 1 973

Vladas Mikenas - USSR

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4

The Queen's Gambit .

Viktor Kupreichik - USSR

P-Q4

White immediately contests Black's bid for center control . This move has a number of implications :

(a) It invites Black to play 2 . . . PxP (the Queen' s Gambit Accepted) and after having recaptured Black's Pc4 to emerge with a center Pawn as against Black' s side Pawn . (see Game 1 6)

(b) It threatens 3 PxP followed by complete control of the center for White ; e .g . , 3 . . . QxP 4 N-QB3 Q-QR4 5 P-K4.

(c) By 3 PxP PxP it also threatens to open the QB-file for action by White .

2 • • • P-QB3

The Slav Defense . Since in many variations of the Queen 's Gambit Declined 2 . . . P-K3 shuts in the Black QB and much energy must be expended later to develop this Bishop (see Game 1 5) , Black some­times prefers to play 2 . . . P-QB3 , which supports his QP and leaves open the possibility of playing out his QB later if he desires.

3 N-KB3 N-B3 4 N-B3 PxP

Black now accepts the gambit Pawn, giving up his center Pawn on d5 for the side Pawn on c4 . However , he appears to get some compensation . He now threatens to hold the extra Pawn for a while by 5 . . . P-QN4 so that he can give it back later in exchange for positional advantage .

S P-QR4

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Queen's Gambit Declined: Slav Variation 185

White surrenders b4 to Black in order to prevent him from keeping the gambit Pawn by . . . P-QN4. This represents a certain weakening of the White Q-side .

s . . . B-B4

Black develops his QB , exerting pressure on the center and prevent­ing White from playing P-K4. This is the basic idea of the Slav Defense . Inconsistent would have been 5 . . . P-K3 .

6 N-KS

Although this move violates the principle of moving the same piece only once during the opening , it is a most enterprising play , which aims both to recapture the gambit Pawn and to prepare P-B3 and P-K4, thus building up a powerful center . But this latter aim may be a bit pretentious , as is shown in this game .

The alternative is 6 P-K3 P-K3 7 BxP B-QN5 , and with this pin Black exerts pressure on the White center, and White is prevented from pushing his KP. By this type of center control Black gets freer movement for his pieces .

6 • • • P-K3

Black simply ignores White's intentions and continues his develop­ment , having in reserve a most energetic reply to White' s build-up in the center. See the comment after Black's 7th move.

The most common reply here is 6 . . . QN-Q2, which practically prevents White from carrying out his plan to build up the center, since Black himself can soon achieve . . . P-K4: 7 NxP/4 Q-B2 8 P-B3 P-K4! 9 P-K4 does not mean much, for after 9 .• . . PxP 1 0 QxP B-B4 1 1 Q-Q3 B-K3 Black has at least equality . Therefore, White usually continues in another way : 8 P-KN3 (instead of 8 P-B3) 8 . . . P-K4 9 PxP NxP 10 B-B4, and White has some initiative .

7 P-B3

Following the plan announced, White starts to build up his center.

7 . . . B-QNS

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186 Game 14

By this pin of White' s QN Black exerts some pressure on White 's center , but he does not prevent White' s P-K4 . However, theory shows that 8 P-K4 is answered by the sacrifice 8 . . . BxP 9 PxB NxP, with all kinds of threats for both sides . One possibility would be 10 Q-B3 QxP 1 1 QxPch K-Q 1 1 2 B-N5ch (this move saves White from defeat , for after 1 2 QxKNP, for example, 1 2 . . . BxNch 1 3 PxB Q-B7ch 14 K-Ql NxP mate !) 12 . . . NxB 1 3 QxKNP BxNch and a probable perpetual check . So White prefers to win back the gambit Pawn by playing

8 NxP/4 QN-Q2

In order to be able to continue with . . . P-K4 or . . . P-B4, de­pending on the circumstances . Either of these moves would free Black's position and give him at least equality .

Other possibilities are 8 . . . 0-0 9 B-N5 and 8 . . . N-Q4 9 B-Q2 . Chances are about equal in either case .

9 B-NS

By the text White pins Black' s KN in order to make P-K4 possible . Yet after 9 P-K4 Black should answer 9 . . . B-N3 , for the sacrifice 9 . . . NxP is not correct because of 10 PxN Q-R5ch 1 1 K-Q2 ! QxKP? 1 2 N-Q6ch, etc .

9 • . • P-KR3

Now the exchange of the Bishop for Black' s Knight would only

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Queen's Gambit Declined: Slav Variation 187

facilitate Black's game, for after 10 BxN NxB 1 1 P-K4 Black has the choice between 1 1 . . . NxP ( 1 2 PxN Q-R5ch 1 3 K-Q2 0-0-0) and 1 1 . . . B-R2 . In the latter case , Black's QB is temporarily out of play , but Black has compensation in his great mobility , whereas White ' s QP can become weak .

10 B-R4 P-QN4

Black tries to complicate matters , for after the quiet 10 . . . N-N3 1 1 P-K4 ! B-R2 1 2 Q-N3 P-QR4 1 3 R-Q l White is a little better off since he has the center and Black's QB is out of the game .

11 N-Q2

After 1 1 N-K5 , etc . , Black exchanges Queens and gets a better game: 1 1 . . . NxN 1 2 PxN QxQch 1 3 RxQ N-Q4 14 P-K4 NxN 1 5 PxN BxPch I 6 K-B2 B-R2 I 7 PxP P-QB4, and Black has practically a plus Pawn, for although White has five Pawns against four on the K-side, he has no real majority because of his doubled Pawn .

If 1 1 PxP PxP 1 2 N-K3 B-R2 1 3 N-B2 Bxl')l'ch I 4 PxB BxN 1 5 QxB 0-0 with equal chances . The reply I I N-K3 would not help White to dominate the center . On the other hand, the text makes l I . . . P-K4 seemingly possible without the sacrifice described above .

1 1 • • • P-K4

Black wants a countertrump in the center as soon as possible .

12 P-K4

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188 Game 14

White cannot resist the temptation to play the move which seems to assure him center control . Better, however, would have been 1 2 PxKP NxP 1 3 P-K4 with an even game .

The text seems to give Black an easy way out , for White 's QP is unprotected; but , as we shall see , the point is that after White ' s 1 3th move both Black Bishops are attacked .

12 . . . 13 N-Rl

PxQP

This is what White was playing for . It looks now as if 1 3 . . . BxNch is forced, and then with 14 QxB White gets a rea­sonable game, for 1 4 . . . NxP is refuted by 1 5 Q-B4 .

13 . . . NxP!!

A most surprising Queen sacrifice based on (a) the indirect attack of Black' s Queen on White' s QB and (b) the enormous activity of Black's light pieces .

14 BxQ

Forced, for if 14 NxB QxBch 1 5 P-N3 NxP, etc . , or 1 4 PxN QxBch 1 5 P-N3 QxKPch, and Black gets a clear superiority .

14 . . . 15 K-Kl

BxNch

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Queen's Gambit Declined: Slav Variation 189

Giving back the Queen at once by 1 5 QxB NxQ 16 KxN KxB 1 7 PxP P-B4 would lead to superiority for Black . Besides having slightly more active pieces Black has a sound plus Pawn.

15 • • • P-Q6ch!!

This drives the King into the open field.

16 KxP

Forced.

16 • • • N/2-B4ch

The same result would be attained by 16 . . . RxB 1 7 K-K2 N/2-B4 .

17 K-K2

If 17 K-B2 N-B7 dis eh, Black gains material advantage; for instance, 1 8 B-Q3 BxBch 1 9 KxB/2 NxQ, etc . , or 1 8 KxB RxBch , etc .

17 • • • RxB

Black has two light pieces for the Queen, and the White King is still in an unsafe position since there are no White pieces to defend against the combined attack of Black's Rook, Knights , and Bishops .

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190 Game 14

18 P-KN4

The alternative 1 8 PxN leads to mate : 1 8 . . . B-N5ch 19 K-B2 NxPch 20 K-N l B-K6 mate . White could play 1 8 R-B l , which would be answered by 1 8 . . . B-N4, and White has to sacrifice the Queen: 1 9 Q-Kl ( 1 9 Q-B2 N-N6ch) 1 9 . . . R-Q7ch 20 QxR BxQ 2 1 R-Q l B-N4 22 PxN B-N5ch. Black always comes into the endgame one or two Pawns to the good.

18 • • • B-K3

Threatening 1 9 . . . B-B5 mate .

19 Q-B2

Practically the only defense .

19 • • • B-N6

Also satisfactory for Black is 19 . . . B-B5ch, which forces 20 QxB followed by 20 . . . PxQ 2 1 PxN 0-0, but the text is still stronger .

20 R-Bl

White has no choice . After 20 Q-N l B-B5ch 21 K-Q l N-B7ch 22 K-B2 B-N6 mate .

20 . . • BxR

Black restrains himself from taking the Queen , but that would have been just as good. True, after 20 . . . BxQ 2 1 RxB , Black must lose his extra piece , but he still has some plus Pawns : 2 1 . . . NxP 22 PxN B-N4 23 RxP R-Q7ch .

21 QxB/1 22 K-K3

R-Q7ch

If 22 QxR NxQ , Black remains on� piece ahead, for White ' s Knight

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Queen's Gambit Declined: Slav Variation 191

is still hanging . After 22 K-Kl there follows 22 . . . R-Q8ch 23 QxR BxQ 24 PxN BxRP, and Black has two plus Pawns , just as in the game.

22 • • • 23 QxR

R-Q8

Amounting to about the same thing is 23 PxN RxQ 24 NxR BxP.

23 • • • 24 PxN

BxQ BxRP

Black has emerged from the maze of combinations with two plus Pawns, which will give him a sure win .

2S P-N4

A good move which temporarily keeps Black's Q-side pawn major-ity from advancing . �

25 • • • 26 N-B3

N-Q2 B-N6

Black brings his Bishop to a better square .

27 B-K2 K-K2

Black has regrouped his forces .

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192 Game 14

28 R-Rl R-Rl

Black has just been able to maintain all his material advantage . For a master the rest is a question of technique .

29 P-R4 P-N4

This fixes White 's Pawns on the color of his Bishop. It will hamper the mobility of the White Bishop and will make a later attack against the White Pawns possible . When the Bishop and Pawns are on squares of the same color (as White's Bishop and Pawns are here) , a hostile King can penetrate via the squares of the opposite color .

30 K-Q4 P-B3

For 30 . . . PxP would be answered by 3 1 R-R l . Also , the White King in the center is now restricted not only by Black' s Knight but also by his KBP.

31 PxP RPxP

Now 32 R-R l would be answered by the strong move 32 . . . P-R4. Black is two Pawns up but a little cramped . The move 32 . . . P-R4 frees his position and improves it .

32 R-R3 B-K3

Black has had some problems in bringing his pieces to the right squares to break the White blockade, but now his pieces are more effectively posted.

33 N-Ql

This is a waiting move, but it also clears the 3d rank for the free play of the White Rook, his only possibility .

33 • • • K-Q3

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Queen's Gambit Declined: Slav Variadon 193

Black plans to bring the King to the support of his RP in order to free his Rook for other action .

34 R-R6

Threatening 35 BxP.

34 • • • K-B2 35 P-K5

A last attempt . He is hoping for 35 . . . NxP 36 BxP PxB 37 RxB . But an immediate 35 BxP would be refuted by 35 . . . N-N l ! , and Black would win at least the Exchange .

35 • • • 36 K-K4 37 R-Rl

PxPch K-N2 R-KBl

Now that Black has all his weak points protected , including his QRP, he sets out to take the initiative .

38 K-K3 39 Resigns

R-BS

Black won because he made a magnificent Queen sacrifice at just the right time in an answer to White' s attractive-looking occupation of the center. Although at first Black got only two light pieces for the

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194 Game 14

Queen, he managed to force his opponent to give the Queen back through continuing threats by Rooks, Bishops, and Knights . Finally an endgame emerged in which Black 's two plus Pawns proved to be sufficient for a win .

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Game 15

The Tartakower Variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined

Hanging Pawns: advantages and disadvantages

The importance of exchanging light pieces

Converting hanging Pawns into another type of pawn structure of which

White can take advantage

Breaking up the opponent's pawn structure

A successful attack against the King guaranteed by a majority of Pawns on

the K-side

Occupation of strong squares

Restricting the movements of the opponent's pieces

Sacrifice of the Exchange to eliminate the last barrier protecting the

hostile King

Hanging Pawns Two adjacent Pawns on the same rank and separated from other

Pawns of the same color by at least one file are called "hanging Pawns . " These hanging Pawns constitute a special formation which has some advantages and more disadvantages . Hanging Pawns may pose almost as great a problem to their possessor as isolated Pawns .

� , ::9.30' . • • • @ , �E'.% ··� ••• i fk.?"Ei% i y� • • $� % . .

"• �. �- · � "• � • 1 • • •••. . �.-.-. - � � � .

�-� ••· n �•• f W/fffi. -•• W,0" .. ,.�ftd.. f W/fffi. lS W!� • W!tiffi lS �� •·· · · "• � •. . •• v %

The strength of hanging Pawns lies in the fact that they control many important squares and that the light pieces of the possessor of the

195

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196 Game 15

hanging Pawns can sometimes be placed diagonally in front of them so that these Pawns support them .

The weaknesses of hanging Pawns are often greater than their strengths , especially when there are not many light pieces on the board. It is therefore in the interest of the attacker to exchange as many light pieces as possible .

Hanging Pawns are very vulnerable to attack since they cannot be protected by adjacent Pawns . True , one of the hanging Pawns can protect the other after the opponent has forced one of them to advance, thus creating a diagonal or chain structure. However , the opponent can then post a piece in front of the backward member of the pair , and he can also attack the backward Pawn . If Black plays 1 . . . c5-c4 in the above diagram, then d5 becomes a backward Pawn and White can (a) post one of his pieces on d4 and (b) attack d5 .

Great judgment is required to decide whether or not one can afford to accept hanging Pawns in a given position . The player in question has to decide whether he will derive greater profit from the use of Pawns to support his light pieces or whether his opponent will obtain greater chances by forcing his hanging Pawns to advance and then exploiting their weaknesses . A rule of thumb such as "Exchanging light pieces favors the attacker" facilitates the decision .

Queen's Gambit Declined - Tartakower Variation World Championship Match, Game 6

Reykjavik, Iceland - 1 972

Robert Fischer - USA

1 P-QB4

Boris Spassky - USSR

From c4 the Pawn now controls the center square d5 . Games are frequently begun in this way . They can lead by transposition to a number of different openings , as is the case in several of the later games in this book. This move was especially notable on the part of Fischer in this game because with it Bobby departed from his habit of almost always opening with 1 P-K4 .

1 . . . P-K3

The game can now still develop in a variety of directions, but the

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Queen's Gambit Declined: Tartakower Variation 197

text eliminates the possibility of both the King's Indian (Game 19) and the Griinfeld (Game 2 1 ) .

2 N-KB3 3 P-Q4 4 N-B3 S B-NS

P-Q4 N-KB3 B-K2

The Classical Line of the Queen's Gambit Declined by transposi­tion . It is probable that in his preparation for the match Spassky gave particular attention to the . . . P-QN3 variation of the Queen's Gam­bit Declined he uses in this game .

At this point Black's QB is still on its original square and cannot be developed easily . In most variations of the Queen's Gambit Declined except the Slav, the development of Black's QB poses a difficult problem . Various methods of bringing it into play have been ex­perimented with . At the tum of the century it used to be fashionable to try to solve this problem by . . . P-QN3 followed by . . . B-N2, but Black often got into trouble in this variation .

Since Spassky announces his intention of developing his QB in that way in this game by 7 . . . P-QN3 , let us look at some of the problems which can arise from this move by giving a number of examples from theory and practice .

First of all , the way White can act against the fianchetto depends on whether Black's next move is 5 . . . QN-Q2 or 5 . . . 0-0 . There is a considerable difference in his reply .

Many old games show that . . . P-QN3 in combination with 5 . . . QN-Q2 has great drawbacks . A few examples : 5 . . . QN-Q2 6 P-K3

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198 Game IS

1) 6 . . . P-QN3 ? 7 PxP PxP 8 B-N5 l a) 8 . . . B-N2 9 N-K5 0-0 10 B-B6 BxB 1 1 NxB Q-K l 1 2 NxBch QxN 1 3 NxP Q-K5 1 4 NxNch PxN 1 5 B-R6 QxNP 1 6 Q-B3 ! ! and White wins , for Black loses at least the Exchange since after 1 6 . . . QxQ mate would be forced by 17 R­KN lch (Pillsbury-Lee , London, 1 899) ; l b) 8 . . . 0-0 9 B-B6 R-N l 10 N-K5 NxN 1 1 PxN N-N5 1 2 B-B4 and White wins the QP, which i s attacked three times and defended only once .

2) 6 . . . 0-0 7 R-B 1 P-QN3 8 PxP PxP 2a) 9 B-Q3 B-N2 1 0 N-K5 P-B4 1 1 P-B4 with strong attack­ing chances for White , as was shown in many of the classic games played by Pillsbury ; 2b) 9 Q-R4

2b l ) 9 . . . P-B4 1 0 Q-B6 R-Nl 1 1 NxP B-N2 1 2 NxBch QxN 1 3 Q-R4, and Black could not prove the correctness of his pawn sacrifice (Capablanca-Lasker, 5th Match Game, Havana , 1 92 1 ) ; 2b2) 9 . . . B-N2 1 0 B-R6 BxB 1 1 QxB , with consid­erable pressure on Black's weakened Q-wing .

In the lines under 2) in general Black can limit his risks after the exchange on d5 by retaking with the Knight . This facilitates Black ' s defense by exchanges of Knights and Bishops .

If Black does not precede the fianchetto by . . . QN-Q2, then quite different problems arise . The real handicap, if any, stems from the difficulties Black may later encounter with the resultant hanging Pawns-as exemplified a bit later in this game . It is . . . P-QN3 which is responsible for these weaknesses . After White plays PxP, opening the QB-file , Black's QBP is backward and must advance to c5 , whereas . . . if P-QN3 had not been played , Black' s QBP could advance to c6, and there would be no weakness .

Therefore , unless Black now castles , he will have still greater difficulties . So

s . . . 6 P-K3

0-0 P-KR3

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This move is advantageous for Black in several ways . If White attacks Black's K-side , Black's KRP is more secure , more useful , and more effective on h6 , for it is likely to be attacked on h7 and in that case could cost Black a tempo. In the second place, the P/KR3 discourages White's Knight from going to g5 . Finally , the move affords Black an escape square for his King . A slight disadvantage of the move may be that if the White Knight goes to e5 , Black has to take into account that by driving it away by . . . P-KB3 , the Knight has access to g6 .

White now has several options :

1 ) If 7 B-B4, Black can continue 7 . . . P-B4 followed by . . . N-B3 , . . . P-QN3 , and . . . B-N2 , thus solving the problem of the undeveloped QB .

2) If 7 BxN, White gives up his Bishop for a Knight , Black' s KB is then posted on a better square than formerly, and Black has more freedom than in the regular line .

7 B-R4

Black could now play 7 . . . N-K5 , the Lasker Defense , and White would have to submit to some simplification whether he answers 8 B-N3 , 8 NxN, or 8 BxB . The Lasker Defense is considered one of Black's best means of playing for a draw in the Queen's Gambit Declined.

Instead, Spassky chooses the so-called Tartakower Variation . He apparently plans to develop the Black QB to b7 , although after the exchange of Pawns on d5 (8 PxP) , the c8/h3 diagonal is opened for Black, who may therefore change his mind anti decide to develop his QB to e6 .

7 . . . P-QN3 Spassky, who had used this move in previous games , was of the

opinion that Black's resultant position was not at all bad and that possible forcing attempts by White to take advantage of it might be refuted in a convincing way . But this does not seem to be correct .

8 PxP

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White opens the QB-file and insures that the long diagonal will be obstructed by a Black Pawn on d5 either on Black's Sth move if he answers 8 . . . PxP or later (see move 10 . . . PxN) . If 8 . . . PxP, the diagonal is closed at once and . . . P-QB4 is made a bit more difficult; e .g . , 9 B-K2 P-B4 (doubtful) 10 PxP PxP 1 1 BxN BxB 1 2 NxP BxP 1 3 R-QN l B-QR6 14 0-0, and Black is in trouble . For instance, 14 . . . B-K3 1 5 B-B4 N-B3 1 6 Q-R4 BxN 17 KR-Q l N-N5 1 8 BxB NxB 1 9 QxB .

8 . . . NxP

Retaking with the Knight is preferable if White is playing for a K-side attack, for the simplification that it forces facilitates the de­fense . On the other hand, it is not certain that in the strategic struggle which follows in this game the exchange of Black' s KN for White' s QN and Black's KB for White ' s QB makes things easier for Black. Exchanging light pieces does not fit into the scheme of the resultant hanging Pawns, as we shall soon see .

9 BxB

Black must now choose between 9 . . . QxB (the text) and 9 . . . NxB , which is also deserving of consideration . In the latter case , (a) White has more Pawns in the center, and (b) Black' s QBP may become weak as long as it is on c7 or c6 . On the other hand , if Black plays . . . N-Q2 and . . . P-QB4 and if after QPxQBP Black can retake with his Knight , then White no longer has an advantage . The fact that Black threatens to equalize in a few moves makes it necessary for White to take proper measures promptly .

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If now 9 . . . NxB , the most obvious way to proceed is for White to play P-K4 in order to answer an eventual . . . P-QB4 by P-Q5 . But this is not advisable , for White's QP, which will have become a passed Pawn , could be lost :

1 ) 10 B-B4 B-N2 1 1 0-0 N-Q2 1 2 P-K4 P-QB4 1 3 P-Q5 PxP 14 PxP? N-KB3 1 5 P-Q6 N-B4, and the Pawn i s lost or i t could be blocked .

2) 10 B-B4 B-N2 1 1 Q-K2 N-Q2 1 2 R-Ql Q-B 1 1 3 P-K4 (of doubtful value) 1 3 . . . P-QB4 14 P-Q5 PxP 15 PxP N-B4 1 6 0-0 N-Q3 , and the Pawn is blocked , which means that its value is decreased or even nonexistent .

3) 10 B-B4 B-N2 1 1 0-0 N-Q2 1 2 Q-K2 P-QB4 1 3 KR-Q l 3a) 1 3 . . . Q-B l (the Queen is not very well posted here) 14 N-QN5 ( 1 4 QR-B l opposing the Black Queen is also good) 14 . . . Q-B3 1 5 QR-B l ( 1 5 PxP N-K4 is complicated but leads to equality) 1 5 . . . P-R3 1 6 PxP! NxP ( 1 6 . . . N-K4 1 7 QN-Q4 is now favorable for White since Black has weak Pawns: 1 7 . . . NxNch 1 8 NxN PxP, for White's Rook on c l prevents 1 8 . . . QxP) 1 7 N-Q6 with advantage to White ; 3b) 1 3 . . . Q-N l 14 B-N5 PxP (Black must avoid the isolation of his QBP) 1 5 RxP N-KB3 ( 1 5 . . . N-QB4 1 6 P-QN4) 1 6 P-K4 and White stands better , for he controls more space, has a better center , and an open file-all small advan­tages , but combined they may have some meaning; 3c) 1 3 . . . PxP 14 NxP! with the deadly threat of 1 5 NxP. The only way to parry it is 14 . . . K-Rl , after which White has the choice between 15 BxP (resulting in a Rook + 2 Pawns vs . Bishop + Knight) and 1 5 N-N5-Q6 or 1 5 B-N5 with new threats . White has a great advantage . ''

4) 10 B-K2 B-N2 1 1 0-0 N-Q2 12 Q-R4 P-QB4 4a) 1 3 B-N5 BxN 14 PxB N-KB3 1 5 N-K4 resulting in a wild position in which White stands better; 4b) 13 R-QB 1 with more space control and better chances for White .

9 • • • QxB lO NxN

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White plays for hanging Pawns , as the continuation demonstrates . For this purpose the QB-file should be open and Black should have a Pawn on d5 .

10 • • • 1 1 R-Bl

PxN

Not knowing at this point at which square his KB will be most effective , White first strengthens the pressure against Black's Q-side . If now 1 1 . . . Q-N5ch 1 2 Q-Q2 QxQch 1 3 KxQ, White has better development , whereas Black has the problem of his backward QBP.

1 1 . . . B-K3

Although Black's choosing not to fianchetto his Bishop may be surprising, this Bishop is certainly no less effective on e6 than on b7 , where its action would be blocked by its QP. Moreover, on b7 the Bishop could interfere with B)ack's maneuvering on the Q-side .

12 Q-R4

In this way White permanently prevents . . . Q-N5ch, but basically the move is made in order to continue with Q-R3 after . . . P-QB4 . Note that . . . P-QB4 is unavoidabl-e , for at c7 or c6 the QBP will become weak . At c5 it might also become weak , but there is some compensation , as we shall see later .

12 • • • P-QB4

So Black advances his QBP, as he must . Why did Spassky play this variation? Perhaps he thought he could

gain a psychological advantage by playing a doubtful variation which he was sure he could handle . Sometimes an opponent may try so hard to secure an advantage in such a line that he becomes very vulnerable .

White could now play 1 3 PxP at once but postpones it because for the moment Black cannot prevent the exchange .

13 Q-R3

Prevents . . . P-B5 . As soon as the Black Queen is protected,

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. . . P-B5 will be real threat. After a mere developing move such as 1 3 B-K2, Black could answer 1 3 . . . P-B5 with a real and strong Q-side majority .

13 . . . R-Bl

White will now play so as to give Black hanging Pawns (a pair of Pawns on adjacent files that are separated from all other Pawns by at least one file on either side) , which he can do within the next few moves by PxBP PxBP and at such a time that he will be able to take the maximum advantage of the hanging Pawns. The disadvantage of hanging Pawns is that they are weak and can be attacked , but they have the advantage of controlling many important squares (b4, c4 , d4, e4) and furnishing points of support for their possessor 's minor pieces .

In order for White to minimize the advantage Black derives from hanging Pawns, he will try to exchange minor pieces , for the fewer minor pieces left , the fewer counterchances Black will have .

14 B-NS

This is in harmony with the above-mentioned idea of exchanging minor pieces . It would be natural for Black to play . . . N-Q2 to support his QBP, and if he did so , it could eventually be answered by BxN , exchanging one of the minor pieces and exposing Black' s QBP to more severe pressure by the White pieces .

14 . � • P-R3

Black wishes to drive the Bishop back , hoping that he can then develop his Knight . For the moment the Bishop is in no danger of being taken , but after 1 6 . . . R-R2 it will be .

White now gives Black the hanging Pawns .

15 PxP

Not 1 5 0-0 Q-N2 1 6 B-K2 P-BS with a powerful Q-side majority for Black .

15 • . • PxP

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If instead 1 5 . . . RxP, then 1 6 0-0 ! could follow . Black cannot avoid hanging Pawns in any case .

16 0-0 R-R2

Geller suggested 1 6 . . . Q-N2 1 7 B-K2, but stronger is 1 7 B-R4 in order to keep control of d7 .

Larsen's 1 6 . . . Q-R2 , however , does deserve consideration, for 1 7 B-R4 could be followed by 1 7 . . . P-QR4 and 1 8 . . . N-R3 . The Black Knight must be developed to help defend Black's weaknesses and possibly to occupy important squares created by the hanging Pawns.

17 B-K2

This move looks like the loss of a tempo, but it is not . By playing 14 B-N5 White has induced Black to weaken his Q-side .

17 • • • N-Q2

Black's hanging Pawns appear somewhat weak, but how does White go about attacking them? The Black QP is sufficiently pro­tected , and yet White hopes to attack the QBP either by N-K5-Q3 or N-Q4-N3 , as we shall see later .

If Black's QBP is forced to advance-which is not now possible since the Black Queen is unprotected-then the strong square at d4 becomes free for the White Knight .

18 N-Q4

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This is a strong move on the one hand because if White exchanges his Knight for the Black Bishop, his advantage will increase because of the reduction of the number of minor pieces, and on the other because the Knight can go to b3 , attacking Black's QBP.

If 1 8 BxQRP? KR-Rl , winning a piece .

18 • • • Q-Bl

Black does not wish to enter an inferior endgame which would exist after 1 8 . . . N-B3 19 N-N3 P-B5 ( 1 9 . . . N-Q2 20 R-B3) 20 QxQ RxQ 21 N-Q4 or after 18 . . . K-B l 19 NxBch PxN 20 P-K4 or 19 . . . QxN 20 KR-Q 1 . Yet the text makes things still more difficult for him.

19 NxB!

Even though White trades off an active Knight for an inactive Bishop and although Black no longer has hanging Pawns , the move is good because it simplifies to a position in which White can take advantage of Black' s pawn structure . With 20 P-K4! White will be able to wreck and split up that pawn structure .

19 • • • PxN

Black's pawn configuration Pc5-Pd5-Pe6 is not weak as such. But White now has the possibility of breaking up that formation if he acts immediatcrly . To that end he plays

20 P-K4!

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This is the big move of the game !

20 • • • P-QS?

Black had a number of continuations , but 20 . . . P-Q5 was cer­tainly the worst . Let us consider the choices :

1 ) 20 . . . PxP 2 1 B-N4 (stronger than 2 1 Q-R3 Q-B3 22 B-B4 N-B l 23 KR-Kl R-Q l 24 RxP QxP, for example) 21 . . . Q-B3 22 KR-K l N-K4 23 RxKP NxB 24 RxN, and Black has several serious weaknesses in his pawn position but is perhaps not yet lost .

2) 20 . . . P-B5 2 1 Q-R3 N-B4 (stronger than 2 1 . . . Q-B3 22 PxP PxP 23 B-B3) 22 PxP PxP 23 P-QN3 ! PxP 24 PxP R-N l (24 . . . R-N2? 25 BxP) 25 Q-K3 R-QB2 26 B-B3, and Black will not be able to avoid the loss of a Pawn : 26 . . . R-Q l ? 27 P-QN4 or 26 . . . Q-Q3 27 KR-Q l RxP 28 BxPch or 27 . . . NxP 28 RxR QxR 29 BxPch.

3) 20 . . . N-B3 21 PxP PxP 22 B-B3 , and with his QR, Bishop , and Queen actively posted, White has good attacking chances against Black' s weak Pawns .

From these variations it appears that Black cannot reach complete equality , but he can still fight . The text is worse than the choices listed because from now on only White can develop plans and take the initiative , whereas Black is helpless. Moreover, all three variations result in very simplified positions in which Black, due to the reduced number of pieces , can still hope for a draw even after the loss of a Pawn . This is not the case after 20 . . . P-Q5 .

21 P-B4

White has a 4-to-3 majority on the K-side, which guarantees an attack . Moreover, White' s KB , which will soon go to c4, is coopera­tive and killing .

If now 2 1 . . . P-K4 22 PxP Q-K2 23 P-K6 and wins : 23 . . . QxP 24 B-B4 or 23 . . . N-B l 24 R-B7 or 23 . . . N-B3 24 P-K5 N-Q4 25 R-B7 .

21 . • • 22 P-KS!

Q-K2 R-Nl

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Black hopes to get some counterchances along the QN-file by pressing against White's QNP, for the White Queen will soon leave its present square, and later the Black QRP will play to a5 and a4 . Nonetheless, Black's move does not mean much.

After 22 . . . N-N3 in order to prevent 23 B-B4, White gets just as strong an attack by 23 Q-QN3 ! N-Q4 24 P-B5 !

23 B-B4

White occupies his strong square , forcing Black to maintain the protection of both his QRP and his KP, but the main feature of the position is White' s attacking possibilities .

23 • • • K-Rl

The alternative 23 . . . N-N3 would be refuted by 24 Q-QN3 , and Black' s KP is lost .

24 Q-R3

White 's general strategy will be: (a) to open the KB-file by P-B5 ; (b) to double Rooks on the KB-file , threatening R-B7; and (c) to bring the Queen to e4 and the Bishop to d3 with a mating attack. Especially ( c) has to be carried out carefully to avoid allowing Black to get counterchances . Study the moves 25 P-QN3 , 30 P-KR4, and 33 P-QR4 with that in mind .

If now 24 . . . RxP?, then 25 BxP, and White ' s strong center Pawns will soon decide .

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208

24 • • • 25 P-QN3

N-Bl P-QR4

Game 15

With the intention of playing . . . P-R5 , which might give Black some counterchances in the long run .

26 P-BS

Following the plan outlined under White 's 24th move. The fact that with this move White gives himself an isolated Pawn is of no impor­tance . An isolated Pawn is a weakness only if (a) it can be successfully attacked, thus tying up important pieces for its defense ; or (b) the opponent can occupy the square in front of the Pawn. Neither (a) nor (b) is applicable here .

26 • • • PxP

Otherwise 27 P-B6 would follow.

27 RxP

According to plan . White is already threatening 28 R-B7.

27 • • • N-R2

This prevents 28 R-B7? because of 28 . . . N-N4! .

28 QR-BI Q-Ql

In order not to be bothered by R-B7 now or later .

29 Q-N3

In order to be able to continue with P-KR4, which will hem in Black' s Knight . White is perhaps also thinking in terms of Q-N6 and/or R-B7 .

29 • • • R-K2

Black wishes to double his Rooks on the 2d rank and end up with one of them on b7 and the other on e7 . He may also wish to put his

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Queen on his 2d rank so as to secure maximum protection for his KNP.

30 P-KR4

With the double purpose of confining Black's Knight and of limit­ing the movements of the Black Queen after White has played R-B7 RxR; RxR, etc . Black now prevents a successful 3 1 R-B7 by

30 • • • R/l-N2 31 P-K6

Limiting the freedom of Black's forces even more. Now 3 1 . . . N­B3 would lose immediately to 32 RxN PxR 33 RxP R-KR2 34 Q-K5 ! R/N-N2 35 P-K7 , etc .

31 • • • QR-B2

Black has no counterplay whatsoever ; 3 1 . . . P-Q6 is refuted by 32 R-Q5 .

32 Q-KS

Preparing the deadly blow as outlined in the strategy under White 's 24th move . Now 32 . . . N-B3 would lead to a still more convincing debacle for Black after 33 RxN.

32 • • , . Q-Kl

White now makes some "cat-and-mouse" moves . Black can only move back and forth .

33 P-R4

This may be considered a way to prevent . . . P-R5 , although the latter move has long been out of the question .

White could have struck the blow immediately by 33 B-Q3 and 34 Q-K4 (which follows later) , threatening the direct attack R-B8ch , etc . , but the text avoids possible errors , prevents counterplay, and emphasizes Black's helplessness . We have already remarked that 33 . . . N-B3 34 RxN! PxR 35 RxP leaves his King out in the open.

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210

33 • • • 34 R/l·B2 35 R/2-B3 36 B-Q3

Q·Ql Q-Kl Q-Ql

Game 15

One more step toward the mating attack outlined under White's 24th move. After 37 Q-K4 Black will no longer be able to resist .

36 • • • Q-Kl 37 Q-K4

Since Black is now helpless in face of the threatened 38 R-B8ch NxR 39 RxNch QxR 40 Q-R7 mate, he plays

37 • • • 38 RxN 39 RxP

N-B3 PxR

If now 39 . . . R-KR2 , then 40 Q-K5 .

39 • • • 40 B-B4

K-Nl

This immobilizes Black's R/K2 because if that Rook moved, White could play P-K7 dis eh .

40 • • • K-Rl 41 Q-B4

Threatening 42 R-B8ch. Just as effective would have been 41 RxPch K-N l 42 Q-N4ch R-N2 43 P-K7ch, etc .

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41 • • • Resigns

For if 4 1 . . . R-B 1 42 RxPch K-N l 43 Q-N4ch R-N2 44 P-K7 dis eh Q-B2 45 QxR/ 1 mate, and if 41 . . . K-N l 42 QxRP followed by 43 R-N6ch.

Black lost the game first because he did not completely solve the problems caused by his hanging Pawns and later because he chose the least favorable reply when White confronted him with a difficult decision by playing 20 P-K4. The resulting attack against the Black King led to White' s spectacular win .

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Game 16

Ideas behind the Queen's Gambit Accepted

Purpose and importance of 5 • • • P-QB4 in the Queen's Gambit Accepted

Temporary sacrifice of the White QP

Mobility resulting from White's isolated QP

Occupation of a strong square

The outpost on the KS-square

Pressure by the attacker resulting in restraint on the part of the defender

Simplification to make the most of the initiative

Attack on the K-side with reduced material and with the additional aim of

play against the opponent's weak Pawns

The plus Pawn in Rook endings with possibilities on both wings

Tying the opponent's King to the defense of the Q-side in order to be able

to attack and win the Pawns on the K-side

Pressure In the annotations of a chess game one frequently finds the state­

ment that a piece or Pawn exerts pressure on or is pressing against a square, a piece, or a Pawn. For example : " 1 P-K4 P-K4 2 N­KB3 . . . The Knight exerts pressure on the Black KP," or "The Knight is pressing against Black's K4-square . "

What is the nature of pressure? It is closely associated with the concept of attack , of the threat , of

restraint on or limitation of the possibilities of one's opponent, but in its entirety it constitutes a type of force .

If one attacks a hostile Pawn and the opponent protects this Pawn with a piece, then the protecting piece is limited in its movements , since it is tied down to the protection of the attacked Pawn . The same conditions may obtain when a piece is threatened and has to be protected by another piece . However , an attacked piece can often escape from the area of pressure by moving, whereas the less mobile Pawns are frequently fixed and must be protected in order to avoid being captured .

Pressure exists in various forms . It may consist simply in the control

212

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of a square in or near the hostile position , and in that role it can limit the opponent ' s choices . At times pressure is an attack on a piece or a Pawn, but it can also be a threat to assault the King when because of this threat the opponent' s pieces must be tied down to protect the King .

In the following diagram, a number of examples of different types of pressure are illustrated .

The White Rook presses against Pg7 and limits the Black KR in its moves . In the same way Nc5 presses against Pb7 , which is protected by the Black Bishop. The same White Knight presses against Pe6 , which is twice protected, and against the squares a6 and d7 . The Pe5 presses against d6 and f6 ; Pb6 presses against a7 and c7 . These are examples of the most important types of pressure by White .

The Black QR presses along the QR-file . Its pressure on a2 is especially significant , for it prevents White from playing N/3-K4 by threatening to win a Rook with . . . R-R7ch . In this case the pressure can easily be eliminated by playing K-K3 .

Pressure can be increased by exerting more pressure either on the same square or on a different square of the $ame complex. As the pressure mounts , the defender' s situation can become very difficult . In fact, pressure on a given position sometimes becomes so over­whelming that the defender cannot make a single move without losing something; he is then said to be in Zugzwang.

Sometimes it is possible to decrease pressure in a given area by exerting counterpressure on the same area. One of the most common instances of pressure and counterpressure is that in which Rooks of opposite sides are posted on the same open file . Then the pressure of each Rook is neutralized by the counterpressure of the other . In such cases , players tend not to exchange Rooks unless by so doing they can

H

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214 Game 16

end up with control of the file in question or at least eliminate the pressure they exerted .

It is very important to understand the concept of pressure in chess . Its application in a game is absolutely essential to effective chess play .

Queen's Gambit Accepted Tournament - Pula, Yugoslavia - 1 971

Svetozar Gligoric­Yugoslavia

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4

Lajos Portisch­Hungary

P-Q4 PxP

The Queen's Gambit Accepted . Black temporarily gives up his center QP for White's side QBP with

the idea that while White is taking the time to win back this gambit Pawn, Black can advance his Q-side Pawns , develop his QB , and thus have a much freer game than he would in the Queen's Gambit Declined .

In the Queen' s Gambit Accepted Black gets this free game if he succeeds in neutralizing the superiority in the center which he has given White by exchanging his center Pawn for a side Pawn . This can be accomplished by playing the neutralizing move . . . P-QB4 at the right time . Without . . . P-QB4 White would get an ideal center (Pd4-Pe4) , from which a K-side attack might result , and Black would remain in a cramped position .

3 N-KB3

This move develops the KN to its most effective square , from which it exercises a measure of control over e5 and thus pre­vents . . . P-K4, which would be an excellent move after 3 P-K3 .

3 . . . N-KB3

Black also develops his KN to its best square , from which it exercises a measure of control over d5 and e4 .

4 P-K3

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If Black were now to try to hold his QBP by 4 . . . P-QN4, White would be able to answer 5 P-QR4 and the game might continue 5 . . . P-QB3 6 PxP PxP 7 P-QN3 , threatening 8 PxP. After 7 . . . PxP, White regains the gambit Pawn by 8 BxPch and 9 QxP. If 7 . . . B-K3 , then 8 PxP PxP 9 N-KS wins back the Pawn, but 9 BxP? (instead of 9 N-K5) loses a piece after 9 . . . BxB 10 Q-R4ch QN-Q2 1 1 QxB R-B l , etc .

4 • • • P-K3 S BxP

White chooses the most efficient method of regaining the gambit Pawn. Under certain circumstances 5 Q-R4ch followed by 6 QxP also regains the Pawn .

Although 5 N-B3 is playable here and later, in positions where Black may advance his Q-side Pawns it is better to postpone the development of White' s QN, partly because it could be exposed to several attacks such as . . . P-QN4-N5, partly because QN-Q2 may turn out to be better .

s . . . P-B4

This is the logical move at this point to restore the balance in the center , which is the idea of the opening . Were Black not able to make this move, White would have a majority in the center, and after some preparation he would play P-K4 and later attack .

6 0-0

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216 Game 16

A continuation of the development.

6 . • • P-QR3

This is the beginning of a system which combines the ideas of neutralizing the center and fianchettoing the Black QB .

7 P-QR4

Obviously to prevent the advance of Black' s Q-side Pawns . How­ever, the text loses a tempo and entails a certain weakening of b4. It is difficult to decide which of the preceding considerations weighs more heavily .

7 • • • N-B3

Developing his QN and pressing against d4 with one more piece . This is the logical move here . For instance, 7 . . . B-K2 could be answered by 8 PxP, losing a tempo for Black .

8 Q-K2

A sham sacrifice of a Pawn, made at the right time. White moves his Queen to e2 in order to vacate d 1 so that it can be occupied by his Rook and perhaps with the idea of playing P-K4 later . Now White already has the possibility of the sequence 9 PxP BxP 10 P-K4.

8 • • • PxP

This is the right time to exchange center Pawns . Unless Black does so here, White will play PxP himself in order to gain a tempo .

Possible also is 8 . . . B-K2 and after 9 PxP, not 9 . . . BxP, which is a clear loss of tempo, but 9 . . . N-K5 ! followed by 10 . . . NxQBP.

9 R-Ql B-K2

If Black should try to hold the Pawn by 9 . . . B-B4, he would lose after 10 PxP NxP? 1 1 NxN BxN 1 2 B-K3 , etc . , for 12 . . . P-K4 1 3 BxB cannot be answered b y 1 3 . . . PxB .

In some cases , a player will give back an extra Pawn in such a way

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 217

as to impede his opponent' s development, but in this position , giving the Pawn back by 9 . . . P-Q6 does not seem quite satisfactory , as is shown in Gligoric 's analysis : 9 . . . P-Q6 10 BxP Q-B2 1 1 N-B3 B-B4 (and if 1 2 P-K4? N-KN5, threatening both 1 3 . . . BxPch and 1 3 . . . N-Q5 ! , whereas after 1 1 . . . B-K2 , the advance 1 2 P-K4 is rather strong) 1 2 N-K4 B-K2 1 3 B-Q2 0-0 14 QR-B I , and White has the better game, for he has more development and is preparing to control the QB-file .

10 PxP

Of course, 1 0 NxP is also possible , but then after 1 0 . . . Q-B2 chances are completely equal . With the text White deliberately ac­cepts the isolated Pawn in hopes of taking advantage of the greater mobility involved . A diagonal is opel)ed for the White QB , and the K-file is cleared for action along that line .

10 • • • 1 1 N-B3

0-0

White now brings a third unit of pressure to bear on d5 and threatens 1 2 P-Q5 . If , for instance , Black should play 1 1 . . . P-QN3 to de­velop his QB , the advance 12 P-Q5 would be very effective ; e .g . , 1 2 . . . PxP 1 3 NxP NxN 14 BxN and wins , since Black' s Knight is attacked, and his KB must be protected by his Queen . Likewise after 1 1 . . . B-Q2 the advance 1 2 P-Q5 could be unpleasant for Black . So in order to prevent the advance of the White QP, which he fears , Black answers

1 1 • • . N-Q4

In such a position White 's standard reply is usually 1 2 N-K5 , which from a strategical point of view makes room on the K-side for White' s Queen and KR. But i n this position , 1 2 N-K5 i s not effective , for Black could get an equal game by exchanging : 1 2 . . . KNxN 1 3 PxN NxN 1 4 PxN Q-B2, and although White has more space on the K-side , which may result in a K-side attack, White' s QBP on the open file is a serious weakness . So White plays a move which will put one of his pieces in a position to attack effectively later .

12 B-Q3!

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218 Game 16

In order to attack Black's KRP at the right moment . Note that at this point Black's K-side is devoid of pieces with only his KB and his Queen to stop a White attack on it . Black now takes advantage of the fact that b4 is unprotected because of the advance of White's QRP.

12 • • • QN-NS

With this move Black reinforces his Knight on d5 and gains a tempo by forcing the White KB to move once again .

13 B-Nl P-QNJ

In order to develop his QB to b7 . If Black had preferred to develop his Bishop to d7 instead , he might well have gotten into trouble : 1 3 . . . B-Q2 1 4 N-K5 B-QB3 1 5 R-R3 R-B l 1 6 N-K4 N-B3 1 7 NxNch BxN 1 8 BxPch KxB 19 Q-R5ch K-N l 20 R-R3 followed by mate . This mating combination became possible after the 3d rank was freed for the White Rook by 1 6 N-K4 (above) , and so one might ask why White could not free the 3d rank by 1 6 NxN. The answer is that after 1 6 . . . QxN Black threatens mate on g2 ; therefore , after 1 7 BxPch KxB 1 8 Q-R5ch K-Nl White cannot administer the deciding blow because of the threatened mate .

Let us now examine the position with regard to White 's isolated QP . One of its characteristics is that it gives White points of support in Black' s territory . Here, for instance, White 's QP would support a White piece on e5 and also on c5 if Black did not have a Pawn on b6 . But since the QP is isolated, both the QB- and K-file are open, which makes it possible for White to support a piece on e5 or c5 (if Black did not have a Pawn at b6) not only by his QP but also by his Rook, Queen ,

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 219

or any other piece . This position poses a very difficult problem for White . He has to decide which line to follow in order to take advantage of his attacking position .

(a) He can play 14 Q-K4, threatening mate , and force a weaken­ing of Black' s K-wing . However , it is questionable whether after 14 . . . P-B4 1 5 Q-K2 the loss of two moves balances the weakening of Black' s KP, which is sufficiently protected for the moment . Moreover , the Black KBP now prevents White from stationing pieces on his important e4-square and in addition blocks action by the White KB along the diagonal . Certainly, e5 will be a welcome strong square and outpost for the White Knight , but everything considered, it appears that apart from the KN, the White pieces do not have too many possibilities for future development .

(b) White can play 14 N-K5 immediately . In addition to being a factor in an eventual attack on Black's King, this Knight can also go to c4 and render good service on the Q-side .

(c) With the above maneuver in mind, the preparatory move 14 P-R5 seems recommendable, for after 1 4 . . . PxP, 1 5 N-K5 will be really strong , since at the proper time the White KN can go to c4 and play a part in regaining the temporarily sacrificed QRP with pressure on Black' s Q-side-as will happen later when White 's QR, supported by the Knight at c4, recaptures the QRP.

14 P-RS

If now 14 . . . P-QN4, the reply 1 5 N-K5 would not be so effec­tive, since White lacks the possibility of continuing with N-QB4. Instead, 15 N-K4 may now be considered, after which 1 5 . . . B-N2 1 6 N-B5 BxN 1 7 PxB . White does not .mind exchanging his well­posted Knight for Black' s Good Bishop, for now Black's K-wing is weakened because of the absence of his KB .

Or Black can develop his QB to b7 or to d7 . If 14 . . . B-N2 1 5 N-QR4, White gets control of c5 after 1 5 . . . PxP or 1 5 . . . P-QN4 or, if Black plays any other 1 5th move , after 16 PxP.

White' s control of c5 by a White Knight on a4 may be of some importance, and that is why Black preferred to reply

14 • • • B-Q2

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220 Game 16

With the text Black's QB controls a4 . If White should now consider playing 1 5 N-QR4 in order to force Black's QNP to move and by so doing to get control of c5 , Black's 14 . . . B-Q2 would discourage his opponent from playing 1 5 N-QR4, for that move would be answered by 1 5 . . . BxN.

However , since, as the game develops , it does not turn out that Black is able to stop White's initiative on other fronts , probably 14 . . . B-N2 followed by 1 5 N-QR4 PxP, ceding the control of c5 to White , would have been better than the text move , 14 . . . B-Q2 .

15 N-KS

In order to bring his QN to c5 by 1 6 NxB QxN 17 N-R4. It is a battle on the Q-side for the possession of c5 . White is attempting at the same time to build up an attack .

White does not care if he loses his QRP by . . . PxP . In the first place, that exchange would give him c5 , and in the second place, Black would have a rather worthless doubled isolated QRP which White would regain in the long run .

15 • • • 16 R-RJ

PxP

Usually it would be dangerous for White to play his valuable QR to a square where Black is threatening it indirectly by his KB , but here Black has no effective discovered attack by his QN.

White now threatens 1 7 NxN (in order to clear the 3d rank for horizontal Rook movements) , and after 17 . . . NxN 1 8 BxPch wins as above: 18 . . . KxB 19 Q-R5ch K-N l 20 R-R3 . This threat is possible because White has so maneuvered that he has more or less forced Black to play his QB to d7 instead of to b7 . If the Black Bishop were at b7 , for instance, the combination would not work because, as we have seen above, Black could answer 1 7 NxN by 17 . . . QxN, threatening mate .

16 • • • P-B4

Blocking the diagonal along which White's KB can act is the best way to prevent White's attack . However , now Black' s backward KP could become a problem since it will be vulnerable .

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 221

17 NxN

White exchanges because Black's Knights are very strong and in order to clear his 3d rank for his QR.

17 • • • NxN

Things would not be made much easier by 17 . . . PxN. White would continue 1 8 NxB (in order to free e5 for his QB) 1 8 . . . QxN 1 9 B-B4 followed by 20 B-K5 , and White' s outpost at e5 leads in the long run to the creation of a passed Pawn . Since the White Bishop at e5 would be very strong, Black would try to get rid of it , and the only way would be to try to play in such a way as to exchange the Bishop for his Knight or his KB , and a passed Pawn for White would be the result of such an exchange .

The game now enters a new phase . White's pieces are better placed, but White is temporarily a Pawn down and has two isolated Pawns . However , his QR, although en prise , is well placed for action, his Knight is very strong on e5 , and Black' s backward KP constitutes a serious weakness .

How will White now make the most of his advantage?

18 NxB

It may be surprising that White would exchange his well-posted Knight for Black' s Bad Bishop, but by so doing he gets a better opportunity to exploit the weaknesses of Black's backward KP, can presently win back Black' s Pa5 and can exert pressure on Black' s Pa6.

18 • • • QxN

Protecting his weak KP, for if 1 8 . . . BxR 1 9 NxR BxN 20 QxKPch, etc .

19 RxP

Regaining his Pawn and attacking Black's remaining RP twice . With Two Bishops and attacking chances on Black' s KP, White has a slight superiority . In the meantime, White' s attacking chances on the K-side are practically nullified because of the position of Black' s

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222 Game 16

KBP. Since Black 's QRP is attacked by the White Queen and QR and protected only by its QR, Black protects it a second time by

19 • . . N-B2

White now strengthens his pressure on Black's KP by

20 B-R2 B-Q3

To prevent the White Rook from going to e5 . White now looks for a square on which to put added pressure and plays

21 B-QB4

Bringing additional pressure on Black' s QRP.

21 . . • K-Rl

This gets the Black King out of the line of the White Bishop. If White now takes Black' s QRP by 22 BxRP, Black has a tactical resource to win back his lost Pawn: 22 . . . BxPch 23 KxB Q-Q3 followed by 24 . . . NxB .

Since White now finds no direct way of continuing to apply pres­sure , he looks around for other ways of improving his position .

22 Q-B3

Among other things, this move will allow White to continue with B-B4, threatening to eliminate the Black Bishop , Black' s only very active piece, or to place White's Bishop on the strong square e5 .

22 . • . B-NS

To eliminate the weakness of his QRP. White could now well play 23 R-K5 , and the game might continue 23 . . . B-Q3 24 R-K2, but he has other plans .

23 R-Rl P-QR4

The weakness of Black' s QRP has been eliminated .

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 223

24 B-84!

A very strong move . Strategically, White intends to play his Bishop to e5 and thus create new possibilities for pressure against Black' s position . Tactically , he threatens to win a Pawn by 25 BxN QxB 26 BxP .

If now 24 . . . B-Q3 , then 25 B-K5 i s very strong . For instance, 25 . . . BxB 26 PxB Q-K2 27 R-Q6 with strong pressure on the Black position .

24 • • • N-Q4

In order to avoid the threatened 25 BxN and incidentally to reduce the pressure on Black's KP . But this allows White to establish a strong outpost on e5 by

25 B-K5

Another very strong move. Now Black can no longer afford to play 25 . . . B-Q3 because then 26 BxN wins � Pawn .

25 • • • 26 Q-K2

KR-Bl

To gain control of the QB-file by playing B-R6, thus driving the Black KR from the QB-file . Black cannot answer 26 . . . R-B3 because of 27 B-N5 .

26 • • • Q-N2 27 P-R3

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224 Game 16

In the ensuing struggle for the QB-file White may need an escape square for his King, as will become evident at White 's 3 1 st move .

27 • • • R-B3

To double Rooks on the QB-file . Now 28 B-N5 is answered by 28 . . . R-N3 .

28 QR-Bl 29 BxN

QR-Bl

The plan is to simplify and accentuate White's advantage , for his remaining Bishop at e5 is pressing against Black' s K-wing and is much stronger than the Black Bishop, which does little more than protect Black' s QRP and prevent White from gaining access to a few squares of lesser importance .

29 • • • 30 RxR

PxB

White leaves the QB-file to Black. He does not wish a general exchange of heavy pieces because he needs material for the attack against the Black King, which will soon follow.

30 • • • QxR

Equal material-each side has two isolated Pawns-but White's Bishop exerts more pressure than Black's . Even more important is that White's pressure makes the Black Pawns the more vulnerable . Black must watch the defense of both his QRP and his KNP, and in general it is difficult to defend two points at the same time .

31 R-Q3!

Thanks to the flight square created by White 's 27 P-R3 , White can develop his attack against the Black King with greater freedom than he could have if . . . Q-B8ch had forced him to pause there and later exchange his Queen for the Black Queen .

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 225

If the Black Queen should now try to penetrate the White position by 3 1 . . . Q-B7, which is a very plausible continuation , it is impor­tant that it be answered by the promising sacrifice 32 BxPch KxB . The Black King would then be exposed to a number of checks by the White Rook and Queen, and such checks generally lead to a forced mate . But it is probable that neither of the players had calculated the exact consequences of these checks . White must have observed that after this sacrifice he had a least a draw with good chances for more . This could have been a sufficient reason for him to make it . The same reasoning could have made the Black player decide not to permit the sacrifice .

It is noteworthy that the sacrifice does not lead to mate , or in any case not to a forced mate , but that it does lead to positions in which the chances completely favor White . After 3 1 . . . Q-B7 32 BxPch KxB :

1 ) 33 R-N3ch(?) K-B2! 34 Q-R5ch (if 34 Q-K5 B-B l ! , and exact analysis shows that White cannot carry the attack any further) 34 . . . K-K3 ! 35 R-K3ch K-Q3 36 Q-B7 (threatening mate) 36 . . . K-B3 ! 37 R-K6ch B-Q3 (now Black is threatening mate) . The Black King has come into safety , and it is very questionable whether White can still get a draw.

2) 33 Q-K5ch K-B2 2a) 34 QxBPch K-Kl ! 35 R-K3ch K-Q l 36 QxPch K-B2, and the Black King comes into safety , but this does not mean that White could not force a draw at any time; 2b) 34 QxQPch K-B3 [after 34 . . . K-K l , there follows 35 R-K3ch K-B l 36 R-N3 , and we get positions. similar to those

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226 Game 16

we shall treat under 3)] 35 Q-K5ch K-B2 36 QxPch K-K I ! 37 P-Q5 ! (37 Q-K6ch K-Q l and 37 R-K3ch K-Q l do not lead to anything) . White now has three Pawns for the piece and a magnificent attacking position . Black can continue by 37 . . . Q-B8ch 38 K-R2 Q-B2ch 39 P-KN3 , but then he has no follow-up. It will not be easy for him to defend his vulner­able King permanently without making material concessions. Another possibility is 37 . . . K-Ql (instead of 37 . . . Q­B8ch) , after which White continues 38 P-Q6 ! , and now 38 . . . QxNP fails against 39 Q-N5ch K-Q2 40 Q-N5ch K-K3 41 R-K3ch KxP 42 R-Q3ch K-K2 or K-K3 43 Q-Q7ch , winning the Rook .

3) 33 Q-K5ch K-B l 34 R-N3 Q-B8ch (after 34 . . . Q-B 3 , White wins b y 3 5 QxPch K-K2 3 6 R-N7ch , etc . ) 3 5 K-R2 Q-B2 (with the intention of maintaining the pin on the White Rook if White now checks with his Queen) 36 QxPch K-K l 37 P-B4! (unpinning the Rook , which now threatens 38 R-N8ch) 37 . . . B-B I 38 R-N8 K-K2 (the only move, for Black is very handicapped because his Queen must protect the Black Rook) 39 R-R8 ! and Black can no longer prevent great material losses .

One general remark : the complete elaboration of all possible varia­tions , including even the simplest , would require many pages . The above analysis only presents some of the possibilities offered after 3 1 . . . Q-B7 32 BxPch KxB .

31 • • • 32 R-KN3 33 P-N3

Q-Q2 B-Bl

This advance hampers Black by making it very difficult for him to liquidate his QRP, which is a continual weakness since it is vulnerable to attack. Moreover , the Black Queen is tied down to the protection of its KBP. If in this position Black should play 33 . . . P-R5 , the game could continue 34 PxP QxP 35 Q-R5 R-B8ch 36 K-R2 Q-Q2 (36 . . . Q-Q8 37 BxPch ! and wins) 37 R-B3, winning the KBP.

Note that White's pressure against Black' s KNP makes the defense of Black' s QRP more difficult . With the text White threatens 34 Q-R6 Q-Q l 35 Q-K6, winning Black's BP.

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 227

33 • • • R-Rl

In order to liquidate his QRP by . . . P-R5 , etc . After 33 . . . K-Nl (to unpin the KNP) 34 Q-R6 (very strong ,

since Black now has the problem of defending his QRP) 34 . . . R­B8ch (the only way to proceed in order to protect the Black QRP) 35 K-R2 R-QR8 36 P-N4! P-R5 37 P-N5 P-R6 38 P-N6 and

1 ) 38 . . . P-R7 39 P-N7 R-QN8 40 P-N8 =Q, etc . ;

2) 38 . . . R-QN8 39 Q-R8 ! 2a) 39 . . . RxP 40 RxPch QxR 41 BxQ KxB 42 Q-R7ch, etc . ; 2b) 39 . . . P-N3 40 RxP RxP 41 R-R7 Q-K3 42 R-N7ch followed by mate .

34 Q-B2

Threatening to win a Pawn by 35 R-KB3.

34 • • . 35 Q-Q2

R-Bl R-Rl

Again, 35 . . . P-R5 would cost a Pawn after 36 PxP QxP 37 Q-N5 Q-Q2 38 R-B3 .

36 Q-NS K-Nl

Taking the King out of the line with the White Bishop so that he can avoid the loss of his BP by protecting it with . . . P-N3 .

37 R-KB3 P-N3

Black's KBP is now protected, but the diagonal is opened for White .

38 R-B3

Threatening 39 R-B7 with a quick decision thanks to open lines.

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228 Game 16

Now the seemingly obvious 38 . . . R-B 1 is refuted by 39 RxR QxR 40 Q-B6, etc .

38 • • • Q-Ql

In face of a strong attack, exchange pieces . Black works toward that end now and in the following moves . On the other hand, the attacker must try to avoid the exchange and strengthen the attack unless he can attain decisive material advantage by exchanging . For that reason , White plays

39 Q-Bl !

After 3 9 Q-N3 or 3 9 Q-B4? Black can prevent the penetration by 39 . . . R-R2 . After the text , 39 . . . R-R2 is not good on account of 40 R-B8 .

39 • • • B-Q3

The relatively best defense .

40 Q-B4

Since he cannot prevent the exchange, White will at least retain control of territory .

40 • • • BxB

Also after 40 . . . R-R3 41 BxB RxB (41 . . . QxB 42 QxQ RxQ 43 R-B8ch K-N2 44 R-QR8) 42 Q-K5 , Black will not be able to

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prevent the loss of a Pawn in the long run . One example : 42 . . . R­Q2 43 R-B5 R-Q3 (Black cannot do anything) 44 R-N5 , and Black is in Zugzwang . Every move he makes costs him material ; e .g . , 1) 44 . . . Q-B2 45 RxQP; 2) 44 . . . Q-Q2 45 RxRP; 3) 44 . . . R-Q2 45 R-N8 ; 4) 44 . . . K-B 1 45 Q-R8ch, etc . ; 5) 44 . . . P-R3 45 R-N7 Q-KB l (45 . . . R-Q2 46 R-N8) 46 R-QR7; 6) 44 . . . Q-B3 45 QxQ RxQ 46 RxQP.

41 QxB R-R2

Black cannot permit R-B7 , but now the weakness of his isolated QRP and QP will come into play .

42 R-B5 R-K2

Black can no longer avoid the loss of a Pawn, since 42 . . . R-Q2 is refuted by 43 R-N5 , threatening 44 R-N8 . For instance , 43 . . . Q-K2 44 R-N8ch K-B2 45 Q-R8 , etc .

43 RxQP

After 43 QxPch QxQ 44 RxQ R-QN2 Black can get better coun­terchances , for he wins White' s QNP . In the game White can keep his QNP, and Black captures only White's QP.

43 • • • 44 QxQ 45 RxRP

Q-B2 RxQ R-QN2

White now has two plus Pawns , but this is only temporary . When one has a plus Pawn, the farther from the l<-wing the Pawn is , the stronger it will be. Therefore , White defends his QNP.

46 R-R3 47 P-Q5

R-N5

A few tempos would have been saved by 47 K-B l followed by 48 K-K2 .

47 • • • 48 K-Bl

K-N2 K-B3

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230

49 K-K2 50 K-Q3

K-K4 KxP

Game 16

The game is entering a new phase . White must now maneuver in such a way that the Black King will be confined to the Q-side , and he must then try to capture one or two Black Pawns on the K-side .

51 K-B3 R-K5

Both in order to keep the White King from the K-side and, if possible , to attack White' s K-side Pawns .

52 R-R4

By thi:eatening an exchange of Rooks White manages to drive the Black Rook from active positions . Black must avoid exchanging Rooks , for the resulting Pawn ending is an easy win for White under all circumstances .

52 • • • R-K7 53 R-Q4ch

White will now be taking advantage of checking opportunities to get his pieces into favorable positions and then put his own Rook in such a position that the Black Rook cannot attack his K-side Pawns .

53 • • • K-B4

After 53 . . . K-K4 54 R-Q2 White would win simply by advanc­ing his QNP.

54 P-N4ch 55 R-QSch

K-N4 K-B3

Not 55 . . . K-R5 ? because of 56 R-R5 mate .

56 R-Q2

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 231

After some in-between moves by which White was able to strengthen his position on the Q-wing , the White Rook now has the opportunity to defend his own Pawns . While the Black King has to keep an eye on the White passed Pawn, the White King can switch to the other side at the right time and capture some of Black' s Pawns. Moreover, it is also possible that the White Rook can do so .

56 • • • 57 P-B3

R-K8 R-KN8

The White Rook is temporarily bound to its 2d rank, but now White goes into action with his King .

58 K-Q4

With the text , which threatens 59 K-K5 , White forces the Black Rook back to e l , and then the White Rook can leave its 2d rank .

White is now willing to give up his extra QNP in exchange for an attack on the Black K-side Pawns . But Black cannot permit the penetration of the White King via e5 , which would cost at least two Pawns (58 . . . K-N4 59 K-K5 KxP 60 K-B6) , so he plays

58 • • • R-K8 59 R-B2ch

Since Black has prevented the White King from marching to the K-wing, White tries to realize his plan by penetrating with his Rook . If he succeeds in exchanging all the Pawns on the K-wing with the

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232 Game 16

exception of one White Pawn, he has a theoretical win in view of the bad position of the Black King , which is too far away to help stop the White passed Pawn . An example of how White's plans might work is illustrated by the line: 59 . . . K-N4 60 R-B7 R-K7 6 1 P-N4 PxP 62 BPxP P-R4 63 PxP PxP 64 R-B5ch KxP 65 RxP, and according to theory White must win this ending , but it will not be easy .

59 • • • K-N3

Preventing White' s plan of 60 R-B7, but Black will soon have to make greater concessions .

60 K-QS

Planning 61 R-B6ch (which happens) and after 61 . . . K-N4 62 R-B7 or after 6 1 . . . K-N2 62 R-KB6 followed by 63 R-B7ch .

60 • • • R-K6

Black simply waits , keeping his Rook on the K-file so as not to let the White King go to the K-side .

61 R-B6ch K-N4

If 6 1 . . . K-N2, then 62 R-B6 followed by 63 R-B7ch .

62 R-B7 P-R4

Relatively better, but also a loss , is 62 . . . R-K7 63 P-N4, as in the line under 59 R-B2ch .

63 R-N7ch

This gives Black the disagreeable choice between 63 . . . K-R5 (as in the game) 64 K-B4, threatening mate (the point is that the Black Rook cannot effectively check in this position) , and 63 . . . K-R3 64 R-KN7 , and White wins the NP with check .

63 • • • 64 K-B4

K-RS?

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Queen's Gambit Accepted 233

White abandons his plan to win on the K-wing and proceeds to win with his QNP.

64 • • • 65 R-R7ch

K-R6 Resigns

The White passed Pawn advances rapidly and will cost Black at least his Rook. For instance, 65 . . . K-N7 66 P-N5 R-B6ch 67 K-Q5 R-N6 68 K-B6 R-B6ch 69 K-N7 K-N6 70 P-N6 K-B5 7 1 R-RS K-N4 72 R-KS R-B7 73 R-K5ch K-N5 74 K-NS RxP 75 K-B7 R-B7ch 76 K-Q6 and, for instance, 76 . . . R-B l 77 P-N7 or 76 . . . R-Q7ch 77 R-Q5 R-K7 78 P-N7 R-K l 79 K-B7, etc . In general , if a King cannot help in stopping a hostile passed Pawn supported by its King, the passed Pawn must cost the defending side its Rook .

Black lost the game because after an interesting and, at the outset, even struggle, Black could nor prevent the White Bishop from oc­cupying a dominating square which forced him into a completely passive position in which his weakened Pawns became an even greater burden . By simplifying at the right time, White got into a R + P vs . R ending , which he managed to convert into a win by exact and systema­tic treatment .

An extraordinary game, rich in detail .

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Game 1 7

Ideas behind the 4 Q-82 line of the Nimzoindian Defense

Implications of 4 . • • P-QB4

Neglect of K-side development

Opening the position when one has a lead in development

The creation of complications when one has more pieces in a given area

Opening lines to press the attack

Neglect of K-side Development One of the most elementary and fundamental principles of chess

play is rapid piece development . Each piece should be brought out as soon as possible , taking into consideration the requirements of the successive positions in the opening phase of the game . As long as a piece remains undeveloped, it contributes nothing to attack and little to defense . For all practical purposes the player with a given number of undeveloped pieces is that many pieces down, and this is even truer if his opponent has been able to develop his pieces .

Failure to develop any piece tends to be bad , but still more serious is failure to develop the K-side pieces , especially when the Q-side is wide open and one's King is by force of circumstances still in the center of the board. In such cases, not only is the King in great danger of attack, but the undeveloped KB , KN, and KR are only partly available either to protect it or to participate in the struggle for equality .

In such a situation one's adversary has all the play . He can relent­lessly attack the undeveloped player' s King on the one hand and his Queen and the few developed minor pieces on the other. Thus, the undeveloped player is so busy defending that he has no time to develop his K-side pieces.

Failure to develop one or more pieces is a common error of amateurs , but it is interesting to note that in certain openings, because of special considerations , even a master may neglect piece develop­ment in his desire to attain other ends first. But the nature of chess is

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line 235

such that even the master will then have to suffer the consequences of his lack of piece development .

Nimzoindian Defense - 4 Q-82 P-84 Line lnterzonal - Petropolls, Brazi l - 1 973

Vlastimil Hort - Czechoslovakia

1 P-Q4

Borislav Ivkov - Yugoslavia

N-KB3

Instead of occupying the center with a Pawn , as was normally done in earlier times , Black exerts pressure on the center with his KN . For that reason White cannot now play P-K4 without further preparation .

2 P-QB4 3 N-QB3

The Nimzoindian Defense .

P-K3 B-N5

In agreement with modern principles the text can be regarded as indirect pressure against the White center. The idea behind 3 . . . B­N5 is to prevent a White P-K4 and also to get a more active opening than Black often does with the Queen' s Gambit Declined . In the Nimzoindian Black is willing , if necessary , to exchange his KB for the White QN in order to get a rapid development and sometimes to force the doubling of White's QBP. In many games it has been shown that the doubled QBP may constitute a serious weakness in the White position .

4 Q-B2

On c2 the Queen renews the positional threat of P-K4 and by protecting its QN affords White the possibility of avoiding doubled Pawns if Black should play . . . BxNch.

4 • • • P-B4

Black immediately attacks the White center . White could now continue with 5 P-K3 or 5 N-B 3 , but in either case Black could answer 5 . . . P-Q4 or 5 . . . N-B3 and would have no difficulty equalizing .

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236 Game 17

However , White finds an answer which leads to sharper positions .

S PxP

After this move Black does have difficulty in equalizing . He must find a series of strong, enterprising , and to some extent unexpected moves , including a pawn sacrifice . For instance, after 5 . . . BxP, the Black pressure against the White center has disappeared, and White gets an excellent position with 6 N-B3 followed by 7 B-N5 because he has more freedom. Black' s QP will constitute a problem. If he plays . . . P-Q4, the QP might easily become isolated through White moves such as B-N5 and R-Q l . But Black is not forced to recapture the Pawn with his Bishop.

s . . . 0.0(!)

The Pirc Variation . Black' s idea is to develop as rapidly as possible and to take advan­

tage of the fact that White has not yet developed his K-side . This is a difficult position for both sides . White must continue his

development, always taking into account the strategical and tactical consequences of . . . BxNch; Black must find a way to win back die Pc5 and exercise keen judgment as to the value of . . . BxNch. In one position , . . . BxNch may be bad for Black , whereas in a slightly different position it may be strong. In most cases , Black does not play . . . BxN voluntarily but only when forced to do so by White' s P-QR3 .

White now has several possibilities . The usual move in this position is 6 N-B3 . Then after 6 . . . N-R3

7 P-QR3 BxNch 8 QxB NxP White has the Bishop pair, but Black has some counterplay because he controls e4 .

Or he can play 6 B-N5 , and the game might continue 6 . . . N-R3 7 P-QR3 BxNch 8 QxB NxP 9 P-B3 KN-KS ! 10 BxQ NxQ 1 1 B-K7 N-N6 ! 1 2 BxR KxB 1 3 R-Q l NxR 14 KxN P-QR4, and Black stands a bit better. Instead of 7 P-QR3 White should play 7 P-B3 .

Another possibility i s 6 B-Q2 N-R3 7 P-QR3 BxN 8 BxB NxP. The advantage of this line is that White keeps his Queen on c2, where it controls the center and is not exposed to attack by . . . N-K5 . Moreover, White' s QB on c3 takes an active part in the continuation of the game.

Hoping to do better than in any of the above lines , White answers

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line 237

6 B-B4

Now White exercises pressure on d6 and maintains the possibility of playing P-B3 in order to dispute Black's efforts to control e4 with his KN. If Black now continues with the obvious 6 . . . BxP, White gets a good development and a fine game with 7 P-K3 and 8 N-B3 .

6 • • • N-R3

To be able to capture White 's Pc5 and then to exert more pressure on e4 .

Also deserving of consideration is 6 . . . Q-R4. For example :

I ) 7 B-Q6 R-Kl (stronger than 7 . . . N-K5 , after which White wins the Exchange by 8 QxN! BxNch 9 K-Q l BxP 10 R-N l ; nonetheless, the position remains difficult) 8 P-B3 (8 . . . N-K5 was threatening) 8 . . . BxP 9 BxB QxB with about even chances . If 10 P-K4, Black plays 10 . • . P-Q4.

2) 7 B-K5 N-N5 8 B-Q6 BxP! 9 BxR? BxPch 10 K-Q2 Q-N4ch 1 1 P-K3 QxPch 12 K-Ql Q-K8 mate.

3) 7 P-K3 (best) 7 . . . N-K5 8 N-K2 NxN 9 NxN QxBP 1 0 0-0-0, and White has the initiative .

7 P-QR3

White plays the text in order to force Black to make a choice .

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238

7 • • • 8 QxB

BxNch NxP

Game 17

It is important now that one of Black's Knights be able to go to e4, where it will be protected by Black's other Knight .

How should White now continue? We will consider 1 ) the develop­ing moves 9 N-B3 and 9 P-K3 ; 2) 9 P-QN4; 3) 9 B-Q6; and the actual continuation of the game, 9 R-Q l ? .

1 ) Safest in this position is to begin developing the K-side with 9 N-B3 or 9 P-K3 .

2) However , most enterprising is 9 P-QN4, with which White could perhaps maintain a slight positional advantage: 9 . . . QN­K5 1 0 Q-N2 P-Q4 1 1 P-B 3 N-Q3 1 2 P-B5 N-B4 (better than 1 2 . . . N-B5 1 3 Q-B2 followed by 1 4 P-K4 or 14 P-K3) 1 3 P-N4 N-R5 14 B-N5 N-N3 , after which the situation is not too clear , although chances seem equal .

3) If 9 B-Q6 QN-K5 10 Q-Q4 NxB 1 1 QxQN N-K5 1 2 Q-Q4 P-Q4, Black is still more advanced in development than in the game, and White is without any real compensation .

9 R-Ql?

Since Black's natural reply i s 9 . . . P-Q4, the text looks fine because it exerts pressure along the Q-file . However in many varia­tions , because of the undeveloped White K-side Black can answer . . . P-Q4 and sacrifice his QP successfully .

9 • • •

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line 239

Now things are not so simple , for Black gets counterchances . White's attempt to win the QP is dubious, for then all Black's pieces come into action :

1 ) 1 0 PxP KN-K5 1 1 Q-B2 ( 1 1 Q-Q4 PxP 1 2 QxP Q-KB3 , threatening White's QNP, his QB , and indirectly his KBP) 1 1 . . . Q-B3 1 2 P-K3 PxP ( 1 2 . . . B-Q2 is also strong)

l a) 1 3 P-QN4 N-R5 ! , and now 1 4 QxN fails against 1 4 . . . Q-B6ch 1 5 K-K2 Q-N7ch followed by mate ; lb) 1 3 RxP B-K3 1 4 RxN NxR 1 5 QxN QR-B l , and Black has only a Rook for two pieces and a Pawn, but he has a Rook check on c l which will win a piece : 1 6 Q moves R-B8ch 1 7 K-K2 B-B5ch, etc .

2) 1 0 P-QN4 KN-K5 1 1 Q-B2 Q-B3 1 2 P-K3 N-R5 ! with the same complications as in l a) .

1 0 P-B3(?)

To prevent either of the Black Knights from going to e4 , but White gets too far behind in development , for which he will soon be punished . Better is 10 P-K3 , promoting development .

10 • • • B-Q2

A move which has various advantages: (a) it unpins the QP; (b) it frees c8 for the Black QR; (c) it prepares . . . B-R5 , which will prevent White from being able to play Q-B2; and (d) it controls a4 so that Black can in some variations bring his QN to that square without fear of its being driven away.

11 P-K3

White must develop despite the unfavorable appearance of the resultant Pe3-Pf3 pawn formation .

However, also to be considered is 1 1 PxP: 1 ) 1 1 . . . R-B 1 (gambit style) 1 2 PxP NxP 1 3 Q-Q2 B-R5 is very promising for Black ; 2) 1 1 . . . N-R5 maintains the initiative with equal material .

11 • • • R-Bl

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240 Game 17

Disagreeable for White in view of the limited number of replies at his disposal .

12 P-QN3

This advance supports White' s QBP and prevents Black from attacking by the very effective . . . N-R5 or . . . B-R5 . Still , it does not look very convincing, but what can White do?

1 ) 1 2 N-R3 loses a Pawn after 1 2 . . . N-R5 1 3 Q-N3 (or 1 3 Q-N4) 1 3 . . . PxP 14 BxP RxB 1 5 QxR NxP;

2) 1 2 P-QN4 N-R5 1 3 Q-N3 PxP 14 BxP RxB 1 5 QxR N-N7 is again very strong, for although White has equal material he is very far behind in development.

12 • • • Q-N3 13 P-QN4

This is almost a "must" since White's QNP is en prise . The alternative 1 3 R-Nl B-R5 1 4 P-QN4 QN-Q2 results in pressure against c4, and the position has the same unfavorable characteristics for White as the text , namely lack of development and vulnerable squares .

13 • • • 14 Q-B2

N-RS

Now 1 4 . . . PxP would fail because of 1 5 RxB NxR 1 6 QxN,

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line 241

winning two minor pieces for the Exchange . We now see why White induced the Black Queen to go to b6 before he played P-QN4. It is a small measure of success for White to have been able to exclude the possibility of 14 . . . PxP. Now Black must find some other way of pressing his advantage .

14 • • • P-QR4

It is a general rule that when you are better developed, you should open the position . Moreover, in almost all positions it is important to try to break up an opponent's advanced pawn structure .

15 K-B2

This is a kind of development-and what else was there for White to do?

1 ) 1 5 P-N5 BxP 1 6 R-Nl Q-B4, etc . ;

2) 1 5 R-N l PxBP 16 BxP B-N4, etc . ;

3 ) 1 5 PxRP QxRPch 3a) 16 Q-Q2 QxQch 17 RxQ PxP; 3b) 1 6 K-B2 PxP, and White loses his QBP (17 BxP? P-QN4) ;

4) 15 P-B5 PxP 4a) 16 PxQ RxQ 17 PxP NxP, and Black has a plus Pawn as well as a dominating position ; 4b) 16 QxN (the Queen is a desperado) 16 . . . BxQ

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242 Game 17

17 PxQ BxR 18 KxB PxP, and the only way to stop Black's passed RP from queening is by 1 9 B-K5, which i s refuted by 19 . . . P-Q5 ! (and if 20 PxP N-Q4 or if 20 BxP KR-Q l ) .

1 5 . • • 16 R-Nl

PxNP

The text regains the White Pawn but this takes time, and the White King is far from safe .

16 • • • PxBP

Now that the White Rook no longer indirectly attacks the Black Bishop, Black continues to open the game .

17 Rx:P 18 Rx:BP

Q-R2 N-Q4

Threatening to win the Bishop by 1 9 NxB .

19 Q-K4

The struggle is now in the open field . Because of his undeveloped K-side pieces, White has to play with the equivalent of several pieces down. After 19 P-N3 P-K4 20 B-N5 (20 BxP? QxPch followed by 2 1 . . . QxB) 20 . . . P-R3 wins .

19 • • • 20 Q-Q4

N/S-B6

So far White can still protect his vital points , but for how long?

20 • • • QxP 21 N-R3

At last a start toward development, but it is far too late .

21 • • • P-B3

Threatening to win a piece by 22 . . . P-K4.

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line

22 RxR 23 B-B4

RxR

243

Since after 23 . . . P-K4 White's B/QB4 would be pinning the Knight , it is temporarily inadvisable for Black to advance his KP at this point .

23 . • . P-QN4

If now 24 BxN Q-N7ch and 1 ) 25 K-B l Q-K7ch 26 K-N l Q-K8 mate ; 2) 25 K-N3 N-K7ch , winning the Queen .

24 B-Q3 25 BxKP

P-K4 PxB

If now 26 QxP Q-N7ch, then 27 K-N3 fails.because of 27 . . . N­K7ch , winning the Queen by using the Knight fork to realize Black' s indirect attack on the White Queen .

26 Q-KR4 P-KS

To open more lines . If now 27 BxP Q-N7ch decides : 1 ) 28 K-Nl NxB followed by 29 . . . R-B8ch, etc . ; 2) 28 K-N3 N-K7ch 29 K-B2 N-B5 dis eh and mate follows (e .g . , 30 K-N3 QxP mate) . So White continues

27 PxP R-Blch 28 Resigns

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244 Game 17

For White is a piece down and has a bad King position . There might follow:

1 ) 28 K-N3 Q-Q3ch 29 N-B4 NxN 30 PxN QxBch , etc . ;

2) 2 8 N-B4 NxPch ! 29 BxN QxPch, etc .

Black won because his pieces were active , whereas White ne­glected development completely . Black very cleverly opened the maximum number of lines so that White had to struggle with a concrete minority in the field .

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Game 1 8

Ideas behind the 4 P-K3 line of the Nimzoindian Defense

The role of . • • P-QB4 and • • • P-Q4 in this line

The importance of Black's playing . • . P-Q4 in order to prevent White

from playing P-QS

The loose piece

Better development as compensation for a pawn sacrifice

The attack against the uncastled K-side denuded of pieces

The possibility of offering piece sacrifices in such an attack

Exchange of pieces in order to bring the exchanging player's remaining

pieces to better squares

Reducing to a won endgame position

The Sacrificial Attack with Pieces The piece sacrifice discussed in Game 3 , the initiative described in

Game 1 1 , and the combination defined in Game 14 all come into play at the same time when a player has better piece development than his opponent and when the latter' s uncastled K-side is denuded of pieces .

Whether the defender 's King has castled or not , the attacker by seizing the initiative , by an effective use of threats , by keeping on the outlook for possible combinations, and by properly manipulating his pieces can frequently off er surprising sacrifices which the defender cannot afford to accept because to do so would lead to mate or to some important advantage for the attacker .

"

These attacks and sacrifices are made possible because of the weakness of the defender's K-side, which is not caused by the adv­ance of his K-side Pawns but by the absence of the defender's light pieces on this front . In such positions the attacker can often afford to offer the sacrifice of one piece after another .

Even in cases of such overwhelming attacks there may come a point in the game when it is better for the attacker to settle for a winning endgame position than to try to carry an attack through to mate . If there really is a direct mate , the attacker should by all means discover

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246 Game 18

and administer it. But if there is no direct mate , then he wisely wins by the less brilliant but surer advantages offered by endgame position .

Nlmzolndian Defense - 4 P-K3 P-84 Line Olympiad - Skopje, Yugoslavia - 1 972

Lajos Portisch - Hungary Milko Bobotsov - Bulgaria

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4 3 N-QB3 4 P-K3

N-KB3 P-K3 B-NS

This is the most important line of the Nimzoindian today . White simply continues his development , preparing to bring his KB to d3 and possibly his KN to e2 in order to avoid the doubling of his Pawns. He leaves it to Black to decide whether to exchange his Bishop for the White Knight . Masters do not usually make this exchange unless White first loses a tempo by playing P-QR3 , for surrendering one of the Two Bishops in order to play . . . BxN is probably not worth­while simply to give White a doubled Pawn .

The fact that in this line the White QB is hemmed in may be a disadvantage, but there are many lines in the Indian defenses where White 's QB stands better on b2 or d2 than on f4 or g5 .

4 • • • P-B4

To attain equality in the center by exerting pressure on d4 . If, as here , Black plays 4 . . . P-B4 without having first played . . . P-Q4, there is the danger that by answering P-Q5 White could assure himself of more freedom of movement and attacking chances . This will be exemplified later in this game.

At this point , 5 P-Q5 is not dangerous for Black : 5 . . . N-K5 6 B-Q2 (6 Q-B2 Q-B3, and White cannot continue 7 B-Q2 because of 7 . . . QxPch, and he cannot answer 7 QxN because of 7 . . . BxNch , after which he has to give up castling) 6 . . . BxN 7 BxB NxB 8 PxN, and Black stands well , for he has doubled White' s Pawns without having left his opponent with the Bishop pair.

The alternative 4 . . . P-Q4 is just as good as 4 . . . P-B4 and often leads to the same types of positions. Black could also castle and play for equality in the center a bit later .

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 P-K3 P-84 Line 247

5 B-Q3

White plays his Bishop before his KN in order to reserve the choice of where his KN should be developed. Especially in this position, N-K2 prevents Black from doubling White 's BP's . White could also have played 5 P-QR3 , and after 5 . . . BxNch 6 PxB Black could continue either with 6 . . . P-QN3 or 6 . . . P-Q4, after which there arises a difficult situation in which both sides have chances .

5 . . . P-QN3

It would have perhaps been better to play 5 . . . P-Q4 to reach the so-called ' 'normal ' ' variation of the Nimzoindian, which continues 6 N-B3 0-0 7 0-0 N-B3 and which consists of a symmetrical center on both sides except for the development of the KB 's . This symmetry refers only to the central pawn formation . The different positions of the White and Black KB 's can lead to different aims for each side . White sometimes gets chances on the K-wing, Black on the Q-wing .

When a symmetrical position with the Pawns of each side on their respective QB4- and Q4-squares occurs , it requires a very good sense of position to be able to determine which Pawn or Pawns to exchange .

Symmetrical structures are still more difficult to handle in the Queen 's Gambit : 1 P-Q4 P-Q4 2 P-QB4 P-K3 3 N-QB3 P-QB4 4 P-K3 N-KB3 5 N-B3 N-B3 with complete symmetry . This is one of the lines of the Tarrasch Variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined .

6 N-K2

Very good ! Now White can eventually play P-QR3 and force the exchange of Bishop for Knight without the doubling of the Pawns .

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248 Game 18

6 . . . B-N2

The presence of the Black QB on b7 prevents White from playing P-Q5 .

7 0-0 PxP

It is understandable that Black would like to create a diagonal of retreat for his KB in view of a possible P-QR3 . However , Black should probably have accepted the necessity of exchanging his Bishop for the White QN and played 7 . . . 0-0 or 7 . . . P-Q4 in order to further his development .

8 PxP B-K2(?)

This move should certainly be condemned, for it is a clear loss of tempo! Correct is 8 . . . BxN 9 NxB P-Q4 .

Black does not play 8 . . . . 0-0 because he fears 9 P-Q5 ! , which is now good because of 9 . . . PxP 10 PxP NxP(?) 1 1 NxN BxN 1 2 BxPch KxB 1 3 QxB with advantage to White .

An immediate 8 . . . P-Q4? loses a piece, because after 9 Q-R4ch N-B3 1 0 PxP NxP 1 1 B-QN5 Black must give up a piece , for both his QN and KB are threatened : 1 1 . . . R-QB l 1 2 NxN QxN 1 3 QxB .

9 P-QS!

This closes the diagonal for Black' s fianchettoed Bishop and cramps the Black position . The fact that Black has more pieces controlling d5 than White does not count at all .

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 P-K3 P-B4 Line 249

In positions in the Nimzoindian and Queen's Indian where the Black QB is fianchettoed and Black has not yet played . . . P-Q4, P-Q5 is always favorable for White ; but if it involves the sacrifice of a Pawn, it must be determined whether the compensation along other lines is worth that Pawn.

Here, in return for the sacrificed Pawn White has a lead in develop­ment and all his pieces are available for action, whereas after the acceptance of the pawn sacrifice the Black K-side is insufficiently defended.

An experienced player can weigh these factors without calculating possible variations . A less experienced player must either calculate or take the risk , and if the outcome is negative, he has at least gained experience .

9 • • • lO PxP

PxP NxP?

This leads to a complete catastrophe. Black could have played I 0 . . . P-Q3 , after which with a majority in space White has an ideal field for attack, which he may attain by bringing his light pieces a bit nearer Black's K-side, such as , for instance, his Knight via g3 to f5 . But Black has no weaknesses on the K-side and may be able to defend himself .

Black could also have played 10 . . . 0-0 but probably feared 1 1 P-Q6 BxP 1 2 BxPch NxB 1 3 QxB , and White stands a bit better.

l l NxN BxN

The Black Bishop is now a loose piece which will be open to attack . However, trying to regain the Pawn by 1 2 BxP is refuted by 12 . . . BxNP, a desperado combination : 13 KxB RxB , and the Black position is certainly no worse .

12 N-B4

This gives White an important tempo to press his attack . The Knight is now in a position to cooperate in an attack in various areas .

12 • • • B-N2

The alternative 12 . . . B-K3 is refuted by 1 3 NxB followed by

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250 Game 18

either 13 . . . BPxN 14 Q-R5ch or by 13 . . . QPxN 14 B-K4, in either case with a winning advantage for White .

13 R-Kl

As a compensation for his pawn sacrifice , all White 's light pieces are directed toward Black' s K-wing , and Black has no defense . The power of White 's position is illustrated most clearly by 1 3 . . . 0-0, which leads to a direct win for White : 1 4 Q-R5 P-N3 1 5 NxP BPxN 16 BxP PxB 17 QxPch K-Rl 18 R-K5 wins .

13 • . • N-B3

Although this is a gesture on Black' s part to begin to develop his pieces , 1 3 . . . K-B l would have been preferable . In that case , White would not have had the fine and forcing sacrificial combination which will occur in this game. After 1 3 . . . K-B I , White could play 14 N-R5 , for in general i t i s a part of the attacking strategy to bring the light pieces (especially the Knight) to the vicinity of the hostile King , particularly since in this case the Knight cannot be driven away ( 1 4 . . . P-N3? 1 5 B-R6ch) . The game might continue : 14 . . . B­KB3 15 B-KB4 P-Q4 1 6 Q-Q2. Certainly the White position is superior then in spite of the fact that White is a Pawn down. Black can hardly breathe . The loss of castling makes his KR almost worthless . Play might proceed : 1 6 . . . N-B3 1 7 QR-B l R-B l ( ?) 1 8 B-B5 R-R l 1 9 NxB QxN 20 QxP R-Q l 2 1 B-Q7 ! QxB 22 BxN! and wins . The Black Rook is attacked, and 22 . . . RxQ fails against 23 R-K8 mate ; furthermore , 22 . . . R-B l is refuted by 23 Q-Q7 ; finally , 22 . . . Q-B3 23 QxRch QxQ 24 BxB followed by 25 R-B8 . This is not only

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 P-K3 P-84 Line 251

an example to illustrate White 's superiority ; it also shows that it is not easy to make use of the various advantages in the White position .

14 N-RS!

A very strong move . After 14 . . . P-N3 White mates in two: 1 5 N-B6ch K-B l 1 6 B-R6 mate . Nor is 14 . . . 0-0 good either, for 1 5 NxP KxN (what else?) 1 6 Q-N4ch K-R l 1 7 Q-B5 followed by mate .

14 • • • K-Bl

There is nothing else . But with White ' s active pieces and Black's inactive ones , the position is such that White can now afford to sacrifice in order to bring the Black King out into the open.

15 NxP

White had to carefully compare the results of making the sacrifice with those of making a developing move such as 1 5 B-KB4. If Black answers 1 5 . . . KxN, then 1 6 Q-N4ch K-B-1 1 7 B-R6ch K-K l 1 8 Q-N7 and wins. If 1 5 . . . B-N4 (in order to prevent 1 6 B-R6) 1 6 R-K8ch wins Black's Queen for a Rook and a Knight .

15 • • • P-KR3

This move also prevents 1 6 B-R6.

16 N-B5

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252 Game 18

Doubly attacking Black's KRP with the intention of playing the threatening 1 7 N-Q6 if Black answers 1 6 . . . B-N4 to defend it .

16 • • • B-N4

To defend the KRP.

17 N-Q6

Threatening both 17 NxB and 1 7 R-K8ch .

17 • • • 18 B-N6!

Q-B2

Offering the sacrifice of a piece . Black cannot afford to accept the sacrifice because of 1 8 . . . PxB 1 9 Q-B3ch followed by mate . The text also protects White's Knight by removing the intervening Bishop.

18 • • • N-K2

At last Black has managed to mobilize some defending pieces around his King , but it is far too late . After White 's next move Black' s King will have lost all pawn protection .

19 BxP R-R2

Attacking White 's KB and forcing it to withdraw .

20 B-N3 Q-B3

At last Black has the dubious satisfaction of threatening mate once in the course of the game . But since his position is completely cramped, he has nothing better , so he is glad that his mating threat enables him to force White to exchange his active Knight for the Black QB .

21 NxB

It is now time for White to liquidate in order to reach a completely won endgame position .

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Nimzoindian Defense: 4 P-K3 P-B4 Line

21 • • • 22 BxB 23 Q-Q3

QxN PxB

253

Putting his Queen into a more active position and giving full freedom of movement to his Rooks as well as attacking the Black KR.

White could have played 23 RxN followed by 24 B-Q5 at once, but then he would not have had the possibility which exists in the main variation of 26 Q-K4ch (see the analysis following 25 . . . Resigns) , which wins a full Rook, or of 26 Q-B3ch given in the variation under Black' s 24th move .

23 • • • R-N2

24 RxN

With the elimination of the Black Knight White gets control of the d5 and f5 squares , the most important on the board .

24 • • • KxR

Leading to the same type of play is 24 . . . RxR 25 B-Q5 Q-B 1 26 Q-B3ch , winning a full piece .

25 B-QS Resigns

For if 25 . . . Q-B l 26 Q-K4ch followed by 27 BxR, and Black is a piece down .

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254 Garne ts

White won because (a) Black lost time by withdrawing his KB from b4 to e7 and then accepted White's pawn sacrifice ; (b) White's pieces were actively developed, whereas Black had no development at all ; (c) on account of the activity of White' s pieces Black' s King was never able to castle to safety ; and (d) White eventually succeeded in denuding Black' s K-side of pawn protection .

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Game 19

Ideas behind the Siimisch Variation of the King's Indian Defense

• • • N-QB3 vs • • • • QN-Q2 in the King's Indian

A K-side attack by White vs. a Q-side attack by Black

The power of a threat of double check

Improving one's position through consolidation of forces

Keeping the position closed to prevent a counterattack via open lines

The final pawn push in the last phase of the game

Waves of Attack The opponent is sometimes , but not always, overwhelmed by a

simple , straightforward operation consisting of a sequence of moves which leads to mate or to some important material advantages .

There are cases in which an attack advances to a certain point , then is stopped short , either by the player' s own volition or by the oppo­nent' s effective defense . However , this phase of the attack was not in vain if it has resulted in some weakness in the opponent' s position . Once the first wave of attack is over , the attacker examines the weaknesses in his opponent ' s position and then proceeds to carry out a new but different type of attack based on those weaknesses . This attack may also be stopped , but still other weaknesses may have been created in the opponent 's position .

There may be several waves of attack in a game . The concept of successive waves is important to an understanding that some games are won not by a single attack but by a series of different types of attacks, each one taking as its basis the weaknesses created by the preceding attack .

King's Indian Defense - Slmisch Variation International Tournament - Torremolinos, Spain - 1 974

Florin Gheorghiu -Ru mania

Heikki Westerinen -Finland

255

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256

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4 3 N-QB3 4 P-K4

N-KB3 P-Q3 P-KN3 B-N2

Game 19

The basic formation of the King's Indian, where White has suc­ceeded in building up a broad pawn center (Pc4-Pd4-Pe4) , while Black has fianchettoed his KB and played . . . P-Q3 to prevent White from becoming too aggressive with his center Pawns . The Black strategy in the King's Indian is to undermine the White pawn center. But White ' s next move initiates a very special strategy.

5 P-B3

The Samisch Variation, one of the strongest lines , preferred by many grandmasters . This move strengthens White' s KP and prepares a concentration of forces by B-K3 , Q-Q2, and 0-0-0 in order to launch an attack on the K-side by advancing the Pawns on that wing . This means that Black's counterchances , usually based on the push . . . P-KB4, are limited .

s . . . 0-0 6 B-K3

The QB now gives added protection to White's center and after White has played Q-Q2 can threaten to go to h6 to exchange itself for Black' s powerful fianchettoed KB . Sometimes this Bishop goes in­stead to g5 to provoke . . . P-KR3 , a weakening which may be exploited later in the attack against Black's K-side . In that case , the Bishop withdraws to h4 .

6 • • . N-B3

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King's Indian Defense: Simisch Variation 257

In many variations of this defense the Black QN stands better here than on d7 where it hampers the movement of the other Black pieces . Moreover, as soon as Black has played . . . P-K4, the Black QN at c6 aids in pressing against White's center QP; thus , White will generally find it necessary to advance that QP in order to avoid losing a Pawn, after which Black's QN finds a suitable place on e7 . For instance, if 7 Q-Q2, then 7 . . . P-K4 threatens 8 . . . PxP 9 BxP NxB 10 QxN NxP! , winning a Pawn for Black, since if 1 1 QxN? R-K l .

The alternative to 6 . . . N-B3 is 6 . . . QN-Q2 followed by 7 . . . P-K4 or 7 . . . P-B4 . Either of these Black moves aims to open the Black a l/h8 diagonal and to increase the activity of the Black Bishop at g7 , which may be all the more important since White intends to castle Q-side .

7 KN-K2

The KN is developed toward the center , where it strengthens d4 and supports the QN which is often attacked by Black' s fianchettoed KB as soon as White has played P-Q5 . From e2 it can also later participate in the attack against Black's K-side, as it does in this game .

7 • • • R-Nl

By . . . P-QR3 and . . . P-QN4 Black prepares both to undermine White' s QBP and to open the QN-file for himself . This is part of Black' s general strategy in the Samisch Variation of the King's Indian and is directed against White' s Q-side castling .

8 Q-Q2 R-Kl(?)

This move has no particular purpose . In some variations, after simplification the Black Rook stands better on e8 than on f8 , but the opposite may also be true . However, in cases where White plays B-R6, with his Rook on e8 Black can answer . . . B-R l , although this is not the case in this game.

More consistent would have been 8 . . . P-QR3 followed by 9 . . . P-QN4, carrying out the Q-side strategy described under 7 . . . R-N l .

9 P-KR4

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258 Game 19

The standard way of beginning an attack on Black's castled King . White threatens to open the KR-file eventually by P-KR5 after ade­quate preparation .

9 . . . P-KR4

To prevent White ' s advance . By so doing Black weakens his own K-side, but it is difficult to decide what the best way of stemming the White pawn storm is . In the Karpov-Korchnoi Sicilian Dragon De­fense (Game 8) , Black did not play . . . P-KR4 in a similar position and had to put up with a heavy attack characterized by 14 P-R5 ! NxRP 1 5 P-KN4 N-B3 followed shortly by 1 7 B-R6 BxB 1 8 QxB , etc .

10 0-0-0 P-R3

Since White has now castled Q-side , there is still more reason to carry out the advance to b5 in order to open attacking files against White ' s castled position .

1 1 B-R6

The customary way of eliminating the Black fianchettoed Bishop so that it cannot aid in the def ense of Black' s K-side or-as is sometimes the case-in the attack on White's Q-side . True, White also ex­changes his QB in this maneuver , but Black will eventually have to defend the hole at h6, and his KB is more important for the defense than is White's QB for the attack .

Also, in general , when the player with the greater number of attacking pieces exchanges , his superiority increases . For instance, if White has four attacking pieces and Black two defending pieces the ratio is 2: 1 , but after the exchange White will have three attacking and Black orily one defending piece , that is, a ratio of 3 : 1 . Therefore , White has increased his superiority proportionally .

1 1 • • • P-QN4

Black advances his own attack, since he does not want to lose a tempo by playing 1 1 . . . B-R l , but if he had done that , White would have continued his attack just as he does in the game .

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King's Indian Defense: Simisch Variation 259

12 P-KN4

Both sides hurry to launch their attack.

12 • • • PxBP

After 1 2 . . . PxNP White would have continued 1 3 P-R5 ! , and then 1 3 . . . NxRP would have failed because of 14 RxN ! PxR 1 5 Q-N5 .

Another variation of this line is 1 2 . . . PxNP 1 3 P-R5 PxKBP 14 PxKNP PxN 1 5 BxB PxR=Qch 1 6 NxQ N-KN5 (White threatened 17 R-R8ch KxB 1 8 Q-R6 mate, and 1 6 . . . PxNP does not help because of 1 7 BxN PxB 1 8 Q-R6) 17 PxPch KxP 1 8 Q-B4ch and wins : 1 8 . . . KxB 19 Q-N5ch K-B2 20 R-R7ch K-K3 2 1 Q-B5 mate or 1 8 . . . N-B3 1 9 BxN PxB 20 R-R7ch K-N l 2 1 Q-R6 and wins . The whole line shows how important a tempo in the attack can be. White sacrifices a "diagonal of pieces" (those on g4-f3-e2-dl ) just to forward the attack. ,,

It appears that Black was right in not getting into these complica­tions but rather in continuing along his own line , hoping to get an attack along the QN-file .

13 N-N3

Pressing against Black's KRP, for 1 3 PxP NxP would lead to nothing .

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260 Game 19

ll . . . P-K4

Threatening to take White 's QP with new threats which prevent White' s attack from proceeding so quickly . Now White must look for new possibilities. To that end he must first exchange Bishops .

14 BxB Kx:B

Now the situation has changed. Black has holes at f6 and h6, and the continuation of the game will show how new avenues of attack will open up for White . But the original attack (PxRP) is stopped.

15 PxKP

The advance 1 5 P-Q5 is answered by 1 5 . . . N-Q5 1 6 PxP NxBP followed by 17 . . . B-N5 , and it seems that Black can defend him­self; e .g . , 17 Q-K3 B-N5 1 8 PxP PxP 19 B-K2 N-Q5 21 Q-N5 BxB 2 1 QNxB NxNch 2 2 NxN N-R4, and White has no suitable continuation to the attack.

It is curious to note how in one case (the line following 1 2 . . . PxNP, after which White sacrifices "a diagonal of pieces") , the attack is successful , and in another (the one described directly above after 1 5 P-Q5) , the attack is not successful . While the positions do not differ very much, this is one proof that in complicated positions one cannot rely exclusively on intuition .

15 • • • RxP

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King's Indian Defense: Simisch Variation 261

Let us examine the other choices , which are all favorable for White .

1 ) 1 5 . . . PxP 16 Q-N5 N-Q5 17 PxP, and White 's original attack would revive in an overwhelming manner ; e .g . , 17 . . . NxBP loses a piece : 1 8 RxQ NxQ 19 RxR NxR 20 PxN.

2) 1 5 . . . PxP 1 6 QxQ RxQ 17 RxR NxR 1 8 PxP PxP 1 9 BxP, and White has the better endgame, for (a) Black's QRP and QBP are isolated ; (b) White has better development ; and (c) Black' s King i s unsafe and can be attacked by R-N l . However, the alternative 1 6 Q-N5 under 1 ) is much more convincing .

3) 1 5 . . . QNxP, and White continues his attack by 1 6 P-N5 KN-Q2 17 P-B4 N-N5 1 8 BxP or 1 8 Q-Q4ch with excellent prospects , for he has (a) a better position for attacking pieces ; (b) more space and more possibilities ; (c) more mobility ; and (d) his Queen is in an attacking position .

After the text , White presses his attack , which is facilitated by the fact that White can open the d4/g7 diagonal for attack.

16 P-NS

White carries out his plan to open a diagonal of attack for himself . In this position , 1 6 PxP leads to nothing , for after 1 6 . . . NxRP 17 NxNch RxN the Rook can maintain itself on its 4th rank .

16 • • • 17 P-B4

N-Ql R-R4

More solid is 17 . . . R-K l , after which White also has the attack . But with the text Black was hoping to get some sort of counterattack with moves such as 18 . . . N-B4 which threatens 19 . . . RxRP 20 NxR N-N6ch, forking the King and the Queen . Of course, this is only a strategic schema, and White renders it impossible at once by

18 BxP

White now has a marvelous attacking position without having sacrificed any material for it .

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262 Game 19

18 • • • R-NS

Black makes all kinds of efforts to get some sort of attack against the White King . But the text only furthers White's plans.

19 B-QS

If Black should try to protect his threatened Knight with 1 9 . . . N/2-N l , the game could continue 20 BxN NxB 2 1 N-QS ! R-B4ch 22 K-N l , and White threatens to gain control of the al/h8 diagonal by 23 P-N3 followed by 24 Q-N2ch with dire consequences for Black .

19 • • • N-QS

In order to answer 20 P-R3 ? by 20 . . . RxB , threatening 2 1 . . . N-N6ch .

20 KN-K2 NxNch

After 20 . . . P-QB4 2 1 P-R3 N-N6ch 22 BxN RxB 23 QxP, Black has lost a Pawn and his disadvantage is even greater .

21 NxN! R/4-N4

Just as bad is 21 . . . R/5-N4 because of 22 N-Q4 . However , the main variation is 2 1 . . . R-B4ch 22 K-N l R-N l , which reveals the goal of White ' s combination . Black has avoided the loss of the Exchange , but White continues the attack successfully with 23 Q-

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King's Indian Defense: Simisch Variation 263

Q4ch K-Nl 24 P-B5, and after 24 . . . N-K4 (probably the best) White wins the Exchange with 25 QxR ! PxQ 26 BxPch KxB 27 RxQ .

22 N-Q4

Now 22 . . . R-N3 is refuted by 23 Q-B3 , threatening 24 N-K6 db eh followed by mate , so that the Black King has to move and White wins the Exchange with 24 N-B6.

22 • . • RxP(?)

A little better may be 22 . . . R-B4ch, although then 23 K-N l R-N3 (to prevent N-B6) 24 R-QB 1 , afteq vhich Black's counterattack is refuted and White can resume his K-side attack.

23 Q-B3!

Threatening 24 N-B5 db eh or 24 N-K6 db eh and mate on the next move .

23 • • • K-Nl

In order to get the King out of the line of the double check . Black has nothing better . After 23 . . . R-N8ch 24 K-B2 R/4-N7ch 25 K-Q3 RxRch 26 RxR, and Black loses a whole Rook, for he must prevent 27 N-K6 db eh and 27 N-B5 db eh followed by mate .

24 NxR 25 R-Q4

RxN

To activate the Rook, which can now go to b4 or c4 , and to give additional protection to the White KP.

The rest is relatively simple . Black does not have a shadow of compensation for having given up the Exchange for a Pawn .

25 • • • Q-K2

White has carried his attack as far as he safely can , and he must now consolidate his position . If he should try to continue the attack by 26 P-B5, for instance, after 26 . . . PxP 27 PxP White might open a file

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264 Game 19

for Black' s Queen to counterattack . Moreover, 26 P-B5 would free e5 for the Black Knight and Queen . Tactically , if 26 QxP? R-B4ch . So

26 P-R4

To drive away Black's Rook so as to be able to capture Black' s QBP after 26 . . . R-N I or to force an advantageous simplification after 26 . . . R-B4.

26 • • • R-B4

The only way to hold his QBP.

27 R-B4 28 QxR

RxR

The exchange of Rooks is always good when one is the Exchange up .

28 • • • 29 Q-N3

N-N3 P-R4

The penetration into the 8th rank may be important for White . The text prevents White from working toward that end by driving the Black Knight from b6 by P-R5 . It also fixes White' s QRP so that perhaps later Black can play . . . B-Q2 followed by the capture of White ' s QRP.

30 R-Kl

In order to be able to advance his K-side Pawns for a decisive attack at the right time, that is, at a time when Black cannot answer a future P-B5 with . . . Q-K4, which might allow the Black Queen to pene­trate into the White position with a counterattack .

30 • • • 31 Q-B3

B-Q2

The text accomplishes several things : (a) it attacks Black' s QRP and QBP simultaneously so that White will get at least one Pawn in

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King's Indian Defense: Simisch Variation 265

exchange for his own threatened QRP; (b) it protects White's Rook so that a possible 3 1 . . . NxB could be answered by 32 PxN; and (c) it covers e5 so that White can eventually play P-B5 without the danger of Black' s getting a counterattack by . . . Q-K4 .

31 • • • Q-Ql

Black protects_ his QBP. But with 3 1 . . . BxP he would have attained the same end without the loss of a tempo for his Queen .

32 QxRP 33 P-BS!

BxP

At the right time ! The Black Queen can no longer go to e5 . Now 33 P-B5 is an effective attacking move .

33 • • • PxP

White would have answered 33 . . . Q-K2 by 34 Q-B3, preventing 34 . . . Q-K4 . �

34 PxP

With the K-file completely open White's Rook can participate as an active piece , and Black is still worse off .

34 • • • Q-Q2

White would answer 34 . . . K-N2 by 35 R-K7 ! QxR 36 P-B6ch, etc . , and 34 . . . K-B l doesn' t offer any better prospects . After 35

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266 Game 19

Q-B3 K-N l 36 BxPch ! (36 P-N6 NxB) 36 . . . KxB 37 P-N6ch K-N l 38 P-B6 , etc . , and if 38 . . . B-K l 39 RxBch wins .

35 P-N6

Now all the White pieces come into the attack, and the advanced White NP eliminates the only remaining Black protecting Pawn, his KBP .

35 • • • K-N2

If 35 . . . QxP? 36 BxPch followed by 37 QxQ.

36 P-B6ch

If now

1 ) 36 . . . KxNP 37 B-K4ch KxP 38 Q-N5ch and an early mate ;

2) 36 . . . KxBP 37 R-B l ch is decisive : 37 . . . KxP 38 BxPch QxB 39 Q-NSch, etc . Also decisive after 36 . . . KxBP is 37 PxP, threatening 38 P-B8=Q.

36 • . . 37 Q-Q2

K-Rl Resigns

Black has no satisfactory defense against 38 Q-R6ch, etc .

Black lost the game strategically because White's K-side attack was stronger than Black's Q-side attack and tactically because White

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King's Indian Defense: Simisch Variation 267

could combine the defense of his King's position with attacks against the hostile King . After White got the Exchange for a Pawn, he cleverly kept the position closed until the opponent's pieces were in such a position that White could without risk open new attacking lines which could be used only by his own pieces .

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Game 20

Ideas behind the Queen's Indian Defense

The struggle for control of the key square e4 The development of White's KB to d3 compared with its development to e2

Closing both sides of an attacking diagonal by P-KB4 with its resultant

exclusion of a K-side attack

The struggle for control of the open QR-file

The treacherous pin which costs a piece

The impotence of two Rooks against a Queen and Bishop

The Pin A pin exists when a piece cannot move because this would expose

its King to check or a more valuable piece of the same color to capture . The pin is always a potent weapon, for it prevents the pinned piece

from participating freely in the play . In cases where a Bishop pins a Knight , for instance, it nullifies the pressure which the Knight normal­ly exerts on all squares to which it could move.

In addition to the ordinary pin there is a special type of pin in which a player deliberately sacrifices something-often the Exchange-in order to bring about the pin . In that case , the player making the pin plans to exploit it in such a way that he will emerge from the operation with some material advantage . Once such a pin exists, the pinning player will bring as many of his own pieces as possible to bear on the pinned piece, and his opponent will in tum defend the pinned piece with all the pieces at his disposal .

If the player who has sacrificed something in order to produce the pin can attack the pinned piece with one more piece than his opponent, he will usually gain a material advantage . Otherwise, in the most favorable case he will regain only the sacrificed material .

The side making the pin must take into consideration that his opponent may sometimes be able to move the pinned piece (provided that it is not protecting the King) and deliberately sacrifice the more

268

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Queen's Indian Defense 269

valuable piece behind the pinned piece for still greater gain . This was the case in Black' s 1 3th move of Game 14 .

Queen's Indian Defense Club Match - Moscow, 1 971

Alexander Kotov - USSR Ratmir Kholmov - USSR

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4

N-KB3 P-K3

White usually replies 3 N-QB3 and Black answers 3 . . . B-N5 , leading to the Nimzoindian Defense , which has been analyzed very frequently and thoroughly . The fear of getting into a prepared varia­tion sometimes keeps players from following a well-known sequence . In this game White replies

3 N-KB3

The text leads to positions which are characterized mainly by a struggle for the center and for e4. Black could answer 3 . . . P-Q4 and continue with the Classical Variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined . Or he could play 3 . . . B-N5ch , and after 4 B-Q2 BxBch 5 QNxB White would have won a tempo, which would, however, be of little importance . After 5 . . . P-Q4 6 P-K3 0-0 the position is even .

Black chooses the most consistent way of continuing the struggle for e4 by playing

3 . . . P-QN3

Why does Black fianchetto on the Q-side after an early White N-KB3 but not after an early White N-QB3 ? Because the purpose of Black's Q-side fianchetto is to control e4 by both his QB and his KN. As long as White has not yet developed his KN to f3 , he has the possibility of meeting Black's Q-side fianchetto by P-KB3 followed by P-K4, after which White keeps control of e4, and Black's Q-side fianchetto is pointless . _

White could now play 4 B-N5 , which is not particularly valuable but is effective to the extent that it opens the possibility of exchanging Black' s KN , thus relieving pressure on e4. However , this would leave

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270 Game 20

Black with the Two Bishops , which might be significant. It can be stated that 4 B-N5 is no better or worse than any other continuation of the development .

4 P-K3

To enable White to play B-Q3 as soon as possible so as to contest the Black control of e4, which , as has already been stated, is the key to this variation . Also, White is not sure whether he prefers his QN at c3 or d2, so he postpones moving the Knight .

White could also have continued by 4 P-KN3 , neutralizing the activity of Black' s QB on b7 by B-KN2. In fact , after 4 P-KN3 Black sometimes replies 4 . . . B-R3 followed by . . . P-B3 and . . . P­Q4, exerting pressure along a diagonal which White' s KB is about to leave, for after 4 P-KN3 , White 's KB is more or less committed to a fianchetto .

4 • • • B-N2

Further pressure on e4. Black now controls it with his Bishop and Knight ; White does not control it at all .

5 B-Q3

As stated above, White knows that he wants his Bishop on d3 . He does not yet know whether he wants his QN on c3 or d2 . Moreover , he does not want to give Black the opportunity to pin his QN by . . . B­N5 after he has played N-B 3 .

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Queen's Indian Defense 271

If now 5 . . . B-N5ch, White answers 6 B-Q2 and Black has accomplished nothing toward increasing his influence over e4 .

5 . . . 6 0-0 7 P-QN3

B-K2 0-0

To make room for his QB on b2 . For the time being White turns his attention from trying to control e4 to completing the development of his pieces .

7 . . . P-Q4

Black brings a third piece to bear on e4 in order to prevent White from playing P-K4 after the way has been prepared by N-QB3 or QN-Q2 .

8 B-N2

This is the only good square to which to develop White's QB . Although its free play is hampered by the White QP, this QB still exerts some indirect pressure on e5 .

8 • . • QN-Q2

At d7 the Black QN exercises some control over e5 without cutting the line of communication of his QB . It could also support a later . . . P-B4.

9 N-B3

If Black now plays 9 . . . P-B4, the position is almost symmetrical , for White' s KB is on d3 , Black' s KB is on e7 ; and White's QN is on c3, Black's QN is on d7 . Each of these formations has its slight advantages and disadvantages . White' s advantage lies in the fact that his QN exerts pressure on d5 ; Black's in the fact that his a8/hl diagonal has not been closed by his QN.

9 • • . N-KS

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Black now takes advantage of his control of the long dia.gonal to occupy e4 . His QN now has a new mission-it will go to f6 to support the KN.

The text is strong , for it exerts pressure on the White position and an exchange would not be advantageous for White-on the contrary , it would entail some dangers ; e .g . , 1 0 BxN PxB 1 1 N-Q2 P-KB4, and White 's K-wing is deprived of defenders and may eventually be attacked by Black' s Queen, KB , and KR. ·The game could continue 1 2 P-B3 PxP (not 1 2 . . . N-B3 1 3 PxP NxP 14 N/2xN BxN 1 5 NxB PxN and Black' s KP's are weak) 1 3 NxP N-B3 14 N-K5(?) B-Q3 , and White has nothing but bad alternatives : 1) 15 N-Q3? BxPch with a winning attack; 2) 1 5 N-B3 loses a tempo; 3) 1 5 N-N5 BxN 1 6 PxB leaves White' s KP's very weak. Black, on the other hand, has attack­ing chances .

If the White KB were on e2 instead of d3 , White could probably exchange advantageously : 1 0 NxN PxN 1 1 N-Q2 P-KB4 1 2 P-B3 , thus reducing Black's attacking possibilities .

It is a general rule that in such positions the White Bishop on d3 is well placed to prevent the occupation of e4, which he could not prevent in this case . But the Bishop is better placed on e2 when White wishes to stop an eventual Black attack by exchanging on e4 . The point is that if the Bishop is on d3 , NxN will cost a piece . True, in that position BxN does not cost a piece , but if the Bishop is on e2 instead, a good strategy is often NxN PxN ; N-Q2 followed by P-B 3 .

10 Q-K2

A standard maneuver by which White aims to exchange Black' s

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fianchettoed Bishop by 1 1 PxP followed by 1 2 B-R6. The purpose of this exchange is to eliminate the force of the Black QB and then perhaps to develop an attack against the weakened Q-side Pawns .

Also possible is 10 Q-B2, by which White threatens to win a Pawn and also prepares for N-QN5 if Black's Bishop should go to d6. But in that case , after 10 . . . P-KB4 Black could start thinking of a K-side attack.

10 • • • P-QR3

This prevents White 's above-mentioned simplifying maneuver and also his N-QN5 if Black should want to play his Bishop to d3 .

11 QR-BI

This move has several advantages . The QB-file may become im­portant after PxP or after . . . P-QB4 . It may become advantageous to move White's KB to bl in order to play Q-B2. Also , White can then play NxN without the danger of losing a piece if his KB is no longer on d3 .

11 • • • B-Q3

This makes the exchange on e4 still less attractive for White , since after 1 2 BxN PxN 1 3 N-Q2 P-B4 Black' s attack is already in progress .

12 N-Q2

White attacks Black's outpost on e4, thus taking the first measure against Black' s attack .

12 • • • P-KB4

This protects Black's KN a second time, for White threatened to win a Pawn . Moreover, it enables Black' s KR to join the attacking forces by . . . R-B3-R3 .

If White should now play 1 3 P-B3 , both 1 ) 1 3 . . . Q-R5 14 P-N3 NxP 1 5 PxN BxP followed by 16 . . . R-B3 and 2) 13 . . . BxPch 14 KxB Q-R5ch 1 5 K-N l N-N6 could become dangerous for White .

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13 P-B4

To avoid all difficulties White closes the attacking diagonal of Black' s KB and at the same time prepares to bring his own KN to e5 via f3 .

13 • • • NxKN

Black is right in exchanging this Knight , for if White should succeed in playing his Knight to e5 after opening lines by PxP, his position would be superior ; e .g . , 13 . . . Q-B3 14 N-B3 QR-Kl 1 5 PxP PxP 1 6 N-K5 . If we compare the situation of each Knight on its KS-square , we see that White's Knight is much better situated because if Black had to exchange the White Knight , White would get a protected passed Pawn, whereas the exchange of the Black Knight would not produce such a passed Pawn .

14 QxN Q-K2

Black now plans to play for positional values : . . . B-R6 (to ex­change Bishops) and/or . . . P-B4. In any case , after an eventual exchange on d5 (PxP PxP) , the Black Queen attacks the weak White KP. Also , by 1 4 . . . Q-K2 the two Black Rooks are connected . If Black wanted to play for attack, he could play . . . R-B3 , . . . R-R3 , . . . Q-R5 , and eventually . . . P-KN4. However this line is very doubtful-it takes too much time.

If instead of the text 14 . . . N-B3 1 5 PxP, which Black cannot meet by 1 5 . . . PxP because of 1 6 BxBP.

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15 N-R4

A very good move, for it develops White 's initiative on the Q-wing. Now 1 5 . . . B-R6 is no longer advisable because of 1 6 BxB QxB 1 7 P-B5, cutting off the Black Queen; moreover, 17 . . . PxP 1 8 NxP NxN 19 RxN is not at all advantageous for Black, who has a weak and backward QBP, an inactive QB , and a Queen which is out of play .

Note that except under special circumstances White would never play PxP at any time, for after . . . PxP he would have a weak Pawn on his K-file without any compensation .

15 • • • P-B3(?)

Probably Black hopes that White will fall into the trap 16 NxP B-N5 ! (not 1� . . . NxN 17 P-B5) , and Black will win a piece because White will have to do something about the attack on his Queen , after which Black plays 17 . . . NxN.

Better would have been 15 . . . P-B4 with equal chances . It would have given a symmetrical center . White could play for hanging Pawns by 16 PxQP KPxP 17 PxP PxP, which would not be very good for him since his KP is weak. The same goes for Black . So it seems that neither side can do anything except move around and wait for a favorable opportunity . Therefore chances are even . After the text White has some possibilities , as shown by the continuation .

16 Q-QB2

Now White is threatening the sham sacrifice beginning 17 NxP .

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276

16 • • • 17 PxNP

P-QN4 RPxP

Game 20

Better than 17 . . . BPxP, after which 1 8 N-B5 would have been favorable for White , since the Knight would be in an outpost position , and if Black exchanged, it would lead to a passed Pawn for White , whereas with the text it would not .

Now 1 8 N-B5 would not mean much, since, as was pointed out above, the exchange of Knights would not give White a passed Pawn . Moreover, 1 8 N-B5 BxN 19 PxB would cost a Pawn after 1 9 . . . RxP.

18 N-B3 P-NS

In order to be able to bring Black's QB into the game via a6 and to make White's QRP backward in the sense that it cannot be advanced .

19 N-R4 B-R3

Ideally , Black would like to play 20 . . . B-N4 followed by 2 1 . . . BxN 22 PxB P-B4 with an overwhelming position . But once he plays 20 . . . B-N4 2 1 BxB PxB 22 N-B5 , White's QRP is lost . So White must prevent . . . B-N4.

20 Q-K2

This prevents Black from playing the above-mentioned sequence . It forces the exchange of Bishops without giving Black the opportu­nity for . . . B-N4. If White had played, for instance, 20 R-B2, Black could have played 20 . . . B-N4 with the threats described above.

Leading to about the same situation is 20 BxB RxB , except that Black may gain some advantage in being able to double his Rooks on the QR-file .

20 • • • 21 QxB

BxB P-B4

Black must eliminate his backward QBP as soon as possible .

22 PxP NxP

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Queen's Indian Defense

23 NxN 24 R-KB2

277

BxN

A very fine move which prepares to double the Rooks and at the same time indirectly protects the White QRP.

If now 24 . . . RxP 25 BxP! RxR 26 BxR RxPch 27 KxR KxB , White has won the Exchange for a Pawn .

24 . • • R-R4

To help guard the Bishop against the White Rooks and to make it possible for Black to double his Rooks .

25 B-Q4!

By exchanging Bishops White will now open the QB-file, which is a considerable advantage . White could not have attained this open file more directly by playing 25 KR-B2, for then 25 . . . RxP would have been possible , as appears from

1 ) 26 RxB RxB ;

2) 26 BxP RxR 2a) 27 QxR BxPch ; 2b) 27 RxR KxB .

In all variations White loses material .

25 • . . Q-R2?

K

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Black tries to hold the QR-file , but this entails a direct catastrophe for him . He should have played 25 . . . BxB , and then the game could have continued 26 QxB KR-R l 27 R/ l -B2 (so as not to hide his Rook behind his QRP) , and White has the QB-file and can hope for some initiative . However , White need not make defensive moves . Equally good at this point is 27 Q-KS , which indirectly protects the QRP:

I ) 27 . . . RxP loses the Queen : 28 RxR RxR 29 R-B8ch K-B2 30 R-B7 , etc . ;

2) 27 . . . P-R3 is troublesome: 28 P-KR3 , and the point is that Black still cannot play 28 . . . RxP because of 29 RxR RxR 30 R-B8ch K-R2 3 1 R-B7 Q-B l (forced) 32 QxKP.

If Black does not play for attack on a2 and instead follows a defensive strategy , the result may remain uncertain .

26 RxB!

A standard maneuver in order to bring the opponent into a pin so as to take advantage of it .

26 • . • 27 R-B2

RxR KR-Bl

Seemingly adequate . How can White now get more than the recap­ture of the sacrificed Exchange?

28 Q-NS!

This is the solution . Black must lose a piece !

28 • • . RxR

Nor is 28 . . . RxQ 29 RxRch K-B2 30 BxQ any better for Black .

29 BxQ RxP

Not only attacking the White Bishop but also threatening 30 . . . R-B8ch , etc .

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30 B-85

Parrying both threats .

30 • • • P-R3

If 30 . . . R-QB7 3 1 B-Q4, and White has nothing to fear either.

31 P-R4

Both to prevent a possible mate by Black on his 8th rank and to support an attack against the Black King .

31 . • • 32 P-RS

K-R2 Resigns

Black has two Rooks for White's Queen and Bishop and is therefore at a material disadvantage . Nor can he get a counterattack with his two Rooks, for White 's Queen and Bishop could easily get Black's King into a mating net .

White cannot play for direct mate if Black restricts himself to defense . But in that case , White captures Black' s QNP and advances his own QNP. For instance : 32 . . . R-QB7 (hoping to double at some time-it does not matter which move Black plays , White always captures the Black QNP) 33 B-Q4 R/ 1 -B2 34 QxNP R-R7 35 Q-B8 (White must never allow the doubling of the Black Rooks on his 2d rank) 35 . . . R-N2 36 P-QN4 R-R3 37 Q-K8 , and Black's Rook must remain on its 2d rank , for if 37 . . . RxP? 38 Q-N6ch followed by mate . This illustrates the importance of the advanced position of White 's KRP.

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Black lost because he made one serious error of judgment, which allowed White to get control of a greater number of squares and files , and he overlooked a pretty combination available to his opponent.

In the endgame White cleverly managed to keep Black's Rooks under control by preventing him from doubling them along the Black 7th rank , which is very dangerous for the opponent and in most cases good for at least a draw by perpetual check.

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Game 21

Ideas behind the Griinfeld Defense

The 4 B-KB4 Variation of the Griinfeld

Taking advantage of the fact that White has not yet castled

The combined force of • • • B-N2 and • • • P-QB4

The combined attack of • • • Q-R4, • • • N-KS, and • • • B-N2 against the

White N/QB3

Cutting down the attack by the exchange of pieces

The disadYantage of delaying the recapture of a temporarily sacrificed

Pawn

The seriousness of a weakness in Black's pawn position because, among

other things, his King cannot find a refuge

The "bulldozer" strategy

Vain efforts on the part of the defender to get counterchances

Maximum coordination of attacking pieces to bring the struggle to a rapid

and successful conclusion

"Bulldozer" Strategy In a chess game a situation sometimes arises in which two or three

center Pawns on adjacent files are being pushed forward from behind by pieces . No numerically equivalent pawn front on the oppc;>site side opposes them, and their advance threatens to bring the hostile King into an exposed position .

In this situation the center must be considercr,d in its broadest sense , that is to say , consisting of the c4-d4-e4-f4-c5-d5-e5-f5 squares, and the hostile King must be in such a position that it is forced to come out into the open; that is, it must not be able to find a refuge anywhere. It is especially important that the aforementioned pawn front not be op­posed by an equivalent pawn front of the opponent . If , for instance , White's QBP and QP were pushed forward only to meet a Black QBP and QP, the respective fronts would either be exchanged or advanced to an interlocked position, and the strategy about to be described would be inoperative .

Once a situation arises in which all the above conditions exist , the

281

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player with the above-described pawn front can use what we shall term the "bulldozer" strategy, that is, the pushing forward of the pawn front in such a way that it crushes everything in its path .

When using this powerful strategy , the attacking side does not pay much attention to what his opponent is doing in the meantime. His own strategy is so powerful that he can afford to ignore everything else , for he is keeping his opponent busy with threats and checks .

The purpose of the bulldozer strategy is easy to recognize . As they advance, protected by pieces from behind, the Pawns will create free files or diagonals which will make possible certain activities of the pieces behind the Pawns . The advancing Pawns will also create problems for the opponent . It is rather difficult to indicate the condi­tions which will have to be fulfilled to successfully apply this strategy because carrying it out will cost not only material but also time . After reaching the 4th rank, Pawns advance only one square per move ; consequently , six moves are needed to advance two Pawns three squares .

In view of the many conditions which must be fulfilled before considering this strategy , it requires a skillful eye to determine whether the bulldozer strategy can be successful in any given position . Nonetheless , once the situation is ripe for the strategy , it can be devastating to the opponent's game .

Grunfeld Defense - 4 B-KB4 Line Candidates' Match - Buenos Aires - 1 971

Tigran Petrosian - USSR

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4 3 N-QB3

The Griinfeld Defense .

Robert Fischer - USA

N-KB3 P-KN3 P-Q4

If White now plays 4 PxP and the game continues 4 . . . NxP 5 P-K4 NxN 6 PxN, White gets a tremendous pawn preponderance in the center . Before 1 920, under the influence of Tarrasch , Black would never have allowed his opponent to get such a center majority , feeling that it would constitute an overwhelming advantage . But later analysis, especially Griinfeld's , showed that such a pawn center can be attacked by Black's . . . B-N2, . . . P-QB4, and . . . N-QB3

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and that in the long run Black gets compensation on the Q-side where he has two Pawns against one and that the White center is not so powerful because of the strength of the Black fianchetto . To illustrate , if after the text play continues 4 PxP NxP 5 P-K4 NxN 6 PxN P-QB4 7 B-QB4 B-N2 8 N-K2 PxP 9 PxP, the situation just mentioned is present .

The White center with Pawns on c3, d4, and e4 is much more effective when Black has played . . . P-K3 instead of . . . P-KN3 , partly because there is no fianchettoed Black Bishop to exert pressure on the center , partly because White sometimes gets attacking chances by playing P-KS . In general , the conversion of a center majority into a K-side attack is much less promising if Black has fianchettoed on the K-side .

In order to avoid the 4 PxP line , which does not give White a clear advantage , Petrosian replied

4 B-B4

A developing move which will now allow White to play P-K3 without shutting in his QB . It is considered by many as White ' s best line in the Griinfeld .

4 • � • S P-K3

B-N2 P-B4

A very aggressive move which immediately poses problems for White . It prevents him from consolidating by attacking his center, it increases the possibilities of the fianchettoed Black KB , and it takes advantage of the fact that because White has developed his Q-side pieces he is not yet ready to castle . Black' s chances are based mainly on an attack against White' s center with Black' s fianchettoed Bishop in the background and on the fact that White' s QB has left its position on the Q-side . In general , when that is the case and when the White Bishop is cut off from the Q-side by the White pawn chain d4-e3-f2, it furthers the Black attack against the White Q-side .

This attack is most dangerous as long as White has not castled­and in the continuation of this game White has some problems because his King is still in the center .

On the other hand, if White succeeds in cutting down the attack, his pieces and especially his Bishop on f4 are very well posted.

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6 PxBP

White accepts Black's challenge by taking the proffered Pawn . This enhances the power of Black' s KB , but White has compensation : a temporary plus Pawn and more pressure against d5 .

White can play 6 N-B 3 , but then Black answers 6 . . . PxQP, which will also enhance the power of his Bishop somewhat later.

6 . . • Q-R4

In conjunction with 7 . . . N-K5 this is a strong attacking move which takes maximum advantage of the fact that White has not yet castled.

If now the questionable 7 PxP, Black has the choice between

1) 7 . . . N-K5 , winning back all material-which happens in this game through a transposition of moves-and

2) 7 . . . NxP 8 QxN BxNch 9 PxB QxPch 1 0 K-K2 QxR 1 1 B-K5 Q-N8 1 2 BxR B-K3 , and the situation is very unclear . Black will probably recapture the piece and stand better; e .g . , 1 3 Q-Q3 ( 1 3 Q-Q2? B-B5ch) 13 . . . QxPch 14 K-B3 ( 14 Q-Q2? B-B5ch) 14 . . . P-B3

2a) 15 B-N7 N-B3 (threatening 1 6 . . . N-K4ch) 16 K-N3 R-Ql , and Black has all the pieces in play ; 2b) 15 Q-N5ch K-B2, and now 1 6 QxP? does not work because of 1 6 . . . B-Q4ch.

This is a wild variation with excellent chances for Black notwith­standing the fact that he is a piece down. Certainly it is not forced for

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either side . The entire attack is encouraged by the fact that the White QB has left its Q-side unprotected . Black must take advantage of that situation now or never.

7 R-Bl

White immediately protects his QN. The game could also have continued 7 Q-N3 N-K5 8 R-B 1 NxP/4 , but since then White's Queen is attacked and White loses a tempo, the text may be slightly better .

7 • • • N-KS

The expected move . White 's QN is attacked three times, defended only twice .

8 PxP

Nonetheless , White takes the time to win an extra Pawn . He can do this because of the resources of his command after . . . NxN, as we shall soon see .

8 . . . NxN

Not 8 . . . BxNch, because after 9 PxB : 1 ) 9 . . . NxP/B6? 1 0 Q-Q2, winning the Knight for a Pawn; or 2 ) 9 . . . QxRP 1 0 B-K2, and Black has exchanged his valuable fianchettoed Bishop for a Knight without any advantage-no extra Pawn . In general , the fian­chettoed Bishop must be preserved because of its great power and because of the weaknesses which exist for the side that no longer has it .

9 Q-Q2

A fine move and even a forced one if White wants to avoid having to move his King , for if 9 PxN BxPch , the White King must move.

9 . • • QxRP

If 9 . . . QxBP 10 PxN, Black remains a Pawn down . With the text Black is also a Pawn down , but later o.n White will not be able to protect his QBP.

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lO Px:N Q-R4

If 10 . . . QxQch 1 1 KxQ, Black would still be a Pawn down, and without Queens on the board the White King would stand well in the center .

The side that has the initiative (in this case Black) should almost never exchange Queens .

11 B-B4

White must castle as soon as possible . He therefore develops his KB to a very appropriate square .

Black could now play 1 1 . . . QxP/4, and after 1 2 B-R2 White has nothing more to fear ; the material balance is restored , but White stands a bit better because his center Pawns are stronger than Black's side Pawns . The White center Pawns are so strong because they are supported by their Bishops . They are stronger than Black's passed QRP because in this case the advancing passed Pawn has to work for itself alone . The continuation of the game will show how powerful White 's QBP and QP are .

11 • • • N-Q2

The purpose of this move is to continue with 1 2 . . . NxP, but Black reserves the possibility of playing . . . N-K4 if he should become convinced that White 's Pc5 will be lost anyway . In general , Black' s Knight would be stronger on his central K4-square than on his QB4-square .

If now 1 2 P-B6 PxP 1 3 PxP N-N3 , attacking the White Bishop, White' s Pc6 cannot be protected and will eventually be lost .

12 N-K2

A very good move, for it supports White ' s P/B3 once more . If now 1 2 . . . NxP, then 1 3 0-0, and White stands a little better because he has castled, has better development, has stronger Pawns , and Black's attack has , in a sense , failed . Moreover, i f the Black Knight eventual­ly goes to e4, it can be driven back by P-B3 , thanks to the fact that the White Knight is on e2 rather than f3 .

Weaker is 1 2 N-B3, for then 12 . . . NxP, threatening 1 3 . . .

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N-K5 , from which square Black's Knight would be attacking the then insufficiently protected White P/B 3 .

1 2 . • . N-K4

In order to attack White ' s Bishop and to exert pressure on d3 , but this proves to be more or less illusory . Simpler and perhaps better is 1 2 . . . NxP.

13 B-R2

For 1 3 BxN leaves Black with the Two Bishops .

13 • . . B-B4?

Apparently strong, for it threatens 1 4 . . . N-Q6ch . So far both players have played very precisely , but Black 's 1 3th

move is a mistake . If he had played 1 3 . . . QxP/4, the game would have been almost even .

14 BxN

To parry the threat of 1 4 . . . N-Q6ch . When the attack becomes too strong , one must cut down its force through exchanges .

14 • • • 15 N-Q4!

BxB

Threatening on the one hand 1 6 NxB , giving Black a doubled

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Pawn, and on the other to maintain his pJus Pawn by 16 N-N3 or still better by 16 P-B6. If now

1 ) 1 5 . . . BxN 16 BPxB , White is a Pawn up;

2) 1 5 . . . B-Q2 2a) 16 N-N3(?) Q-R6 17 0-0 B-R5 1 8 R-N1 0-0 , and White' s position is not very attractive : his pieces are badly dispJaced , and it is not sure that White can maintain his Pawn in the Jong run ; 2b) 1 6 R-QN l ! , attacking BJack' s QNP,

2b l ) 1 6 . . . Q-B2 1 7 P-B6 PxP 1 8 PxP, and now 1 8 . . . B-B 1 is not recommendab]e because of 1 9 N-N5 , and 1 8 . . . BxP loses the Exchange : 1 9 NxB QxN 20 B-Q5 ; 2b2) 1 6 . . . Q-R3 1 7 P-KB4 B-N2 1 8 P-B6 PxP 1 9 PxP B-B l 20 N-N5 with an sorts of chances for White .

Therefore 1 3 . . . B-B4? was very bad . After this questionable move Black had only the choice of a number of eviJs . He couJd permit the exchange at f5 , which he did, or he could withdraw the Bishop (variation 2b above) . Too simple to be taken seriously is 15 . . . BxN, discussed under variation 1 , since BJack ends up a Pawn down without compensation .

15 • . • 16 NxB

QxP/4 PxN

Thus BJack's K-side is mutilated and his Pf5 is weak . True, there are Bishops of opposite coJors , but their equalizing force becomes operative onJy in the ending . As long as there are Queens and Rooks on the board, there wiU be a vigorous struggJe.

17 0-0

The White King is now safe , and White can now consider how to take advantage of his superior position . White 's position is superior (a) because Black has a weak Pawn on f5 ; (b) because his King cannot castle safely ; and (c) because White has Pawns in the center . White

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already threatens 1 8 Q-B2, and 1 8 . . . P-B5 is not good because of 1 9 PxP BxP? 20 Q-R4ch, winning the Bishop .

17 • • • Q-R4

This (a) prevents the advance of White ' s QBP; (b) ties the White Queen down to the protection of the White Bishop at a2; and (c) prevents White from carrying out the aforementioned threat 18 Q-B2 P-B5 (other moves are also bad) 19 PxP BxKBP? .

The obvious 1 7 . . . 0-0 is neither better nor worse than the text : 1 8 Q-Q3 Q-B l ( 1 8 . . . P-B5 1 9 Q-B5 with the powerful threat of 20 B-N l ) 1 9 P-KB4 and now

1 ) 1 9 . . . B-B3? 20 P-N4! l a) 20 . . . PxP? 21 B-N l , etc . ; l b) 20 . . . P-K3 2 1 PxKP PxKP 22 PxP wins a Pawn ;

2) 19 . . . B-N2 20 P-K4 PxP 2 1 QxP, and Black cannot avoid the loss of a Pawn .

Nor would 1 7 . . . Q-Q3 have saved the game . After 1 8 P-N3 P-N4 Black has indeed stopped the advance of White' s QBP, but after 1 9 Q-B2! (always that strong move with the Queen dominating two diagonals and controlling the QB-file) 1 9 . . . P-K3 20 P-KB4 B-N2 2 1 P-K4 ! Black i s again i n trouble : 2 1 . . . PxKP 22 QxP (indirectly threatening the Black QR) , and 22 . . . 0-0? fails because of 23 B-N l . After 1 7 . . . Q-Q3 the reply 1 8 P-KB4 is also strong.

The point is that Black has too many weaknesses : (a) his KBP; (b) his open K-side which makes K-side castling questionable ; and (c) a minority in the center which enables White to push his QBP or possibly even his KP.

18 Q-B2

Unpinning his QBP and attacking Black' s KBP.

18 • • • P-BS

Black could have tried 1 8 . . . R-QB 1 and the game might have continued 1 9 QxP Q-B2 20 P-KB4 BxQBP 2 1 P-Q6! PxP 22 BxPch ! , winning .

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19 P-B4

White now seeks to make use of his strong center and direct attacking chances , that is, to push his QBP to c5 and his QP to d6, thus activating his Bishop, all of which is very effective because of Black's bad K-position . It is interesting to note that after 19 . . . PxP White does not even take the time to recapture the Pawn . If 1 9 PxP BxP, Black would have eliminated his weak Pawn , and the game would have been simplified .

19 • . • PxP

If instead 1 9 . . . P-N3 (to prevent 20 P-B5) 20 PxP BxP 2 1 QR-K l , the Black King cannot find a safe spot .

After the text Black hoped for 20 PxP in order to simplify . As long as the Black Pawn is on f4 it is in danger in view of a possible Q-K4 or Q-B5 at the right time . Therefore , Black had every reason to want to simplify with 1 9 . . . PxP 20 PxP. But Petrosian 's genius saw far ahead, and he realized that 20 P-B5 ! ! was much more important than being a Pawn down .

20 P-BS! !

The bulldozer in action ! White ' s compensation for the Pawn i s that he now has a direct attack . Because of the open files , the Black King is in immediate danger . For instance , if 20 . . . PxPch 21 QxP 0-0 (2 1 . . . B-B3 22 P-Q6) , 22 B-N l wins .

20 • • • Q-Q7

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This looks good, for it threatens the exchange of Queens , after which White's attacking chances would be considerably reduced .

Also 20 . . . B-Q5 looks playable, but then White can continue 2 1 P-Q6 PxPch 2 2 K-R l P-K3 2 3 Q-K4 QxB 24 QxB and 1 ) 24 . . . 0-0-0 25 P-B6 or 2) 24 . . . 0-0 25 Q-B6, threatening R-B3-N3ch .

21 Q-R4ch

Naturally White will not permit an exchange of Queens with such an attack . The text also prevents Black from ever castling .

21 • • • K-Bl

If now 22 PxP QxKPch 23 K-R l Q-R3 , threatening mate .

22 QR-Ql

White puts his QR on the Q-file , where it will support the QP as it advances .

22 • • • Q-K7

Black could have played 22 . . . P-K7 , and after 23 RxQ BxPch 24 KxB PxR =Q 25 P-Q6 Black is the Exchange ahead ; but he is still lost , since White 's pieces are more active , for after 25 P-Q6:

1 ) 25 . . . PxP 26 Q-KB4 Resigns ;

2) 25 . . . P-K3 26 P-Q7 K-K2 27 Q-R4ch P-B3 28 Q-KN4 wins by 29 Q-N7ch or 29 QxPch;

3) 25 . . . R-KN l 26 PxPch K-N2 27 Q-Q4ch P-B3 (27 . . . K­R3 28 Q-R4ch K-N2 29 Q-N5ch K-R l 30 Q-B6ch R-N2 3 1 R-Q8ch, etc . ) 28 Q-N4ch K-R l 29 BxR RxB 30 R-QS, etc .

23 P-Q6!

Threatening 24 PxPch KxP 25 Q-Q7ch followed by 26 QxPch, but Black would probably answer 24 PxPch by 24 . . . K-N2.

Suppose that after the text Black answers 23 . . . R-KN l , the game could then continue 24 PxPch K-N2 25 Q-N3 K-Rl 26 QxBP? Q-N5

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27 P-N3 P-K7, and Black wins . However, 26 QxKP (instead of 26 QxBP?) would win for White, since he has a plus Pawn and a powerful position; e . g . , 26 . . . BxPch 27 KxB QxB 28 Q-K5ch R-N2 29 R-Q8ch, etc .

23 • • •

Protecting his BP and threatening mate . But with 23 . . . BxPch Black could have put up more resistance, and White could easily have gone wrong. Still , White wins by force : 24 KxB Q-R4ch 25 K-Nl P-K7 26 PxPch ! K-N2 27 Q-Q4ch P-B3 28 R-Q3 ! PxR=Qch 29 KxQ Q-R8ch 30 K-K2 Q-R4ch 3 1 K-Q2 (3 1 K-K l ? Q-K4ch, exchanging Queens)

1 ) 3 1 . . . Q-N4ch 32 K-Q l Q-R4ch (he has to parry the threat of 33 R-N3) 33 R-B3 ! ! , and if Black protects his KBP, he loses the Queen or is mated: 33 . . . Q-K4 34 R-N3ch;

2) 3 1 . . . Q-R3ch 32 K-B2 Q-N3 33 K-N2, etc .

24 P-84

Forced .

24 • • • P-K7

The game would have been prolonged by 24 . . . B-B3, but that would have been hopeless as well . White would then storm the

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Griinfeld Defense: 4 B-KB4 Line 293

position by 25 R-Q5 Q-N3 26 B-Nl Q-R3 27 Q-K4 and thus recapture his Pawn and maintain an overwhelming position .

25 PxB PxQR=Q

Bad would be 25 . . . PxKR= Qch 26 RxQ, for then both the White Rook and Bishop would be trained on f7 .

26 RxQ

If now 26 . . . PxP 27 R-KB I , again working along the KB-file .

26 • • • QxKP

It is interesting to note that White 's attack is so strong that he can afford to lose all his Pawns and decide the game with his pieces .

27 R-KBl

Threatening 28 RxPch K-N l 29 RxKP dis eh, etc .

27 • . • P-B3

If 27 . . . QxBPch 28 K-R l P-B3 (28 . . . P-K3 29 Q-Q7 or 28 . . . P-B4 29 Q-K4) 29 Q-N3 K-N2 30 Q-B7ch K-R3 3 1 PxP KR-KNI 32 B-N l , etc .

A little more resistance might have been offered by 27 . . . P-B4, but White wins : 28 Q-N3 ! (28 Q-Q7 K-N2 does not mean much) 28 . . . P-K3 29 QxNP and now

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294 Game 21

1 ) 29 . . . QxBPch 30 K-R l R-K l 31 P-N4 ! , and Black cannot parry the deadly threat 32 RxPch PxR 33 Q-B7 mate ;

2) 29 . . . R-K l 30 P-B6 (30 P-N4 would be answered by 30 . . . R-KN I 3 1 RxPch? QxR) 30 . . . R-KN I (what else?) 3 1 P-B7 ! (if 3 1 P-Q7? RxPch i s annoying and probably leads to perpetual check) 3 1 . . . QxP 32 P-B8 = Q RxQ 33 RxPch, etc .

28 Q-N3 K-N2

If 28 . . . P-K3 29 QxNP with variations similar to those given immediately above .

29 Q-B7ch K-R3

White's attack is overwhelming, but it is actually still difficult for him to find the right line .

30 PxP P-84

If 30 . . . R-KNl (either Rook) , then 3 1 B-N l R-N3 32 Q-B8ch K-N4 33 BxR ; or if 3 1 . . . K-N4 (instead of 3 1 . . . R-N3) 32 RxP QxR 33 P-R4ch, winning the Queen .

31 R:xP 32 K-Rl

Q-QSch Resigns

For if 32 . . . Q-Q8ch 33 R-B 1 , and after the Black Queen moves away 34 R-B6ch decides .

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Griinfeld Defense: 4 B-KB4 Line 295

Black lost the game because with 1 3 . . . B-B4? he got himself into a position where White was able to saddle him with doubled Pawns and prevent his castling profitably . The energetic advance of the White QBP and QP made the Black K-position hopeless notwith­standing the defender's inventive attempts at defense .

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Game 22

The Open and Closed Catalan Variations of the Queen's Gambit Declined

The development of Black's QBP to c6 or c5 in the Catalan

The development of Black's QB to b7 vs. a6

The treacherous in-between move based on indirect attack

Simplification to an endgame when one is a Pawn up

The importance of creating a flight-square for one's King

The sacrifice of a Pawn for a more active position

Zugzwang on a full board

Cooperation of Queen and Bishop in the presence of a Bishop of the

opposite color

Varied action on both wings

Zugzwang A familiar inscription found under many diagrams of pawn en­

dgame positions is: "White to move and draw; Black to move and lose . ' ' In such positions it is obviously a disadvantage for Black to have the move, since he has to play to his detriment . He is in Zugzwang .

Zugzwang can also occur earlier in the game when many pieces are still on the board . For instance, a cornered player has succeeded by skillful maneuvering in preventing his opponent from penetrating into his position . All his defensive pieces are in their optimal positions . All his moves with extraneous Pawns have already been exhausted . If it were now his turn to play , he would be obliged to weaken his defensive setup fatally . But fortunately it is his opponent's turn to move . The latter will now maneuver in such a way that after a certain number of moves the same position will again arise but now with the cornered player to move . He is now in Zugzwang .

He would prefer not to have to move. But this is not possible in chess . One of his pieces will have to give up its advantageous position . So he has to play, and he must determine which move will hold the damage to a minimum. With one move he loses a Pawn, another move costs perhaps a piece, a third choice gives his opponent a formidible

296

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passed Pawn . What move should he make? In each case of Zugzwang the decision is very difficult .

How can one bring an opponent into Zugzwang? One can continuously attack various weak points in the opponent' s

position s o that defense becomes increasingly difficult . Even if the opponent succeeds in parrying all threats , his position gradually loses flexibility , which increases the danger of Zugzwang.

Experienced players see an approaching Zugzwang far in advance and often accept some material or positional disadvantage rather than permit Zugzwang, which will perhaps lead to still greater losses .

Catalan Opening lnternatlonal Tournament - Baku, USSR - 1 972

Yuri Balashov - USSR

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4 3 N-KB3

Mikhail Tai - USSR

N-KB3 P-K3

As we have seen in the Kotov-Kholmov game, Black could now reply 3 . . . P-QN3 in order to attempt to control e4 by . . . B-N2 . This would then become the Queen's Indian Defense.

3 . . . P-Q4

Instead, Tai now continues with 3 . . . P-Q4, which could lead to one of the many variations of the Queen 's Gambit Declined .

4 P-KN3

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298 Game 22

This is the key move of the Catalan Opening , which is characterized for White by Pc4 and Pd4 plus the K-side fianchetto .

As a matter of fact, at the outset the Catalan looks like a Queen's Gambit Declined in which the KB is fianchettoed instead of being developed to d3 , but because of that fianchetto the resulting strategy is completely different from that of the classical Queen' s Gambit Declined .

In the Catalan Opening sooner or later Black will play . . . QPxBP followed by . . . P-QB4 in order to free his game and to provide some way to develop his QB advantageously . As soon as the exchange . . . QPxBP is made, White's KB , which will by then be fianchet­toed, will have a fine diagonal along which to exert pressure on Black' s Q-wing .

The game can now go in one of two directions :

(a) the Open Formation , characterized by 4 . . . PxP; i t often continues 5 Q-B2 P-QR3 6 QxP P-QN4 7 Q-B2 B-N2 8 B-N2 QN-Q2 9 0-0 P-B4, at which point Black has neutralized in the center and has a satisfactory position ;

(b) the Closed Variation, in which Black postpones . . . PxP in order first to develop pieces, as in the game that follows .

4 • • • B-K2

With this move Black commits himself to a closed formation . As long as he postpones . . . PxP, the formation will remain closed . But he will play . . . PxP much later .

5 B-N2 6 0-0

0-0 QN-Q2

Black simply develops , and now we have the basic structure of the closed formation of the Catalan .

7 Q-B2

From experiences in recent play, it seems better to protect the QBP by 7 Q-B2 than by 7 QN-Q2, as was formerly done. This usually permits White , after proper preparation, to develop his QN to the more active c3 .

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7 . . . P-B3

This gives Black a very solid position in the center and postpones-. . . P-QB4, which will eventually be played after Black has de­

veloped his QB . The extra move certainly involves a loss of tempo, but it avoids the situation to be described in the next paragraph , and . . . P-QB4 can be played at a later time with less risk.

An immediate 7 . . . P-B4 would lead to a sort of Rubinstein Variation of the Tarrasch Defense of the Queen's Gambit Declined, after which 8 PxQP might follow, and if 8 . . . KPxP, Black' s QP could become weak, and White's fianchettoed KB would take on real meaning . In such cases, the ideal pawn formation for White is to have a Pawn on d4 with Black Pawns on c5 and d5 . This would enable White to give Black hanging Pawns or an isolated Pawn by playing PxBP at any time. In order to avoid this formation Black should answer 8 PxQP by 8 . . . NxP, and White can then continue with R-Q l either immediately or after P-QR3 . In any case , White has a bit more freedom .

8 P-N3

This will give White's QB an excellent post on b2 and furnishes added and needed protection to White' s QBP .

8 . . . P-QN3

This serves to make a place for Black's QB on a6 or b7 . As already remarked , the QBP is on c6 only temporarily .

9 B-N2 B-R3

Now White cannot play lO N-B3, for he would lose a Pawn after 1 0 . . . PxP 1 1 PxP BxP.

The text seeks more active play for Black's QB than the modest development on b7 would afford . In addition to forcing l O QN-Q2 (rather than lO N-B3), Black plans to exploit the position of White's Queen by opening the QB-file and pressing against c4 . The general plan is . . . P-B4, . . . PxBP, . . . R-B l or . . . P-B4, . . . PXQP, . . . R-B l .

A bit too passive is 9 . . . B-N2 . White answers l O N-B3, and if Black then plays lO . . . R-B 1 , White replies 1 1 P-K4 . However , Black can prevent the advance of White' s KP by playing lO . . .

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300 Game 22

P-B4, and then after 1 1 PxQP Black can either go into the Rubinstein formula by 1 1 . . . KPxP, or he can play 1 1 . . . NxP, and the game continues 1 2 NxN BxN 1 3 P-K4, in either case with some superiority for White.

10 QN-Q2

In order to protect his QBP once more and to be able to play P-K4. If White could realize P-K4, it would give him a fine position after . . . PxP; NxP. With it he would gain space and increase the force of his fianchettoed KB , the more so since Black' s QB is not on b7 .

10 • • • P-B4

Black is carrying out the planned outlined above, and it does not matter to him if White gets some initiative in the meantime by advancing his KP.

If instead Black had first played 10 . . . R-B I , White would still answer 1 1 P-K4 but with more force because then Black would not have a single counterchance .

Some possibilities after the text are I ) 1 1 PxBP NxP and Black controls e4; and 2) 1 1 PxQP NxP 1 2 KR-K l R-B l , and Black stands best , for 1 3 P-K4 is answered by 1 3 . . . N-N5 , possibly followed by 14 . . . N-Q6. The development of Black' s QB to a6 has already proved its worth .

1 1 P-K4

Consistent but perhaps not best . Everything would be fine if Black were compelled to answer 1 1 . . . PxKP and if White could reply 1 2

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NxP. Then he would get a good position, a greater command of space, and attacking possibilities .

11 • . • PxBP!

Best , since it keeps Black's QB as active as possible , for it can later successfully press against White' s QBP, which would not have been the case after 1 1 . . . PxKP.

12 PxP/4

White could have played 1 2 NxP, but then after 12 . . . PxP 1 3 NxQP R-B l , Black has some pressure on the White position .

Unclear is 1 2 P-KS , for there could follow 1 2 . . . PxNP 1 3 PxNP BxR 14 PxN BxB 1 5 PxB QxP 1 6 KxB , and it is not certain which side stands better . White has a Bishop and a Knight , Black a Rook and two Pawns . Materially speaking , Black is not badly off . He continues 1 6 . . . KR-B l , opens the QB-file , and tries to exchange as many pieces as possible to prevent White from launching an attack with his pieces . All in all , chances may be about equal .

Starting with his 1 2th move, White had to calculate five or more moves ahead . But that is not too difficult since the choices for both sides are limited . It is always a question of take, take, take, and the only thing to consider continually is the relative material situation .

12 • • • PxP

Black gives White an isolated QBP. He had to make this move; otherwise White could play P-QS and become powerful in the center .

If now 1 3 NxP R-B l , White has two isolated Pawns, and Black stands better since he has pressure along tbe QB-file .

13 P-KS

Opening the a8/hl diagonal with indirect threats against Black's QR and the c6 square, the importance of which will be seen in the continuation of the game.

If Black answers the text with 1 3 . . . N-K l , White wins material by 1 4 NxP R-B l 1 5 N-B6. Relatively better is 1 3 . . . N-NS 14 NxP R-B l 1 5 N-B6 Q-Kl 1 6 P-KR3 N-R3 1 7 NxP with the advantage of

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302 Game 22

one Pawn to White . But rather than these disadvantageous continua­tions, Black finds a promising reply .

13 • . . P-Q6!

A very strong in-between move based on the Black Queen's indi­rect attack on the White Queen if the latter captures the Pawn , as it does .

14 QxP?

A bad mistake . White should play 14 Q-B3, and then Black has the choice between 1) 14 . . . N-N5 1 5 P-KR3 N-R3 16 N-Q4 R-B l 1 7 N-B6 Q-K l 1 8 NxP R-B2 19 N-B6 N-QB4 with a complicated position and about equal chances ; and 2) 14 . . . N-K l l 5 N-Q4 NxP 16 BxR QxB 1 7 P-B4, and it appears that Black has sufficient compensation for the sacrificed Exchange: he controls the diagonal , whereas White has weak Pawns and an exposed King .

14 • • • NxP!

A sham sacrifice-a terrible surprise ! If l ) 15 QxQ, Black can insert 15 . . . NxNch; and if 2) 1 5 NxN QxQ 1 6 NxQ QR-QI , Black recaptures the sacrificed piece with a plus Pawn . If White continues 1 7 BxN , then 17 . . . PxB 1 8 B-K4 P-B4 and Black has gained material .

15 Q-B2

Somewhat better would have been 15 Q-N3 ; e .g . , 15 . . . NxNch 1 6

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NxN R-B l 1 7 QR-B I N-Q2 1 8 KR-Q l Q-B2, after which Black has a plus Pawn and keeps chances on the full board ; however , White has avoided the excessive simplification which follows and which is bad for him because of his pawn weaknesses.

Bad now is 1 5 . . . N-Q6, which loses material after 16 N-KS and 1 ) 1 6 . . . NxN 1 7 BxR, etc . , or 2) 1 6 . . . N-QN5 1 7 Q-B3 R-B l 1 8 P-QR3 , etc . So to simplify and to increase his advantage Black plays

15 • • . Q-Q6

If 16 Q-N3 , then 1 6 . . . NxNch 1 7 NxN QxP, and Black has won a second Pawn . If 1 6 QxQ NxQ 1 7 B-B3 QR-B I , Black has a plus Pawn and the initiative . So White plays the aggressive

16 Q-R4

Threatening 17 QxB . It looks promising, for Black's N/4 is still hanging , and White 's KB indirectly threatens Black' s QR . But Black can take care of his N/4 by capturing with check.

16 • • • 17 BxN

NxNch

White must recapture with the Bishop . If 1 7 NxN, then 1 7 . . . QxP wins Black a second Pawn .

17 • • • QxN

Here again comes a series of more or less forced exchanges .

18 BxN

White must make this capture first , for after 1 8 BxR QxB 1 9 QxB RxB Black has two minor pieces for the Rook . The same is true for 1 8 QxB QxB 1 9 BxR RxB .

18 • • . BxB

If White now plays 19 QR-QI , then 19 . . . Q-R4 with material advantage to Black .

If he replies 1 9 BxR, Black can best answer 19 . . . Q-R4 ! , and the

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304 Game 22

game would continue 20 QxQ PxQ 21 B-B3 BxR 22 RxB BxP, and the Bishops are of the same color and Black is two Pawns up; therefore , he must win in the ending although his QRP's are doubled and isolated .

19 QxB 20 BxR

BxR

Now that the smoke has cleared, what was formerly a rather complicated series of positions has become, in fact , a rather simple endgame . Each side has a Queen, a Rook, and a Bishop, but thanks to his unexpected in-between move 1 3 . . . P-Q6 Black has emerged with a plus Pawn. Moreover , he has two connected Pawns on the Q-side, whereas White has two isolated Q-side Pawns.

20 • • •

After 20 . . . RxB 21 RxB White would have had better drawing chances than after the text, which is to some extent unexpected since now there are Bishops of opposite colors on the board . However, in the attack it is sometimes advantageous to have Bishops of opposite colors , and we will see this confirmed in what follows. Moreover, endings with exclusively heavy pieces tend to draw even if one of the two sides has a plus Pawn.

21 B-B3

White withdraws his Bishop to f3 rather than to g2 in order to leave a flight-square for his King .

After 2 1 QxRP? P-QN4! Black gets an irresistible passed Pawn on

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c4, for after 22 Q-R6 PxP White cannot answer 23 QxBP because of 23 . . . RxB .

21 . • . P-N3

A flight-square for the King in such positions is absolutely neces­sary . Black does not want to lose time holding his plus Pawn, which he could have done by playing 2 1 . . . Q-B6 immediately or on the next move, but rather prefers to pass on to the attack .

22 QxRP

Now 22 . . . P-QN4 would not give Black the irresistible passed Pawn . White could protect his QBP by 23 Q-R6.

22 • • • R-Ql

A fascinating position . Although White has temporarily restored material equality , Black stands much better. All his pieces are active . Black' s Bishop not only defends his QNP but also controls the a7/g l diagonal . White' s Bishop has no square from which it can simulta­neously attack and defend; Black's Rook is mobile , whereas White' s Rook i s tied down t o the defense of f2 ; and Black' s Queen i s much more active than is White 's .

23 K-N2 B-B4

To give the Rook ready access to the open Q-file .

24 Q-B7 ,,

Ties the Black Queen to the protection of the Rook so that Black cannot take White' s QRP.

24 • • • R-Q3

Black thus prevents the White Queen from reentering the game via e5 . Also the Bishop protects the Rook so that the Black Queen can move freely . Now 25 . . . QxP is threatened.

25 P-QR4 Q-B7

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306 Game 22

With the deadly threat of an eventual . . . R-Q7 . White 's KBP cannot easily be defended after 26 . . . R-Q7 , and so the White Queen must return to the game by Q-N8ch, Q-K5ch, and Q-K l .

26 Q-N7

If 26 P-R5 , Black threatens mate in a few moves by 26 . . . R-Q7 27 Q-N8ch K-N2 28 Q-K5ch P-B3 29 Q-K l PxP, and Black's passed Pawn guarantees an easy win .

26 • • • QxRP

Now 26 . . . R-Q7 would not be decisive because of the variation given under 26 Q-N7 : 27 Q-N8ch K-N2 28 Q-K5ch P-B3 29 Q-K l .

Black need not fear the exchange of Queens by 27 Q-R8ch QxQ 28 BxQ, for he wins a second Pawn by 28 . . . R-Q5 29 R-B l R-Q7 30 R-B I R-B7 . These last moves show that two weaknesses are far more serious than twice one weakness .

27 B-Kl 28 Q-B3 29 R-Kl

Q-B7 R-Q7

Thus White has been able to defend his vulnerable KBP in another way .

29 • • • 30 K-Bl

K-N2

White has succeeded in holding his own, but now he has practically no more moves , and so Black can gradually strengthen his position .

30 • • • B-QS(?)

A superfluous move. Black could have played for Zugzwang im­mediately by 30 . . . P-K4 3 1 P-R4 P-R4, and then Zugzwang would be almost complete , as we will explain after Black's 33d move when the same position will arise .

31 P-R4 P-R4

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It would not be wise for Black to allow P-R5 , for it might expose the Black King to annoying checks .

32 K-N2

White should have taken advantage of the possibility of increasing his freedom of movement by 32 P-N4 PxP 33 QxP .

32 • . • P-K4

Threatening to win a piece by 33 . . . P-K5 .

33 K-Bl B-B4

In order to make room for the Rook at d4, so that 34 P-N4 could be answered by 34 . . . R-Q5 , threatening 35 . . . R-B5; e .g . , 35 Q-N3 R-B5 36 P-B3 PxP and wins .

White is now in almost complete Zugzwang . His King cannot move because of 34 P-K5 , winning the Bishop, nor can the Rook move because of 34 P-K5 , again winning the Bishop. Likewise, 34 P-N4 is impossible on account of 34 . . . R-Q5 , threatening 35 . . . R-B5 and 36 . . . RxBPch . Finally , 34 Q-B6 fails against 34 . . . Q-B4 35 Q-N2 (35 Q-B3? QxQ 36 BxQ RxPch) 35 . . . P-K5 , and White cannot prevent Black from getting a strong passed Pawn on e3 , which will decide the game in the long run .

34 R-Ql

With the text White gives up another Pawn . He has no reasonable

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308 Game 22

moves, as has been shown above . Possibly 34 Q-B6 would have been preferable (see above) .

34 • • • 35 BxR 36 B-K2

RxRch QxQBPch Q-QS

With two Pawns to the good the win is no longer in doubt , although it may require considerable time . The presence of the Bishops of opposite colors slows down the win .

37 K-N2 38 Q-B4

Threatening 39 . . . P-K6ch.

39 K-Bl

P-KS Q-Q4

B-Q3

As in Game 2, Black makes this move to gain time on the clock . The 40-move time control is approaching .

40 Q-K3 41 Q-B3ch 42 Q-B4

B-B4 B-QS

White would like to exchange Queens . It would give him some drawing chances , since the White King is sufficiently near as to be able (with the help of the Bishop) to stop Black's QNP, whereas Black' s majority on the K-side is not yet very dangerous .

42 • • • Q-K4

Black avoids an exchange of Queens ; an endgame without Queens and with Bishops of opposite colors may win , but not so easily . He keeps his Queen to attack, possibly to win another Pawn, or to advance his QNP (this advance would not be possible without the Queens on the board) .

Now 43 . . . P-K6 is threatened, and if 44 P-B3 QxP, or if 44 P-B4 Q-K5 45 K-Nl Q-N8ch 46 K-N2 B-B4, threatening 47 . . . Q-K8 , and White' s possibilities of defense are decreased , for his K-wing is too "open. "

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Catalan Opening 309

43 K-N2

If now 43 . . . P-K6, White can answer 44 P-B3 , for his NP is protected .

43 . . . B-B4

To free his Queen from the protection of the Bishop.

44 B-Ql Q-B3

The White Queen must now go to the defense of its BP. Because of that Black will soon be able to advance his QNP.

45 Q-K2 46 B-B2

Q-QS P-B4

Practically forced, and it opens the Black King to a number of checks . However, Tal has calculated the consequences very precisely .

47 B-N3

White now threatens 48 Q-B4 QxQ (48 . . . QxPch 49 K-R3 and Black cannot avoid perpetual check) 49 BxQ, after which with only Bishops of opposite colors on the board White has drawing chances despite the fact that he is two Pawns down .

47 . . . P-QN4!

L

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310 Game 22

The Pawn has passed the critical point, but White dare not capture it . If 48 QxNP QxPch 49 K-R3 Q-N8 , the Black King can escape perpetual check:

1) (if the White Queen now checks) 50 Q-Q7ch K-R3 51 Q-Q2ch P-K6 52 Q-KN2 (52 Q-K2 Q-R8ch 53 Q-R2 QxQch , etc . ) 52 . . . QxQch 53 KxQ P-K7 and wins ;

2) (if the Queen limits itself to defense immediately) 50 Q-K2 B-B7 5 1 Q-N2ch K-R2 52 B-N8ch (the only try) 52 . . . KxB 53 Q-N8ch K-B2 54 Q-B7ch K-K3 55 Q-B6ch K-K4 56 Q-B3ch B-Q5 57 Q-B7ch K-Q4 58 Q-Q7ch K-B5 59 Q-R4ch K-Q6 60 Q-N5ch K-B7 6 1 Q-B4ch K-N8 62 Q-N3ch B-N2-a wild chase which has finally ended , for White has no further effective checks and no way to prevent Black from mating .

48 B-B2 49 B-N3 SO Resigns

P-NS Q-B6

Somewhat unexpected . We continue the game :

1 ) 50 Q-B4 Q-B6ch 5 1 K-R2 QxBPch 52 K-R3 Q-Q5 l a) 53 Q-N8ch K-R3 54 B-B7 Q-B3 and White' s attack is cut down ; l b) 53 QxQ BxQ 54 K-N2 K-B3 55 K-B l P-N4 and Black wins the ending with his three plus Pawns .

2) 50 Q-Q l Q-N7 2a) 5 1 Q-B2 QxQ 52 BxQ K-B3 (the fact that Black's QNP has advanced two squares makes a big difference) 53 K-B 1 K-K4 54 K-K2 K-Q5 55 K-Q2 K-B5 , and White has the choice between losing all his Pawns (56 BxP, etc . ) and allow­ing the Black QNP to queen ; 2b) 5 1 B-B2 BxP! 52 Q-Q7ch (52 KxB P-N6) 52 . . . K-R3 53 Q-B8 (or 53 Q-Q8) 53 . . . B-Q5 54 Q-B4 (otherwise 54 . . . P-N6) 54 . . . Q-B6 (with three Pawns up Black can play for the exchange of Queens) 55 Q-K2 Q-K6 56 Q-Q l Q-B7ch 57 K-R3 B-K4, etc .

These are only two lines to give some idea of how to win . There are many other ways .

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White lost because Black got an advantage by carrying out a strategic plan which would have led to a serious weakening of White' s pawn structure , but White overlooked a tactical tum which still worse cost him a Pawn. The struggle between the Queen, Rook, and Bishop on both sides was magnificent, and Black had to surmount tremendous obstacles before he could realize his material advantage .

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Game 23

Comparison between the Sicilian Defense and the Sicilian in Reverse

The consequences of a "sharp" move

Driving the opponent's Knight to the edge of the board

Rendering an opponent's advanced Pawn harmless through exchanges

The sham sacrifice

Harassment of a Rook by the Bishop pair

Venomous combination in the ending to avoid a disadvantage

The endgame with R + 6 Pawns vs. B + N + 3 Pawns

The Sham Sacrifice When contemplating a sacrifice of material , one must carefully

consider its consequences . The sacrificed piece or Pawn must be regained in one form or another-if not in material itself , then through some positional advantage. Often the beauty of a sacrifice is judged by the depth of the analysis required in order to evaluate its worth . If one has to calculate many moves in advance in order to justify the results of the sacrifice , it is generally considered "nicer . "

However, there are sacrifices which require little advance calcula­tion, for the sacrificed piece is regained after one or two moves . These are known as ' 'sham sacrifices . ' ' Such sham sacrifices occur in many openings . In the so-called "fork trick, " for instance, a Knight is temporarily sacrificed to give a fork which regains the sacrificed piece with greater development to the side making it : 1 P-K4 P-K4 2 N-KB3 N-QB3 3 B-B4 N-B3 4 N-B3 NxP 5 NxN P-Q4.

But although these sham sacrifices look very simple, the details of their execution are not always that simple . First of all , one must be sure that after regaining the sacrificed material the situation has improved or at least not become worse . Moreover, one must guard against possible in-between moves on the part of the opponent , for the sacrifice by its nature is a combination in which one is committed to a certain second or third move . To regain the sacrificed material , one no longer has a free choice of moves, and the opponent may take advantage of this .

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White makes the sham sacrifice 1 NxP with the intention of regain­ing the piece after 1 . . . NxN by 2 P-Q4, etc . But White must first of all take into consideration that instead of 1 . . . NxN Black can play 1 . . . BxPch and the game could continue 2 RxB NxN, winning back a Pawn for Black . Black has sacrificed his Bishop for a Pawn because that Bishop would be lost in any case (a desperado combination) . In the second place , after 1 NxP NxN White may discover to his chagrin that Black now threatens 2 . . . Q-R5 with a winning attack : 3 P-KR3 BxP, etc . It is difficult for White to take measures against the threat , for he is just about forced to answer 2 P-Q4, the second move of the sham sacrifice, in order to recover the sacrificed piece .

Thus, the sham sacrifice is an interesting and usually an effective device , but it is sometimes accompanied by certain risks which must be taken into consideration .

English Opening - The Sicilian In Reverse lnterzonal - Petropolls, Brazi l - 1 973

Vassily Smyslov - USSR

1 P-QB4

"'

Henrique Mecking - Brazil

P-K4

This formation was traditionally called the English Opening, but in more recent years it has frequently been referred to as the Sicilian in Reverse, since whereas in "the Sicilian itself White puts his Pawn on his K4 and Black his Pawn on his QB4 at the very outset , in this opening it is White who puts his Pawn on his QB4 and Black his Pawn on his K4 .

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However, as we shall see in this game, the aims of the Sicilian proper are not normally realized in the Sicilian in Reverse .

When White plays the Sicilian in Reverse , he has one more tempo than Black would if he were playing the Sicilian proper, and this gives him an important advantage . Whereas when White is playing the Sicilian he normally continues after 2 N-KB3 with 3 P-Q4 and Black then answers 3 . . . PxP, opening the QB-file for himself, in the Sicilian in Reverse Black rarely tries for . . . P-Q4, since it would give White too much of an advantage ; therefore, in the Sicilian in Reverse the QB-file is rarely opened . Without a Black . . . P-Q4, we get a Closed Sicilian in Reverse , comparable in the Sicilian proper to 1 P-K4 P-QB4 2 N-QB3 N-QB3 3 P-KN3 P-KN3 4 B-N2 B-N2.

In the Smyslov-Mecking game, Black does not fianchetto on his K-side as White does in the Closed Sicilian , but White does .

As long as Black does not open up the game by . . . P-Q4, White has no special strategy . For the moment he simply develops his pieces toward the center and hopes that eventual complications created there will be in his favor .

2 N-QB3

White exerts pressure on d5 and e4, already gaining some control of the four vital center squares . Note that his QN is in the same relative position as the Black QN in the Sicilian proper .

2 • • • N-KB3

Black also exerts pressure on the center squares , and his KN is also in the same relative position as in the Sicilian proper . However , he does not play 2 . . . N-KB3 so as to follow it up with 3 . . . P-Q4, as is the case in the Sicilian itself . The latter move could be played , but the resultant position would not be easy for Black ; e .g . , 3 N-B3 N-B3 (because of White' s lead in time Black cannot answer 3 . . . P-Q4 at once but must first protect his KP by 3 . . . N-B3) 4 P-KN3 (this would be the Dragon in the Sicilian proper) 4 . . . P-Q4 5 PxP NxP 6 B-N2 with some pressure on d5 . Black's best move is now 6 . . . N-N3 . After 6 . . . B-K3 , 7 P-Q4 might be troublesome .

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3 N-B3

White develops his KN and attacks Black' s KP. Black does not now continue with 3 . . . P-K5 , for after 4 N-KN5

Q-K2 5 Q-B2 White wins the Pawn .

3 . . . N-B3 '

Now 4 P-Q4 PxP 5 NxP B-N5 6 B-N5 , which was played in earlier times , is not bad for Black ; it leads to another sort of game . True, Black can now mutilate White ' s pawn position by 6 . . . BxNch, but it is doubtful whether this is advisable . White has compensation in the form of a free game and atiacking chances. Theory considers the positions about equal .

4 P-KN3

White plans to fianchetto his KB , partly to exert pressure on e4 and d5 and partly hecause there is really no good square to which to develop his KB except g2.

Now Black could answer 4 . . . P-Q4, but after 5 PxP NxP 6 B­N2 he does not have an easy time of it . If 6 . . . B-K3 , White replies 7 P-Q4. Relatively best is probably 6 . . . N-N3 in order to prevent White from playing P-Q4.

4 • • . B-NS

Black must develop his KB somewhere . On e7 the position is too cramped. Sometimes 4 . . . B-B4 is played . With the text Black has the possibility of . . . BxN, doubling White 's Pawns and weakening White' s influence in the center .

5 B-N2

Also possible is 5 Q-B2, which would avoid the possibility of a doubled Pawn .

s . . . 0-0 6 N-QS(?)

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A very sharp move, which White played because he thought he could take advantage of Black's 4 . . . B-N5-but he has misjudged the position .

Suddenly , the position has become dynamic instead of static , for now both White and Black can make exchanges . The text is a bit risky, for 6 . . . P-K5 seems very strong, whereas before 6 N-QS White never had to fear . . . P-K5 because he could answer N-N5 with a threefold attack on Black' s KP. Therefore, from now on every move will have to be calculated very exactly . Black cannot answer 6 N-QS with 6 . . . NxN , for after 7 PxN N-K2 he loses his KP. To eliminate the pressure exerted by such a Pawn, the opponent would have to try to exchange Pawns by . . . P-B3 after the proper preparation , and then the doubled Pawn would disappear automatically .

There is a general rule which says that in the opening one should not play the same piece twice , but this rule is especially valid in openings in which a tempo counts a great deal . The text has perhaps no theoretical drawbacks except tactical disadvantages, as will soon become evident .

Instead of this sharp move White could have continued his develop­ment by 6 0-0 or 6 Q-B2.

6 . . . P-KS

Black immediately uses the text to drive White's Knight to a bad square .

Generally, in such positions a pawn advance to the 5th rank is not good because of N-N5 , but in this game 7 N-N5? is not recommend-

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able because after 7 . . . NxN 8 PxN QxN 9 PxN QPxP 10 BxP Black can play 10 . . . B-KR6, preventing White from castling .

Also bad is 7 NxB because White loses a piece after 7 . . . PxN 8 NxN PxB , and White cannot answer 9 NxQ because of 9 . . . PxR= Q mate .

7 N-R4

Forced . Although h4 is an unusual square for White's Knight, it is not completely unfavorable as long as f 5 is at his disposal in case of . . . P-KN4. The two disadvantages of having the Knight at h4 are that it cannot retreat to f3 and that it cannot accomplish much there . But should the occasion arise where it could do something, it might become strong .

At this point, the following factors must be taken into account in judging the position : (a) White' s Knight is badly placed at h4; (b) Black' s KP is vulnerable ; (a) after P-Q3 White may have the threat of B-NS , which is under these circumstances a dangerous threat because of White ' s N/5 ; and (d) Black is slightly ahead in development .

7 • • • B-84

Black does not want his Bishop exchanged for a Knight , especially since here the exchange would not be compensated by a doubled Pawn (e .g . , if 8 NxB NxN) . Also, White threatened 8 NxNch QxN 9 BxP, winning a Pawn, but after 7 . . . B-B4 plus the above sequences , White must take into consideration the threat 9 . . . QxP mate .

8 0-0

White is now really threatening to win a J>awn by 9 NxNch and 10 BxP, since the above-mentioned mate is no longer possible . There­fore , Black protects his KP by

8 . . . R-Kl 9 P-Q3

This aims at removing Black's oppressive KP, which prevents White from getting his KN back into play by N-KB3 . For instance,

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after 9 P-N3 B-Q5 1 0 R-Nl P-Q3 Black threatens to win the White KN by 1 1 . . . P-KN4, since f5 is no longer at its disposal .

9 . . . PxP

Forced, for White threatened 1 0 NxNch QxN 1 1 BxP, winning a Pawn .

After the text the White KN is no longer in such a bad position , for now it can retreat to f3 . Also , Black can no longer threaten the White KN with . . . P-KN4, which would weaken his position in any case .

lO QxP

For many reasons 1 0 PxP would be weaker. After 1 0 PxP, d4 would become a strong square for Black since it is out of reach of White's Pawns, whereas with 10 QxP, the d4-square can be guarded by playing P-K3 . After 10 PxP NxN 1 1 BxN P-Q3 1 2 P-N3 N-Q5 .

After the text the position is unclear . The pieces are not posted on their most favorable squares , a consequence of the sharp turn 6 N-Q5 P-K5 . Now both sides must make the best of the situation , must look for combinations, etc .

White now threatens to mutilate Black's K-wing by 1 1 B-N5 followed by 1 2 BxN or 1 2 NxNch .

10 . • • N-K4

This not only attacks White ' s Queen but also prepares for . . . P­B3 so as to avoid the full impact of B-N5 , for the pinning of Black' s K N b y the White QB i n combination with the White Knight on d 5 is especially dangerous .

1 1 Q-B2

White could equally well have played I I Q-N3 .

1 1 . . . P-B3

For 12 B-N5 is still threatened, and now White 's QN will have to move .

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12 N-QB3(?)

This leads to a chain of combinations , threats , half-threats , etc . Gligoric remarks that something must be wrong with the White

position if he has to make this time-consuming retreat . True, after 1 2 NxNch QxN , Black would have more freedom of movement , but 1 2 N-K3 was probably the best choice to keep the position as closed as possible . After that White could have attained equality , which is not the case after the text .

Also to be considered is 1 2 B-K3 followed by either l) 1 2 . . . BxB NxB ; 2) 12 . . . B-B l 13 NxNch QxN; or 3) 12 . . . PxN 13 BxB PxP 14 B-Q6, and Black will not be able to maintain his extra Pawn in the long run .

12 • • . NxP

The win of this Pawn should be only temporary . "

13 N-R4(?)

This appears to be a refutation of Black's 12 . . . NxP, but it is not . Another and probably better line is 1 3 N-K4 NxN (what else?) 14 BxN P-Q4 ( 1 4 . . . P-KN3 1 5 QxN loses a piece) 1 5 BxPch K-R l 1 6 P-N3 N-N3 and 1) 1 7 B-N2 B-K2 or 2) 17 QxB KxB with almost equal chances .

13 • • • 14 QxN

B-Bl P-QN4

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The point !

15 Q-Q4

This is not the ideal place for the Queen , as will soon become clear . Preferable is 1 5 Q-B2.

15 • • • PxN

If White should now play 1 6 QxP/4, Black would answer 1 6 . . . RxP.

16 P-K4

In this way White protects his KP and threatens 17 P-K5 .

16 • • • B-R3

Black's plan is to harass White ' s KR first with his QB and then, after preparation, by bringing his KB to b4, all with tempo.

17 R-Kl Q-N3

This forces simplification, after which the Black plus Pawn will count .

White cannot answer 1 8 QxRP because of 1 8 . . . N-N5 and 1 ) 19 Q-B2 B-B4 or 2 ) 1 9 B-K3 NxB 20 RxN B-B4.

White could play 1 8 Q-Ql , but then 1 8 . . . B-N5 is awkward for him; e .g . , 1 9 B-Q2 B-B4 20 B-K3 BxB 2 1 RxB QxNP. Black also has other annoying moves , such as 1 8 . . . P-R6.

If the White Queen had gone to c2 on the 1 5th move, 17 . . . Q-N3 would not have been that useful , and Black would have had to defend his P/5 by 17 . . . Q-R4, which could be answered by 1 8 B-Q2, or by 17 . . . B-N4, which could be met by 1 8 P-K5 ! , and White would have had all kinds of chances in the center .

18 B-K3 B-N5

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Since White' s KR will be compelled to leave the K-file because of the two Black Bishops, White' s KP will be in danger. If now 1 9 KR-Ql B-K7 20 KR-QB 1 QxQ 2 1 BxQ NxP or 19 KR-QB 1 QxQ 20 BxQ NxP, again winning the White KP.

19 QxQ

To avoid losing a Pawn.

19 • • • PxQ

Black thus improves his Pawn position and retains his plus Pawn.

20 KR-Ql

In order to answer 20 . . . NxP by 21 R-Q4 .

20 • • • B-K7

To give White no time to undertake anything and especially not the simultaneous attack on the Black Knight and Bishop after the above­mentioned 20 . . . NxP 21 R-Q4 .

21 R-Q4

If now 21 . . . B-B4 22 R-Q2 BxB 23 RxB , White would still remain one Pawn down, but with Bishops of opposite colors he might have more drawing chances than in the game .

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322 Game 23

�1 . . . P-B4

The beginning of a new combination which will accentuate Black's advantage . On the other hand, it looks risky because i t opens the diagonal for White' s fianchettoed Bishop and makes possible combi­nations beginning with P-K5 .

22 RxB

White decides to simplify and to give Black a less favorable pawn position . He can temporarily give up the Exchange , for he will get it back on his 24th move .

He could have played 22 R-Q6, and the game might have continued 22 . . . NxP 23 RxQP or RxNP, but Black would still have a sound plus Pawn .

22 • • • 23 P-K5

PxR

Uncovering his attack on Black's QR. Now things do not look too bad for White . He will at least regain the Exchange , and he has given Black some weak Pawns .

23 • • • 24 BxR

N-N5 NxB

Much better than 24 . . . RxB 25 BxP.

25 R-Kl

After 25 PxN RxB White would be quite helpless because of his pawn position and material inferiority . After 25 B-K4 or 25 B-N7 , 25 . . . N-B5 and Black wins a second Pawn . Less convincing is 25 B-K4 RxP? 26 R-K l RxB 27 RxB , and White wins a piece .

25 • • • B-B5

Here Black saves the Bishop rather than the Knight because he wants to attack a2 .

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26 B-K4

The alternatives 26 RxN RxB 27 R-K4 P-QN4 and 27 P-N3 B-K3 would have given White only slight chances for a draw . White hopes to get more , but Black again shows that he has seen more deeply .

26 • • • N-Q4 27 P-QR3

Practically forced in order to save his QRP.

27 • • • PxP 28 PxP

If Black now continued 28 . . . RxP?, he would lose the Exchange after 29 BxPch KxB 30 RxR.

28 • • • N-B6!

This appears dangerous for Black, since it looks as if two Black pieces on the same file could get into trouble if the White Rook were later played to c l . White actually does play 30 R-QB l , but Mecking has calculated far ahead and knows where his winning chances lie .

29 B-B3

White plays his Bishop to f3 rather than to g2 in order to keep the latter square free for his King .

29 • . • P-B3!

In order to win a second Pawn . The seemingly strong 29 . . . P-QN4 (to protect the Bishop and

make R-QB l harmless) would give White the possibility of 30 N-B5 P-B3 3 1 R-K3 with some chances to survive .

30 R-QBl

Attacking the two Black pieces on the QB-file , the possibility of which was suggested after 28 . . . N-B6! . This seems to win a piece

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for White. Now 30 . . . N-K7ch 3 1 BxN BxB 32 PxP PxP 33 R-B7 would give counterchances to White . Much stronger is

30 • • • RxP!

White cannot take the Black Knight , for if 3 1 RxN R-K8ch 32 K-N2 B-B8ch 33 K-N l or 33 K-R l , 33 . . . B-R6 mate .

31 K-N2

White' s last hope. The Black Bishop and Knight are on the same file and attacked by White's Rook. But Black has foreseen that he will have to return some material for his two plus Pawns , and he has correctly judged that he can win the ensuing endgame.

If now 32 RxN, Black could no longer play the above-described combination beginning 3 1 . . . R-K8ch , for with 32 . . . R-KS there would be no check and White would simply capture the Black Bishop.

31 • • • R-QB4!

Except for this move Black would lose a piece without compensa­tion . But with it , in return for his lost piece, he as least gets the Exchange and a position which will allow him to win White's lone QRP.

32 RxN 33 KxB

B-B8ch RxR

Black now has a Rook and two Pawns for a Knight and a Bishop and

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will soon win the QRP, thus ending up with three dangerous passed Pawns against which White will have to bring all his pieces to bear .

34 B-Q5ch 35 K-K2

The rest is simple .

36 K-Q2 37 N-B5

K-Bl RxRP

P-QN4

At last the Knight comes into play .

37 • • • 38 N-K3 39 K-:B3 40 K-N4

P-N5 P-N6 R-R7

Or 40 N-Q l R-B7ch 41 K-Q3 (not 41 K-N4 because of 41 . . . R­Q7) 4 1 . . . R-B4 42 B-B3 P-R6 with an easy win .

40 . • • RxP

There is no way that Black could have won on the Q-side . With his King, Bishop, and Knight , White can stop the connected passed Pawns and even capture them. But with White preoccupied with Black' s Q-side Pawns , Black can eliminate White' s K-side Pawns .

41 KxP P-N7

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326

42 B-R2 43 K-N3 44 N-Bl

RxP R-R6

Hoping to be able to keep his NP.

44 • • • 45 N-Q2 46 Resigns

R-R8 R-KN8

Game 23

There is no way White can stop Black' s remaining passed Pawns. Just one example of how the game might have continued after this

point is 46 KxP RxP 47 K-B2 P-R4 48 B-Q5 P-N4 49 K-Q l P-R5 50 K-K2 K-N2 5 1 K-B2 K-N3 52 N-B l R-QR6 53 N-R2 P-B4 54 N-B3 P-Q3 55 K-N2 P-N5 56 N-N l (56 NxPch? K-N4) 56 . . . P-B5 57 B-K4ch K-N4 58 B-Q5 P-R6ch 59 K-R2 K-RS , etc .

Black won because (a) he knew how to take advantage of White 's slightly weak moves, starting with a sharp move in the opening and followed by some misjudgments in the middle game; (b) he wisely simplified after winning a Pawn ; (c) he had a keen perception of the possibilities of an endgame with a Rook and a number of passed Pawns against a Bishop and a Knight ; and (d) in that endgame he understood where his winning chances lay .

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Game 24

Characteristics of the Benoni

Black•s acquisition of a Q-side pawn majority

White's greater control of space and build-up in the center

The "Fischer K-side maneuver"

White's success in completely blocking Black's Q-side majority

White's careful preparation for a breakthrough in the center

Maintaining Queens on the board when an opponent has an unsafe

K-position

Tactical niceties brought about by surprising Knight maneuvers

The "echo" motif

The Center Majority vs. the Q-side Majority At the beginning of the game both sides have eight Pawns stationed

directly opposite each other : three on the Q-side , three on the K-side , two in the center. Depending on the situation , the concept of ' ' center ' ' may be extended to include three or even four Pawns for each side .

After some ten opening moves , in which the Pawns often play a very important part , this situation can change considerably : the paral­lel White and Black Pawns along the respective files will have disap­peared and White may have a majority on one side , Black a majority on the other. A well-known theme found especially in games of fifty or more years ago is the majority on the Q-side for one player vs . the majority on the K-side for the other. With � such a formation the strategy of each side is very clearly prescribed : ' 'Advance on the wing where you have a pawn majority . "

In some games , however, and particularly in those of more recent years, one side may have a majority on the Q-side , the other a majority in the center . If the majority in the center opposes a majority on one of the wings, the influence of these adjacent majorities on each other must be taken into account . For instance, a majority in the center will not be so effective against a majority on the Q-side if the latter can be advanced very rapidly . The pieces which support the advance of this Q-side majority also exercise their influence in the center. On the

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other hand , this double function is, in general , not probable for the pieces defending the majority in the center , for they are often far back and are therefore farther from the scene of battle in the center than are the opponent' s pieces on the Q-side .

If , however , the player with the majority in the center manages to slow down or block the advancing Q-side majority in time by means of pieces which also cooperate in the center, an ideal situation is created for the successful manipulation of the central majority, especially when-which also happens-the activity in the center is indirectly productive of chances on the adjacent K-wing .

Benonl Defense Olympiad - Skopje, Yugoslavia - 1 972

Svetozar Gligoric­Yugoslavia

1 P-Q4 2 P-QB4

Lubomir Kavalek­USA

N-KB3 P-B4

The Benoni Defense . The countergambit 2 . . . P-B4 represents an attempt by Black to contest White' s control of the center at once . The basic idea behind the Benoni is to entice White to advance in the center and then to attack him .

White could now answer 3 N-KB3 and the game could continue 1 ) 3 . . . P-K3 4 N-B3 P-Q4, which i s the Tarrasch Variation of the Queen' s Gambit Declined, or 2) 3 . . . PxP 4 NxP P-Q3 (or 4 . . . P-Q4 5 PxP NxP, a symmetrical variation which is a little better for White) 5 N-QB3 P-KN3 , which somewhat resembles the Reti formation found in Game 25 . Or 3 PxP P-K3 , and Black would get his Pawn back just as in the Queen's Gambit Accepted but with colors reversed .

But since White wants to play for a clear advance with a view to getting a greater control of space, he answers with the usual Benoni continuation .

3 P-QS

This move increases White' s control of space , but on the other hand it partially opens the al /h8 diagonal . White must now keep in mind Black' s later K-side fianchetto .

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Benoni Defense 329

3 . . . P-K3

Black immediately attacks White ' s center and also prepares by 4 . . . PxP 5 PxP to open his K-file , the importance of which may become apparent later. But the main purpose of this move is to obtain a pawn majority on the Q-side for Black . This aim will be elaborated on in the comments under White ' s l Oth move .

An alternative is 3 . . . P-Q3 , 4 . . . P-KN3 , 5 . . . B-N2 , 6 . . . 0-0 , with counterplay along the diagonal . The purpose of this system is not as clear , since Black does not get a Pawn majority on the Q-side .

Another way to reply is 3 . . . P-QN4, the Benko Gambit , in which after 4 PxP P-QR3 5 PxP BxP, at the cost of one Pawn , Black gets all kinds .of chances on the Q-side where he has two open files .

4 N-QB3

White supports the center . By 4 PxP White would give up the center . After 4 . . . BPxP Black would possibly be able to attain­. . . P-Q4, after which he would stand marvelously well . In any

case, after 4 PxP BPxP, Black would have a numerical advantage in the center and an open KB-file .

If 4 P-Q6, White would lose a Pawn after 4 . . . Q-N3 .

4 . . . PxP

With this move Black destroys a part of White ' s center formation , which however leaves White with a somewhat greater control of space and a majority in the center.

Instead , Black could have played 4 . . . P-Q3 , which comes to the same position as the game after a later . . . PxP.

If Black should play 4 . . . P-K4, he would lose time by playing his KP twice in order to get to e5 , he would give up his chances along the long diagonal , and he would get no pawn majority on the Q-side .

5 PxP

White' s advanced QP properly supported will constitute a restrain­ing factor on Black's development, but Black has corn-

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330 Game 24

pensation : the majority on the Q-side and the possibility of the fian­chetto on the K-side .

White could have played 5 NxP, and the game could have con­tinued 5 . . . NxN 6 QxN; but after 6 . . . P-Q3 the White Queen could soon be forced to withdraw by . . . B-K3 , and Black would get a good game with . . . P-Q4 .

5 . . . P-Q3

Black consolidates his center, prevents a possible P-Q6, and opens a diagonal for his QB . After . . . P-KN3 he will soon develop his Bishop to g7 where it will exert great pressure on the long diagonal and support Black ' s Q-side pawn majority . Thus White will occupy more space in the center, but Black will exert at least equal pressure with his two favorable Bishops . It is noteworthy that neither of Black's Bishops is hemmed in by its Pawns-Black has two Good Bishops , so to speak .

6 P-K4

White plays this move (a) to support his QP, (b) to make an eventual breakthrough in the center by P-K5 , and (c) to open a diagonal for the development of his KB .

6 . . . P-KN3

When Black has completed the fianchetto by . . . B-N2, he will control such important squares as d4 and e5 , he will be in a position to exchange his KB for White 's QN if this is desirable (but it very seldom is) , he will indirectly threaten White's QR behind the piece and Pawns, and he will be able to support his Q-side Pawns if they advance, which is most important of all .

7 N-B3

The KN exerts more pressure on the center and could eventually support the advance P-K5 .

7 • • • B-N2 8 B-K2

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Although this is not a very active place for White 's KB , it does represent development in order to allow White to castle, it helps in case Black should play . . . B-N5 , and later when the White KN has moved, it can prevent the Black pieces , especially the Black KN , from going to g4 .

Also possible is 8 B-QB4, but in this game White wants to reserve c4 for his KN, which could go there via d2 . Moreover , the KB does not have a real function on c4, where it is exposed to threats such as . . . P-QR3 , . . . P-QN4, and . . . QN-Q2-N3 .

8 . . . 9 0-0

0-0 R-Kl

Attacking White ' s KP a second time .

10 N-Q2

White protects his KP a second time and plans to protect it once more by , for instance , Q-B2; then after N-B4, the Knight will press , perhaps annoyingly, against Black 's QP .

Black' s position now has two noteworthy characteristics: his fian­chettoed Bishop is not blocked by Pawns , and he has a 3-to-2 Q-side majority at last ! (His QP is a center Pawn and therefore does not count in calculating that majority . ) Both characteristics indicate that Black should advance his Pawns on the Q-side .

How should White now proceed? He should (a) try to prevent Black's advance and (b) build up a solid center where he has the majority .

10 . . . QN-Q2

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This is not simply a developing move . It also serves to reduce the importance of an eventual White N-QB4. As soon as White gets his Knight to c4, Black will be able to force him to exchange it or will drive it away by . . . N-K4 or . . . N-N3 .

11 P-QR4

In general , this move is played to prevent Black from advancing his Q-side Pawns , but it can also be used to advance to a5 in case Black plays . . . N-N3 . In the third Spassky-Fischer game White played I I Q-B2 here , supplying additional protection to his KP so that he could continue by I 2 N-B4. There followed the peculiar move I I . . . N-R4 , which gave White the opportunity to mutilate the Black pawn posi­tion, which he did: I 2 BxN PxB I 3 N-B4 N-K4 I4 N-K3 Q-R5 I 5 B-Q2 N-N5 I 6 NxN PxN. Now Black' s K-side Pawns are connected again , and a very difficult struggle ensued . We cite this game to show its similarity to the present game and to point out the seemingly small but in reality big differences between the two games .

1 1 • . . N-K4

In this position Black need not fear 1 2 P-B4.because he can answer I 2 . . . QN-N5 . White cannot drive away this Knight as long as his KP does not have sufficient protection, which appears from 12 P-B4? QN-N5 (threatening I 3 . . . N-K6 and if 1 3 BxN NxB 14 Q-K l B-Q5ch I 5 K-R I N-K6 wins the Exchange) 1 3 N-B4! NxKP and

1 ) I 4 NxN RxN I 5 BxN RxN and Black has won a Pawn ;

2) I 4 BxN B-Q5ch 2a) I 5 K-RI ? BxB I 6 QxB N-B7ch I 7 RxN R-K8ch, etc . , leading to mate in one ; 2b) I 5 B-K3 NxN I 6 PxN BxBch and Black has won a Pawn .

This variation is a bit complicated because at first sight it seems that Black cannot take White' s KP without leaving his QN unprotected . In any case , we conclude that I 2 P-B4 would be a mistake .

Black goes to e5 at this time because he has no satisfactory waiting moves in this position-I I . . . N-R4 loses a Pawn, and I I moves in this position- I I . . . N-R4 Ioses a Pawn , and I 1 . . . N-N3 would be answered by P-R5 or . . . N-N3 would be answered by P-R5 . Perhaps he could have played I 1 . . . P-N3 , but

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then 1 2 P-R5 PxP 1 3 Q-R4 N-R4 would have been somewhat better for White.

12 Q-B2

With this move White now gives extra protection to his KP, but in so doing makes it possible for Black to answer 1 2 . . . N-R4 without sacrificing a Pawn .

12 • • • N-R4

True, the text gives White the opportunity to mutilate the Black pawn position by 1 3 BxN , but it serves to carry out some attacking maneuvers such as . . . Q-RS , . . . N-KB5, . . . N-N5 , and under some circumstances . . . B-K4 . Black accepts the doubling of his Pawns knqwing that he will soon have the opportunity to undouble them.

The Fischer maneuver (see the comment under 1 1 P-QR4) has become possible because the White Queen has left its original square , thus leaving only White' s KB to attack the �lack Knight .

13 BxN 14 N-Ql

PxB

As in the Spassky-Fischer game, so that the Knight can go to e3 in order to meet a possible Black . . . N-N5 . But the big difference between that game and this is that Spassky played his Knight to e3 via c4, which means that now the Knight at d2 (and later at c4) survives instead of the one on c3 . Explanations later . Another purpose of the text is to open the 3d rank for the QR if necessary .

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14 • • • Q-RS

Consistent with the above-mentioned plan of attack . Now Black is ready to play . . . N-N5 , the continuation of the attack .

15 N-K3 N-NS

The Black Knight goes to g4 to force White to undouble Black's K-side Pawns, since 16 P-R3 NxN 1 7 PxN BxRP will give Black at least a draw. If Black delays and plays for example 15 . . . B-Q2, then 1 6 N/2-B4 is strong since it attacks Black' s QP: 1 6 . . . NxN 17 NxN QxKP 1 8 QxQ RxQ 19 NxP is good for White .

16 NxN PxN

All as in the Spassky-Fischer line . White traded Knights and allowed Black to undouble his Pawns because Black was threatening 1 6 . . . QxP mate , and 16 P-R3 was not sufficient , as we have seen, whereas 1 6 N-B3 NxN costs White his KP.

Let us now try to evaluate the situation . Positionally Black cannot hope for much on the Q-side . White' s Pa4 together with his 17 Nc4 impedes any Black action . On the K-side Black's Pawns are now undoubled , but there are still weaknesses on that wing : his KNP could become a problem and f4 and f5 cannot be protected by Pawns . Compensation? Two Bishops and chances to attack White' s KP because to protect it by P-B3 PxP; PxP would weaken the White K-side . But the weakness of White' s KP is more than compensated for by his attacking chances against Black's backward QP.

17 N-B4

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The difference between this and the Spassky-Fischer game is the location of White' s QN. In the Spassky-Fischer game it was on c3 where it was continually exposed to the exchange . . . BxN, which in the long run led to the capture of the White KP by Black . In the present game it is on c4 where it actively threatens Black's QP.

If now 17 . . . Q-K2, protecting his QP and counterattacking White ' s KP, after 1 8 R-Kl B-B4 (or 1 8 . . . P-B4) , White can answer 1 9 B-B4 ! with a superior game . For instance, 19 . . . BxKP 20 BxP BxQ 2 1 BxQ, and White's passed Pawn will soon constitute a real danger .

Relatively best , although not sufficient either , is 17 . . . P-N6 1 8 RPxP QxKP 1 9 QxQ RxQ 20 NxP R-K4. White answers 2 1 N-N5 and maintains his plus Pawn, for if 21 . . . RxP? 22 N-B7 .

17 • . . Q-B3

The text protects Black's QP and prevents the White Bishop from going to f4 .

18 B-Q2

White plans to break the force of Black's fianchettoed Bishop by 1 9 B-B3 .

18 . . . Q-N3

Black tjikes his Queen from the fianchettoed Bishop's diagonal and attacks White's KP a second time.

19 B-B3

" White continues his play to eliminate the Black fianchettoed

Bishop, since he can win Black' s QP if Black takes his KP .

19 . . • BxB

Although Black rarely exchanges this fianchettoed Bishop, here he cannot avoid doing so .

20 PxB

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If 20 QxB RxP, losing a Pawn for White, whereas if Black plays 20 . . . RxP after the text, 2 1 NxP! and if 2 1 . . . QxN 22 QxR.

20 • • • P-NJ

Black decides not to exchange his QP for White ' s KP, since 20 . . . QxP 2 1 QxQ RxQ 22 NxP leads to a favorable ending for White because of his passed QP.

As already remarked, 20 . . . RxP would be answered by 2 1 NxP ! , and if 2 1 . . . R-K2 2 2 QxQch RPxQ 23 P-QB4, after which White has a strong protected passed Pawn, and White' s Knight is much more active than Black' s Bishop. Black still has his majority on the Q-side but it is a very bad one, for it is blocked. Only in the far future can Black hope for a passed Pawn.

In the present position , Black's strategy will be first to drive away White ' s Knight or to exchange it , then to stabilize his K-wing, to try to keep White from breaking through at e5 , and finally to make his own attack along the K-file .

21 KR-Kl B-RJ

At last Black succeeds in driving away White' s well-posted Knight . However, now Black' s Bishop will not be available on his K-wing .

22 N-Q2 R-K4(?)

This move looks good. It prepares to double the Rooks and at the same time threatens 23 . . . RxQP. But at this square the Rook is exposed to various threats , as we shall soon see .

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Preferable is 22 . . . R-K2, which unlike the text does not lose a tempo. With the text White will be able to force P-K5 anyway , as will appear later .

23 P-KB4!

A very strong move, which parries Black's threats and prepares in the long run for the strong advance P-K5 . Now 23 . . . RxQP? no longer works because of 24 P-B5 ! followed by 25 PxR, and 23 . . . R-K2 24 P-B4 would promote White 's plan to play P-K5 after careful preparation . Therefore , Black is forced to make the unfavor­able exchange that follows since 23 . . . R-R4 leaves the Black KR in a rather useless and compromising position .

23 • • • 24 N:xP

PxP e.p.

Attacking Black' s Rook, and 24 . . . RxQP is still not possible , for 25 N-R4 would allow White to win the Exchange .

24 • • • R-R4

To be considered is 24 . . . R-K2 followed by 25 . . . QR-K l , but White can then bring his Knight with tempo to the strong f5 square: 25 N-R4 Q-B3 26 N-B5 . So Black rightly prefers to keep his Rook on the 4th rank .

25 Q-B2

By taking his Queen off the b 1 /h7 diagonal , White parries the threat of . . . RxQP and makes possible both P-K5 and the maneuver N-R4-B5 . Also, as will soon be seen , this is a part of a plan to advance in the center and force a passed Pawn .

25 • • • Q-B3

To prevent both P-K5 and N-R4 and incidentally attacking White ' s BP.

26 R-K3

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To protect the attacked BP, to enable White to push his KP, and to be able, if desirable, to bring his Rook to g3 later .

26 • • • R-Kl

Black continues his defensive strategy of preventing White from playing P-K5 . It is so important not to allow P-K5 because in case White gets to play it, then after . . . PxP White would get a strong passed Pawn and an open position in which the passed Pawn could become very dangerous .

27 QR-Kl

White is now threatening 28 Q-N3ch K-R l 29 P-K5 , thus realizing his strategic ideal of forcing a passed Pawn and breaking the position open, which is , in general , dangerous for the side with an unsafe K-position .

He is also threatening 28 P-K5 immediately, for after 28 . . . PxP 29 NxP Black' s Queen is en prise . Of course Black can answer 29 . . . QxQch, but White has pushed his Pawn . In other words , in reality the Black Queen does not exercise practical control over e5 .

Black might now consider 27 . . . K-R 1 and if 28 Q-N3 R-Nl , but White could instead answer 28 P-K5 ! PxP 29 NxP QxQch QxQch 30 KxQ, and White has carried out his plan and has a strong passed Pawn .

27 • • • Q-BS

Black tries to prevent White from carrying out his threats of 28 P-K5 and 28 Q-N3 , but White's next move will show that Black' s preventive strategy i s only apparent . For White continues nonetheless

28 P-KS! PxP

Now 29 NxP?? would be met by 29 . . . QxPch .

29 R-K4

An in-between move which drives the Queen from its temporarily dominating position . Among other things , the Queen must give up its control of g3 .

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29 . . . Q-B3 30 Q-N3ch

Also possible is 30 NxP, but the text is stronger since to leave the Queens on the board favors White because of the unsafe position of the Black King .

30 . . . K-Rl 31 NxP

White has now attained his goal of securing a passed Pawn and moreover has tactical possibilities such as 32 NxPch and 32 N-N6ch , which win the Exchange and a Pawn since after either move Black's Re8 i s attacked by White' s Re4 .

White took with the Knight instead of the Rook because of the tactical possibilities and because the more heavy material there is left on the board , the more disagreeable things are for the insecure Black King .

31 . . . R-KNI 32 R-KN4

Now 32 . . . R/4-N4 fails against 33 RxR RxR 34 QxR ! QxQ 35 NxPch , etc . The tactical possibilities of the Knight become apparent in this line .

32 • • • 33 NxR

RxR

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And now

I ) 33 . . . Q-R5 would not be so good because of 34 N-B6 ! QxQ 35 R-K8ch K-N2 36 NxRch , etc . ;

2) 33 . . . Q-Q l 34 N-B6 QxN 35 R-K8 mate .

33 • • • Q-N3

White could now win by 34 N-B6 and

I ) 34 . . . QxQ 35 R-K8ch K-N2 36 NxRch, etc . , or

2) 34 . . . R-N4 35 R-K8ch K-N2 36 R-N8ch KxN 37 RxQch , etc .

However, the way White chooses is still simpler .

34 P-B4

To open the long diagonal for his Queen . Black now has no proper defense against 35 Q-B3ch .

34 • • • R-B4

In order to answer 35 Q-B3 by 35 . . . P-B3 .

35 N-R6!

A symmetrical variation of the continuations mentioned under 33 . . . Q-N3 . It is like the echo motif in a problem, a symmetrical situation between Rh5 + Nf6 and Rf5 + Nh6.

I) 35 . . . QxQ 36 R-K8ch K-N2 37 NxRch, etc . ;

2) 35 . . . R-N4? 36 QxR QxQ 37 NxPch , etc . ;

3 ) 3 5 . . . R-R4 3 6 R-K8ch K-N2 3 7 R-N8ch KxN 3 8 Q-K3ch (38 RxQch amounts to about the same thing) 38 . . . R-N4 39 RxQch KxR 40 P-Q6 B-B I 4 1 Q-Q3ch and wins .

35 • • • 36 R-K8ch

R-B3 K-N2

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37 R-N8ch 38 Q-R4ch

If 38 . . . Q-R4 39 QxRch .

KxN Resigns

341

White won the game because he managed to refute his opponent' s attack and a t the same time pressed strongly against Black' s QP. The underlying reason for White' s victory was the fact that Black' s Q-side majority never got off the ground, and White 's preponderance in the center led both to a continually progressing attack against the Black King and the birth of a strong passed Pawn .

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The idea behind 1 N-KB3

Center control by exerting pressure on the center squares rather than by

occupying them

Seizing the initiative in an almost symmetrical position

Attacking the side against which the fianchettoed Bishop is directed

The sacrifice of a Pawn based on intuition and justified by a complex of

variations

A long-term strategic plan

Vain attempts to get counterchances

The effectiveness of the Bishop pair when diagonals are open

Keeping one's K-side position closed to lessen the danger of perpetual

check

Attempts to open the opponent's K-side position

Penetration of the Queen into the opponent's Q-side pawn structure

The victorious advance of the passed Pawn

The Fianchettoed Bishop A fianchettoed Bishop exerts considerable pressure along the

diagonal it controls , especially when this diagonal is open, that is, not blocked by its own Pawns . A fianchettoed Bishop can exert great force along such a free diagonal . But having such a fianchettoed Bishop is not alone sufficient to win a game. There must be an accompanying attacking strategy , and this strategy consists in an attack against the side of the opponent toward which the fianchettoed Bishop is directed . The attack is made by gradually advancing one' s Pawns against that side . For instance , i f one's KB i s on its KN2-square, one's Q-side Pawns will gradually be advanced against the opponent's Q-side . The advance will be the more effective if the attacker has a Q-side pawn majority , for with it he is likely to end up with a passed Pawn .

If the opponent is a master , he will be quite aware of this strategy and will on the one hand try to stop the pawn advance and on the other try to complicate the position by tactical means so that the attack

342

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cannot be realized . He may also try to neutralize the force of the fianchettoed Bishop by interposing his own Bishop on the diagonal , thus forcing an exchange of Bishops .

The result of the attack on the side against which the fianchettoed Bishop is directed will , therefore, depend on the ability of the player making it to forward his attack with skill and on his ability to meet his opponent' s tactical thrusts successfully .

So much for the fianchettoed Bishop on the open diagonal . If the diagonal is closed by the presence of one of the player' s own Pawns (e .g . , a Black Bishop on g7 and a Black Pawn on e5) , then the fianchettoed Bishop can still be valuable because of one or more of the following considerations :

(a) the Bishop will exert indirect pressure on d4;

(b) the presence of the Bishop may prevent the opponent from making certain moves . For instance, when contemplating a move such as P-KB4, the White opponent will have to take into consid­eration that after that move the diagonal of the Bishop will be opened by an exchange of Pawns ( . . . PxKBP) .

(c) Black can sometimes post a piece on f4 which is so powerful there that White may feel obliged to exchange it , in which case the diagonal will again be opened; e .g . , if White' s QP is on d5 and Black's KP on e5 and if Black gets to play . . . N-KBS, there may follow BxN PxB , freeing the a 1/h8 diagonal for Black' s Bishop at g7 .

Retl Opening USSR Championship Prelift\lnaries

Moscow - 1 971

Semyon Furman - USSR Leonid Stein - USSR

1 N-KB3

This is an interesting opening move for several reasons:

(a) It exerts influence on the center. At f3 the Knight exercises a measure of control over d4 and e5 . Among other things, it pre­vents Black from replying I . . . P-K4 .

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344 Game 25

(b) It offers White a wide choice of directions in which to con­tinue . From this move all sorts of openings can arise , such as the Sicilian ( I . . . P-QB4 2 P-K4) , the Queen's Gambit (I . . . P-Q4 2 P-QB4 P-K3 3 P-Q4) , the Benoni in reverse ( I . . . P-Q4 2 P-B4 P-Q5), etc .

As was stated in Game 1 5 , transposition of moves is an important element in today' s opening variations . It is a custom in modem games to make moves which reserve a maximum number of possibilities of transposing into any number of openings.

(c) It exemplifies the modem concept of control of the center squares as contrasted with the classical system of immediate occupation of the center .

As was mentioned briefly in Game 1 7 , in former times players on both sides used to occupy the center with Pawns as soon as they could, and so games usually opened 1 P-K4 P-K4 or 1 P-Q4 P-Q4.

About 1 920 it was generally recognized that it was also possible to postpone the occupation of the center until a bit later , provided that the moves made exercised some control over the four center squares (e4, d4, e5 , d5) . The idea was to wait to see what kind of center the opponent would choose and then to attack it .

It was during that decade that a number of new openings were developed, such as the King's Indian ( I P-Q4 N-KB3 2 P-QB4 P-KN3) and the Reti (which is characterized by 1 N-KB3 and the K-side fianchetto plus P-QB4 but without an early P-Q4) .

One of the results of deferring the occupation of the center by pieces was that the KB was often developed on the wing where, as a fianchetto, it exerted pressure along the long diagonal . On its KN2-square this fianchettoed Bishop can often exercise much greater influence than on its K2- or Q3-square , where it sometimes gets in the way of the center Pawns .

1 . . . N-KB3

This move is good for Black for the same reasons that it is good for White .

2 P-B4

Instead of occupying the center squares White controls them by

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exerting pressure on them. At present his KN controls d4 and e5 and his QBP controls d5 .

2 • • • P-KN3

In order to play a kind of King's Indian. Black also had many other possibilities , such as 2 . . . P-K3 followed by 3 P-Q4 P-Q4 (the Queen's Gambit) or 2 . . . P-QN3 3 P-Q4 (the Queen's Indian) .

3 P-KN3

In conjunction with the two preceding moves White prepares to direct his KB toward the center .

3 . . . 4 B-N2 5 N-B3

B-N2 0-0

Also good is 5 0-0, which may lead to the same position as in the game after 5 . . . P-QB4 6 P-Q4. But after 5 0-0, the game could continue 5 . . . P-Q4 6 PxP NxP 7 N-B3 N-N3 .

If after 5 N-B3 Black should play 5 . . . P-Q4, then we could get a sort of reverse of the game with 6 PxP NxP 7 NxN QxN. Good or bad? White has a slight advantage. One tempo can make a lot of difference .

With 5 . . . P-Q3 followed by 6 . . . N-B3 or 6 . . . QN-Q2 Black would have a normal King's Indian; after which White would answer 7 P-Q4.

5 . . . P-B4

This creates a symmetrical center position . The text is not inferior to the above-mentioned 5 . . . P-Q3 . In both cases White has some initiative as a result of making the first move.

6 P-Q4

The normal reply: expansion of space , seizing the initiative in an almost symmetrical position .

One might feel that at this point there is no longer a Reti Opening, for we have pointed out under 1 N-KB3 (c) that White does not play

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P-Q4 in the Reti . But it was Reti 's intention to postpone the occupa­tion of the center squares only until it became evident what kind of center the opponent would choose and then to attack it . In this game the time has now arrived to attack the opponent 's center .

One could distinguish between a pure Reti, in which e4 or d4 is not occupied before the l Oth move, and a modified Reti , in which this occupation comes somewhat earlier . Thus , to continue a pure Reti line , White might have chosen to play 6 0-0 or 6 P-Q3 . However , this attempt to distinguish between the pure Reti and the modified Reti is only a question of nomenclature and is not very important .

6 • • • PxP

This exchange gives White complete freedom for many of his pieces and temporary control of the most important center squares .

Also possible and perhaps preferable is 6 . . . P-Q3 , which bol­sters Black' s center and opens a diagonal for his QB . Black need not fear 7 PxP PxP 8 QxQ, for after 8 . . . RxQ White has no advantage . If 7 P-Q5 , White blocks the action of his own KB and opens a diagonal for Black' s KB . It leads to a position with completely different characteristics . When followed by 7 . . . P-K3 , it becomes a kind of Benoni after 8 0-0 PxP 9 PxP. White can also play 8 PxP PxP, and Black will be able to continue with 9 . . . P-Q4. Another possibility after 7 P-Q5 is 7 . . . P-K4; if White does not reply 8 PxP e .p . , then pawn-chain strategy is in order-a chain with two spearheads (Game 1 5) . Black must strive for . . . P-KB4 because two Pawns in the middle make a good center and give attacking possibilities , and if White should play 8 P-K4, Black tries to attain . . . P-KB4. How­ever, even if White does not play 8 P-K4, an eventual . . . P-KB4 would be a very good move because two Pawns in the center constitute

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a strong formation which can be useful for all kinds of activities . It is played not only to combat a pawn chain but to obtain preponderance of space and influence in the center. In order to clear the way for . . . P-KB4 Black usually plays his KN to e8 but sometimes to d7 or h5 .

7 NxP

To get some counterweight in the center . As a matter of fact, Black had hardly any other move which would not create serious weaknesses in the center , as 7 . . . P-K3 8 0-0 P-Q4 9 PxP PxP would, for instance , since Black ends up with an isolated Pawn .

8 0-0 NxN

Black cannot effectively move his QP as long as his QN remains on c6, for 8 . . . P-Q3 loses a Pawn after 9 NxN PxN 1 0 BxP.

9 QxN

The White Queen is now in a direct line with the fianchettoed Black KB . Such a situation has in it an element of danger , but for the moment the Black KN has no effective square to which it might go and threaten .

9 • • • P-Q3

To mobilize the Black QB , which now covers g4 , Black keeps­. . . N-N5 in reserve in case it could later be played advantageously .

At this point White has a preponderance of space and exercises some pressure against the Black Q-wing with his KB .

10 Q-Q3

Now that Black's Knight can move effectively , White wishes to remove his Queen from the dangerous diagonal . He plays it to d3 because at d2 it would block his QB and at d I it would obstruct the free movement of his Rooks . It could also have gone to h4 with the possibility of continuing with B-R6 .

Black could now reply 10 . . . N-N5 with the intention of follow­ing this up with . . . N-K4.

The eighth game of the Fischer-Spassky World Championship,

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which started out entirely differently, reached a position identical to this one after Black's 9th move . On the l Oth move Fischer played l O B-N5 followed b y 1 1 Q-B4, which i s time-consuming. He wished to achieve the formation Qd2 and Be3 but could attain it only indirectly , since l O B-K3 could be answered by l O . . . N-N5 and l O B-B4 could be met by l O . . . N-R4.

10 • • • P-QR3

Black begins a plan for counterplay consisting of . . . P­QR3 , . . . R-N l , and . . . P-QN4 followed eventually by . . . Q­R4, but Black does not get too far in this line .

The aim of the plan after Black has made the above moves is to exchange off White' s QBP and to start a combined attack with the Black Rook on b8 and the fianchettoed Bishop at g7 against b2.

In general , it is good strategy to advance the Pawns on the wing against which your own fianchettoed Bishop is directed . However, the carrying out of Black's contemplated strategic plan , including . . . R-Nl and . . . P-QN4, depends on too many "ifs . "

1 1 B-K3

To strengthen the pressure against Black' s Q-side as a means of preventing Black' s plan as outlined above and to afford White' s QB the possibility of going to d4 where it would neutralize the force of Black' s fianchettoed Bishop along the diagonal . For instance, if 1 1 . . . R-Nl , there could follow 12 B-R7 R-R l 1 3 B-Q4. We shall see that the text thwarts Black's strategic plan as outlined above.

1 1 • • • N-NS

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Both to threaten to exchange the White QB and to bring the Black Knight to e5 , a common maneuver made to exercise pressure against White ' s QBP.

Instead , Black could have decreased White' s pressure by 1 1 . . . B-B4 1 2 Q-Q2 R-N l , and White could have continued with 1 3 QR-B 1 after which 1 3 . . . P-QN4 would lose the Exchange as follows : 14 B-R7 R-B l 15 B-N7 R-B2 16 B-N6. Therefore, Black would instead continue with 1 3 . . . Q-R4, but White would have the better position-more space . Black cannot undertake counteraction in the center .

12 B-Q4

Practically forced, but White would be glad to exchange his QB for Black's fianchettoed KB , which commands the long diagonal .

12 • • • N-K4

Black could have forced the exchange of White 's QB by 12 . . . P-K4, but after 1 3 B-K3 NxB 1 4 QxN White has the better game because Black ' s QP is very weak .

White would not want to leave Black with the Bishop pair by playing 1 3 BxN. So he continues

13 Q-Ql

He can leave his QBP en prise because 13 . . . NxP? is answered by 14 BxB KxB 1 5 Q-Q4ch N-K4, winning the pinned piece by 1 6 P-B4.

13 • • • R-Nl

It is uncomfortable to have a Rook on a long diagonal controlled by an opponent ' s fianchettoed Bishop . Moreover , if White plays a move like 14 N-Q5 , the text will permit . . . P-N3 , eliminating White's hold on b6 .

White could now play 1 4 P-N3 , but since he plays P-QN4 later , he saves a tempo by not making that move at this time.

14 R-Bl

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350 Game 25

White leaves his QBP temporarily unprotected, convinced that the long combination he has in mind is sound .

14 • • • B-R3(?)

A tricky move . Since 14 . . . NxP will cost a piece (see the com­ment under 1 3 Q-Q l ) , Black looks for another way . He moves his Bishop from the diagonal with tempo since he now attacks White 's QR, hoping that he will finally be able to capture White's QBP, but White' s sacrifice of a Pawn is still correct, as shown in the long analysis given under White's next move .

In view of the final result, 14 . . . B-R3 does not seem very good-it diverts Black' s KB from its normal square . Preferable was 14 . . . B -K3 as was played in the Tai-Torre game, Leningrad 1973 .

15 P-84

White probably had the feeling that Black could not now take the QBP without incurring great difficulties ; otherwise Black would have played 14 . . . P-N3 to avoid them. We will try to verify White 's intuition .

If Black now answers 1 5 . . . NxBP, White gets a very strong attack : 1 6 N-Q5 P-QN4 (after 1 6 . . . N-R4 White wins by 17 B-N6) 17 P-N3 N-R4 1 8 R-B7 and now

1 ) 1 8 . . . B-Q2 19 B-B6 ! l a) 1 9 . . . PxB 20 RxB , etc . ; l b) 19 . . . R-Kl 20 Q-Q2

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Reti Opening 351

l b l ) 20 . . . N-B3 21 R-B l R-QB l (21 . . . N-K4 22 BxN PxB 23 RxB QxR 24 N-B6ch, etc . ) 22 KRxN BxR 23 BxP, etc . ; lb2) 20 . . . N-N2 2 1 RxN RxR 22 BxP Q-N l (22 . . . RxB 23 NxRch QxN 24 BxR and White wins the Exchange) 23 N-B6ch K-R l 24 NxR with material advan­tage to White ; lb3) 20 . . . P-N5 2 1 KR-B l B-KB l 22 B-QR I , and White at least wins Black's QNP by NxNP and has a superior position with attacking possibilities ; lb4) 20 . . . K-B l (relatively best) 2 1 QxN PxB 22 QxRP B-K3 23 KR-B l with a clear advantage to White .

2) 1 8 . . . R-K l 1 9 Q-Q2 2a) 19 . . . N-N2 20 B-N6 N-B4 21 RxP RxB 22 RxRch, etc . ; 2b) 1 9 . . . P-N5 20 KR-B l and at least White will manage to recapture Black' s QNP with an overwhelming position ; e .g . , 20 . . . B-B l 2 1 B-Rl , etc .

The reader should not worry too much about this complex of variations . It only serves to show what White has vaguely in mind by sacrificing the Pawn .

15 . • • N-BJ

Black withdraws his Knight to c6 to drive White's QB from the diagonal so that Black's KB can return to its normal fianchettoed square . Black "believes" his opponent . White was apparently con­vinced that he would get sufficient compensation if Black should capture his QBP, and Black must have judged the capture of that Pawn too risky . It is very probable that both sides have used their intuition instead of calculating all the possibilities set forth in the preceding analysis .

16 B-B2

Both of White's Bishops are now ideally placed to exert pressure on Black's Q-side .

16 . • . B-N2

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352 Game 25

The original situation has been reestablished. White maintains his pressure on Black's Q-side and has a preponderance in space . He has risked a sacrifice of his QBP and has invested considerable time in calculating the combination . He now has a superior position , whereas Black has no compensating advantages . He was already at a disadvan­tage by the time he made his 1 3th move , but the situation was made worse by 14 . . . B-R3 .

17 Q-Q2

White continues his development and protects his QNP in view of his intention of playing N-QS . The Queen has more possibilities on d2 than on <!l , and dl is now freed for the KR.

White plans to attack Black' s Q-side with his Q-side majority , but he must make a series of preparatory moves which he is already planning here as his long-range strategy: KR-Q l , N-QS , P-QN4, P-QR4, P-QNS . Ample time is required before this plan can be realized in its entirety .

17 • • • Q-R4

Black, who is looking for counterplay, activates his Queen before White can play N-QS , encircling the Black, , position . He has little space control , and on d8 the Black Queen hinders action on Black' s l st rank . I f Black had waited to play . . . Q-R4 until White was able to post his Knight on d5 , it would have been countered by P-QN4.

18 KR-Ql

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Reti Opening 353

White plays his KR to a more useful square and exerts more pressure along the Q-file, which could be important if N-Q5 is answered by a possible . . . P-K3 ; this Rook also supports its Queen, and this support will be needed when he plays N-Q5 .

Now a Black attempt to win a Pawn by 1 8 . . . BxN 19 QxB QxP? would be refuted by 20 R-Rl . It the same line, the exchange of Queens by 19 . . . QxQ 20 RxQ would accentuate White' s positional advan­tage in view of White's pressure against the Q-side, especially since Black would no longer have the Bishop pair .

Black is somewhat helpless and tries unsuccessfully to get some counterplay with

18 • . . Q-R4

He is seeking more space control and trying to create new pos­sibilities such as . . . B-R6 or . . . B-N5 .

19 N-QS

White has been preparing this move for a long time. The Knight is very powerful here , for it presses against b6, c7 , and e7 . For the moment there is no definite threat , but White is strangling his oppo­nent . In addition , he is preparing the strategic move 22 P-QN4.

19 • • • B-NS

Black tries to do something at least by attacking White's KP.

20 R-Kl

Both to protect his KP and to get his KR out of the line of the Black QB in order to be able to advance his KP.

20 • • • P-K4?

Black hopes to simplify by 21 . . . PxP and to get drawing chances .

The text certainly gives Black some possibility of counteraction, but it also makes lJlack' s QP definitely weak, and this , in the long run , must decide the battle . Black's position was already bad, but the text

Page 364: Chess Master

354 Game 25

must eventually lead to material disadvantages which accentuate his possibility of losing .

Black is probably lost in any case . If he makes a waiting move, White can continue his strategic plan with P-QN4, etc . It is Black's powerlessness to do anything against White 's strategy which forces him to look for tactical complications . He does not want to make things too easy for White . He does not want to go down without a struggle .

21 P-K3!

To support his KBP a second time. White must be prepared to answer . . . PxP by KPxP, for NPxP could give Black some chances on the K-side .

21 • • • 22 P-N4!

KR-Kl

The standard and correct way to develop an attack against the Q-side in combination with the fianchettoed Bishop on the K-side . The advanced White Pawns on the Q-side will lead to new weaknesses for Black . As was pointed out after White' s 1 7th move , the White strategy was prepared for with 17 Q-Q2, 1 8 KR-Q l , and 19 N-Q5 . White's attack, which will be temporarily interrupted by Black' s moves in a different direction, will later be continued by 27 P-QR4 and 29 P-N5 .

22 • • • PxP

The text will open two new lines for White : the K-file and the a7 /f2 diagonal controlled by White's B/B2; but Black has no better move , and it does open Black's 4th rank for action by his Queen , as will become evident in the commentary under 27 P-QR4. If 22 . . . B­KB6, then 23 P-N5 PxP 24 PxP N-Q l 25 R-B7.

Once again , Black had no reasonable alternative . He is continually trying to find a way to meet White's P-N5 , and after his 23 . . . B­KB6 he feels that he has found something .

23 KPxP B-KB6

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Reti Opening 355

The idea is sound: neutralize the force of White ' s fianchettoed KB ; but Black did not have the opportunity to do it soon enough .

Black is now hoping for 24 P-N5 PxP 25 PxP BxB 26 KxB (not 26 PxN because of 26 . . . QxN 27 QxQ BxQ 28 P-B7 RxRch followed by 29 . . . R-QB l ) , and Black gets sufficient counterchances be­cause his Knight does not have to retreat to d8 ; instead, he can reply 26 . . . N-Q5 ! , threatening 27 . . . QxN. After 27 N-K7ch RxN! 28 RxR Q-Q4ch 29 K-B 1 QxPch Black gets at least a draw. Here we see what tactical complications Black has created .

For the time being White cannot continue his strategic plan . But he can do so later. He first takes advantage of the fact that Black' s Queen is over to one side and threatens Black's l st rank by the series of moves that follow.

24 RxRch 25 R-Kl

RxR

If now 25 . . . R-Ql , then 26 P-N5 would be strong since after 26 . . . BxB 27 KxB PxP 28 PxP, the key move 28 . . . N-Q5 would lose a piece after 29 N-K7ch, for the Black Knight would be en prise , and Black would no longer have a way of winning the White Knight .

25 • . • 26 QxR

RxRch

Threatening 27 Q-K8ch B-B 1 28 N-B6ch . The open K-file is very favorable for White .

If 26 . . . BxN, things become easier for White . It would make

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356 Game 25

some sense if White's QNP could be captured, but that Pawn is protected by White's Queen .

26 • • • K-Bl

Now the push will not only demolish Black's Q-wing but also lead to a direct attack (Q-K7ch) as soon as the Black Knight is driven away .

27 P-QR4

With the threat of 28 P-N5 PxP 29 RPxP followed by driving the Black Knight away from c6 and by 30 Q-K7ch . White could not play 27 P-N5 at once because of 27 . . . PxP 28 PxP QxN. That is what Black attained by playing 22 . . . PxP and opening his 4th rank for his Queen .

27 • • • BxN

The direct attack of Queen + Knight is thus eliminated, but the threat to the Black Q-wing remains . Note that the counterpush 27 . . . P-QN4 will not work because of 28 RPxP PxP 29 N-B7 , threatening both 30 NxP and 30 Q-K8 mate .

28 BxB

The dangerous White Knight has been eliminated, but it has been replaced by the powerful and well-posted Bishop . White retains the Bishop pair in a position with open lines-and open lines are ideal for the maximum effectiveness of Two Bishops . White is also now free to continue the Q-side attack begun at his 22d move .

28 • • • Q-B4

To bring his Queen back into the game . White now continues the strategy he began with 17 Q-Q2 . Black cannot now stop the following advance or prevent the loss of a Pawn . He hopes only to be able to check the White King and thus create some complications which might give drawing chances .

29 P-NS

Page 367: Chess Master

Reti Opening 357

The final result of this push will be to force the Black Knight from its post on c6, after which Black' s QNP must fall .

29 • • • 30 RPxP

PxP N-Ql

The only way to defend the QNP and then only temporarily . The alternative 30 . . . N-Q5 3 1 BxNP would not give Black much coun� terplay, and the White QNP is already very far advanced .

31 Q-RS!

A frightful stroke ! Black can no longer avoid the loss of a Pawn . Note how helpless he is because his pieces do not cooperate . But 3 1 B-N6 would not have worked : 3 1 . . . B-B3 3 2 BxN BxB 33 BxNP would give Black considerable drawing chances with 33 . . . B­N3ch, Bishops of opposite colors , and an unsafe White King .

31 • • • B-B3

After 3 1 . . . Q-Q2 32 Q-R8 B-B3 33 B-N6, Black would have lost a Pawn anyway , but he could perhaps have held his own a little longer . However, it is understandable that he did not want to condemn his Queen to absolute passivity and instead tries for perpetual check and some counterpressure .

32 Q-B7

Now one of the Pawns must fall . If 32 . . . B-K2 33 BxNP NxB 34 QxN, and Black has no chances . Then there are Bishops of the same color .

32 . • • K-N2 33 QxQP f--i'· . , , ·.

Also 33 BxNP would have won, but then 33 . . . N-K3 34 QxQP P-N4 might have led to some complications because White's K-side structure is broken open.

33 • • • 34 K-N2

Q-N8ch Q-N7

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358 Game 25

Black threatens 35 . . . B-Q5 .

35 Q-N6

In order to meet the indicated threat .

35 . • • Q-87

In order to be in a position to attack White' s QBP if necessary . For instance , Black hopes to play . . . N-K3 , and after BxN PxB , White can continue in several ways ; but it may be important for the Black Queen to be attacking White' s QBP at that time .

White now consolidates with

36 Q-K3

Black , seeing that 36 . . . N-K3 leads to nothing after 37 BxN PxB 38 QxP B-Q5 ? 39 Q-Q7ch, plays a waiting move.

36 . . . Q-N7 37 Q-K4

Attacking Black's QNP a second time.

37 . • • P-R4

Black attempts to split the White K-side pawn formation, after which the White King would have less protection.

If now 38 BxNP NxB 39 QxN B-Q5 40 Q-B3 P-R5 with possible counterchances for Black . So White avoids complications and plays

38 P-R4

Page 369: Chess Master

Reti Opening 359

Black now makes a waiting move .

38 • • • K-Bl

In view of the fact that now 39 BxNP NxB 40 QxN B-Q5 4 1 Q-B3 Q-B7 would win the QBP for Black and would not be so easy for White , the latter begins to prepare for the advance of his QBP by putting his Queen in line with his QNP instead of trying to capture a second Pawn.

39 Q-Q3

Black cannot improve his position , so he makes the waiting move

39 • • • K-N2 40 P-QBS

With this pawn push White will win the game . Black now moves simply because he has to ; he cannot stop the

advance .

40 • . • 41 P-B6 42 PxP

Q-NS PxP Resigns

Black has no counterplay whatsoever . He must stop the QBP; e .g . , 42 . . . Q-Q3 43 Q-B4 Q-B2 and, for instance, 44 Q-N5 N-K3 45 BxN PxB 46 Q-N7 B-Ql 47 B-N6 ! and now 47 . . . QxB is impos­sible , for the Black Queen is pinned .

Page 370: Chess Master

360 Game 25

White won the game because after the opening he got a preponder­ance in space and could prepare a long-range strategic plan based on the great mobility of his pieces and especially on the strong position of his fianchettoed KB . Black tried to confuse his opponent by some threats and small combinations, but White managed to handle these complications successfully and to carry out his strategic plan, which finally led to a plus Pawn and then to a strong passed Pawn .

Page 371: Chess Master

Index of Openings References are to pages

Alekhine Defense Benoni Defense Catalan Opening English Opening Falkbeer Countergambit French Defense: Tarrasch Variation Griinfeld Defense: 4 B-KB4 Line King's Indian Defense: Siimisch Variation Nimzoindian Defense

4 Q-B2 P-B4 Line 4 P-K3 P-B4 Line

Petroff Defense Pirc Defense Queen's Gambit Accepted Queen's Gambit Declined

Slav Variation Tartakower Variation

Queen's Indian Defense Reti Opening Ruy Lopez: Breyer Defense Sicilian Defense

Dragon Variation Irregular Najdorf Variation Paulsen Variation Scheveningen Variation

Sicilian in Reverse Two Knights' Defense: 4 N-N5 Line

361

84 328 297 313

6 1 7 1

282 256

235 246

47 100 2 1 4

184 196 269 343

3 1

1 1 1 170

147, 159 123 1 35 3 13

15

Page 372: Chess Master

Balashov Bisguier Bohotsov Browne Byrne Farkas Fischer Furman Gheorghiu Gligoric Hort lvkov Karasev Karpov Kavalek Kholmov Klovan Korchnoi Kostro Kotov Kuindgi Kupreichik Larsen Mecking Mikenas Peters Petrosian Portisch Quinteros Rodriguez

Index of Plnyers References are to pages

362

297 47

246 47 3 1 6 1

84, 170, 196, 282 343 256

2 14, 328 235 235 100

1 1 1 , 135 328 269

15 1 1 1

7 1 269

15 184 123

159, 313 184 123

1 70, 282 2 1 4, 246

148 148

Page 373: Chess Master

Index of Players 363

Savon 159

Smyslov 313

Spassky 3 1 , 84, 1 35, 196

Stein 343 Szell 6 1 Tai 297 Timoshenko 100 Uhlmann 71 Westerinen 256

Page 374: Chess Master

Index of SulJiects

References are to pages (er. 48; 136-39), to pages and moves (ex. 215, W l6; 306, 825), occasionally to pages and games (ex. 135-46, GIO). References to the opening of a game cite the 6rst move of that game in which the ideas behind the opening are discu'iSed; references to a type of endgame cite the approximate move at which that endgame begins.

Abbreviations and symbols used, 13 Advantages, small, 158-59 Alekhine Defem;e, 84, 81 Algebraic notation, 12-13 Analysis, nature and importance of, 3-4 Attack

against King castled K-side, 15-29, G l ; 31-43, G2; 61 -00, G4; 1 1 1 -20, GB; 123-33, G9; 135-46, GlO; 254-$, Gl9

again�t King exposed on file, 71-82, G5 against pawn salient, 89-9 1 , W l l -17 against Q-side in combination with

fianchettoed Bishop, 343-59, G25 again�! spearhead of pawn chain, 73-

78, W5-Bl4 against WJcastled King, 100-20, G7;

147-57, G l l ; 235-44, Gl7; 246-53, Gl8; 282-94, G21

sacrificial with pieces, 245-46 waves of, 255

B-R6 to eliminate opponent's fianchet­toed Bishop, 257, W l l ; 272-73, WlO

Backward Pawn, 220, Bl6; 221, Bl8 Benko Gambit, 329, 83 Benoni Defense, 328, B2 Bishops

fianchettoed, 342-43; 343, W l o f opposite colors, 308, 836, 842

Bulldozer strategy, 281-82

Castling, importance of, 99-100 Catalan Opening, 298, W4 Center

occupation of, 15, 8 1 ; 84, B2; 187, 81 1 ; 343, Wl

pressure on, 84, Bl : 2.35, Bl ; 343, W l , 8 1

White's center attacked by . . . P-Q84, 100, Bl; 102, B7; 215, 85; 235, 84; 283, 85; 299, 87; 300, 810

Combination, 3, 5, 183-84

Descriptive notation, 12-13 Devices of masters for winning, 5-8

Echo motif, ·340, W35 Elo system, 1 Endgame

importance of having King in center, 27, W21

Q + R + B + P's vs. Q + R + B + 1 extra P, 304, W20

R + P's vs. R + P's, 55, B21

R + 2 passed P's vs. B + N, 325, 835 2 R's + B + P's vs. R + 2 B's + P's,

165, B22 reducing to when position is favorable,

7; 252, W21 when one player has plus P, 26, 828 with Q's vs. without Q's, 308, 842

English Opening, 313, BI Exchange of pieces

to clear a rank, 22 1 , Wl7

364

Page 375: Chess Master

Index of Subjects to get the opportunity to exploit

enemy weaknesses, 22I , WI8

in order not to lose a tempo, I I5, WI3

of Queens, I75, WI2; 308, W42, 842 to reach a won endgame position, 252,

W2I

to remove an enemy piece from a strong position, 1 15, WI3; 22I ,

WI7

of Rooks · when a player is the Ex­change up, 264, W28

to simplify in order to accentuate one's advantage, 224, W9

"Exchange," sacrifice of to be able to assume the initiative and

open up the position, 2 I , WI9

to bring opponent into a pin, 278,

W26

to bring opponent's King into the open, 69, W26; 2IO, W38

to eliminate opponent's well-posted piece, I56, W24

to gain control of important squares, 253, W24

to get attacking chances, 22, WI7; 95, W2I ; I54-5.5, W2I

to simplify in order to give the oppo­nent a less favorable pawn position, 322, W22

to win a Pawn, 263, B23

Falkbeer Countergambit, 6I, 82 Fegatello Variation of the Two Knights'

Defense, I6, W5

Fischer maneuver ( . . . N-KR4) in the Benoni, 332-3.5, W l l -I7

Flight square for King, 224, W27, W3 I ;

3o.5 , 82 I

French Defense-Tarrasch Variation, 7 1 ,

W3

Gambit, definition of, 6I, W2

Griinfeld Defense, 28 I , 84

Hanging Pawns, I95-96; 202, WIO; 203, BI3; 204, BI7

Initiative, 6-7; 68, B2I ; 1 19, W22; I47;

I93, 837; 345, W6

Isolated Pawn, I69-70; I73, W8; I76,

WI5, WI7; 2I7, WIO; 2I8, BI3;

229, 84

K-side development, 234-3.5; 239, W IO­

II; 24I , WI9, W2I

King flight square for, 224, W27, W31 ; 30.'I,

82I

importance of having in the centcr In the endgame, 27, W34

in the open field, I84; I89, Wl6 King's Gambit, 6I, W2

King's Indian Defense basic formation, 256, 84 Simisch Variation, 256, W5

Lines, open, 227, W38; 243, H2tl: :J,'l.f , 822

Loose piece, 67, W23; 249, H I l

Majority, center vs. Q-side, 327-2H

Master characteristics of master ph1y, :1 definition of, I

differences in style, I-2

errors, 9

how chosen, I

why masters lose, 8-9

N-KB3 as White's Ist move!, :w:i , W I

. . . N-KB3 as Black's I st mov1\ Hof , I l l : 235, B I ; 344, BI

Nimzoindian Defense 4 Q-82 Line, 235, W4 4 P-K3 Line, 246, W4

Notation used, I2-I3

Open lines, 227, W38; 2-i:J, 11211 : :l.'S-1 , 822

Opening position when one 1111.• d1w1• lol' ment, 24 I , BI4; 243, H20

Operational phase of chcs., !(Miii•'. 2 : I

P-KR4 to start attack Ml(Mlm1I 1111 .. . k '• King castled K-side , I M , W IO : 2.'S'/ ,

W9 P-Q> where Black has fiand1"l lo1'4l hi•

QB and has not yet pl11y1-cl . . . I ' f)'I , 249, W9

P-Q84 as White's Ist move• , l llfl, W I ;

3 I3, WI

. . . P-Q84 to break up Whll.,'N l 'l'l l ll'r, IOO, B I ; I02, B7; 21:5 , ll.'1 : 2:l.'I, IW; 283, 85; 299, B7; 300, H I O

Passive play, 63, IOB

Page 376: Chess Master

366

Pawn backward. 200, Bl6; 221 , Bl8 isolated, 169-70; 173, W8; 176, WI5,

Wl7; 217, WIO; 218, Bl3; 229, 84 position, 7

Pawn chain, 70-71 ; 73-78, W5-Bl4 Pawn salient, 83, 89-9 1 , Wl l-17 Pawns

on color of their Bi.�hop, 192, B29 hanging, 195-96; 202, WIO; 203, Bl3;

204, Bl7 Petroff Defense, 47, B2 Pieces

failure to develop, 19, B9; 2 1 , Wl6; 23, 821 -22; 238, W9; 239, WIO; 241 , Wl5; 242, W l9, W21

importance of bringing them into play, 14-15

numerical value of, 30 Pin, 268-69 Pirc Defense, 100, BI Pressure, 6; 212-14

Queen disadvantage of playing out early in

game, 63, W7 importance of maintaining on board

when one has attack, 55, 820; 308, 842

Queen exchange to get better endgame position, 175,

Wl2 to get drawing chances, 308, W42,

842 Queen sacrifice, 30-3 1 ; 38, Bl9; 188, Bl3 Queen's Gambit, 184, W2 Queen's Gambit Ac.'Cepted, 214, 82 Queen's Gambit Declined

advantage of playing . . . P-KR'.3, 198, 86

Classical Line, 197, W5 Lasker Defense, 199, W7 Slav Defense, 184, 82

Tartakower Defense ( . . . P-QN3), 197-98, W5; 199, W7, B7

Queen's Indian Defense, 269, 83

Reti Opening, 345, W6 Rio Variations of the Two Knights' De­

fense, 16, W5 Ruy Lopez Opening

Breyer Variation, 34, B9

Index of Subjects Closed Variation, 32, 85 idea� behind, 3 1 , W3 importanc.-e of playing, 9 P-KR'.3, 33,

W9 maneuvering of White's QN, 34, W l l Morphy Variation, 3 1 , 83

Sacrifice to bring King into open field, 109, 24B,

26B to open a diagonal and to win a

tempo, 22, WI4 to open a file, 151 , Wl3 of piec.-es for attack, 245-46 proffered, 52, Wl4; 91 , Wl8; 93,

W20; 94, W20; 95, W21 ; 154, W21 ; 25 1 , Wl5; 252, Wl8

sham, 302, Bl4; 3 12-13; 322, W22 a� winning device, 5-6, 46-47

Seventh rank, 179, W24; 181 , 830, W31 , W33

Sham sacrifice, 302, Bl4; 312-13; 322, W22

Sicilian Defense characteristics of, I l l , 82; 123, W6 Dragon Variation, l l2, 85 function of P-KB3, l l3, W7 function of . . . P-QR'.3, 124, B7; 148,

85; 171 , 84 Modified Paulsen Variation, 135, 88 Najdorf Variation, 148, W6 Paulsen Variation, 123, 86 . . . QN-83 vs . . . . QN-Q2, 149, B7 Scheveningen Variation, 136, 86 Taimanov System, 170, W4; 171 , 84 variations possible after 4 NxP, 170,

W4 Sicilian in Reverse, 313, BI Spearhead Pawn, 70-7 1 ; 73-78, W5-Bl4 Strategic plan, 78, Bl7; 165, B24; 207,

W24; 208, W26; 224, W29; 230, W51 ; 231, W59; 352, Wl7; 354, W22

Strategy, 2; 134-35 Strong square, 207, W23 Style, differences in, 2-3

Ta<.'tics, 2-3, 134-35 Threat

a� winning devit.-e, 6 importance of making move entailing,

64, B9-IO Traxler Gambit, 16, 84

Page 377: Chess Master

Index of Subjects 367

Two Knights' Defense Value of pieces, 30 4 N-KN5 Variation, 14; 16, W4 5 . . . N-QR4 Line, 14; 17, 58 9 N-KR3 Line, 18, W9 Yugoslav Defense, 100, Bl

Traxler Gambit, 16, B4 why more aggressive than Giuoco

Piano, 16, 83 Zugzwang, 296-97; 306, 830; 307, B33

Page 378: Chess Master

Korch noi vs. Spassky : Chess C risis RAYM O N D K E E N E '

An i l l u m i nat ing acco u nt of the e l i m i nat ion to dec ide t h e C h a l l e nger f o r the Wo r ld C h a m p i o nsh i p . I nternat i o n a l G ra nd ­master Raymond Keen e i n c l u d es deep a n d i nstr u ctive a n n o ­tat ions o f a l l g a m es, b iogra p h i es o f t h e p l ayers a n d t h e m oves of t h e i r prev i o u s e n c o u nters.

Karpov vs. Korch noi Wo r l d Chess C h a m p i o nsh i p 1 978

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The R oad to Chess Mastery Dr MAX E U W E a n d Dr WA LT E R M E I D E N

' Whether you want to impro ve yo ur o wn game, or merely to understand why a master is a master, I can warmly recommend The R oad to Ch ess M aste ry. ' S pectat o r ' One o f the most interesting chess books t o appear for many years. ' S u nday Ti mes

C hess Master vs. Chess Amateur D r MAX EUWE a n d D r WA LT E R M E I D E N

T h i s book provi des t h e average pl ayer with n u mero u s ways to i m p rove h i s g a m e . T h ro u g h twe nty - f ive g a mes the a uthors c lear ly expla i n typ i c a l amate u r m i sta kes a n d h ow to exp l o i t a n d avo id t h e m .

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H ow does a maste r o r a g ra ndmaster th i n k ? And h ow ca n the a mate u r ass i m i ­late t h at t h i n k i n g i nto h is own g a m e ? C H E S S MAST E R & G RA N D MAST E R sets o u t t o a n swer those q u est i o n s with twe nty - f ive ga mes pl ayed between masters and g ra n d masters between 1 970 and 1 97 5 . No l i m ited m o n og ra ph, it dea ls with open i n gs, m i d d l eg a m es a n d e n d ­ga m e, expla i n i n g t h e f u n da menta l pri n ­c i p les o f the g a m e but a lso i l l u strat ing modern tec h n i q u es d eve l o ped d u ri n g t h e last twe nty - f ive yea rs . T h e a n n otat i o n of the moves is part i c u l a rly str i k i n g : the e m p h asis is o n revea l i ng the reaso n fo r ea c h s i g n if ica nt move rather t h a n o n g iv i n g n u mero u s tactic a l va r iati o n s -a l t h o u g h the latter a re a lso i nc l u d ed where t h ey h e l p to c la r ify a posit i o n 's poss i b i l i t ies. E uwe a n d M e i d e n t h u s pro ­v ide i n s ig hts i nto t h e sk i l l s a n d tec h ­n i q u es used by today's c h ess masters a n d g ra n dmasters. By stu dyi ng t h ese tec h n i q u es and a pplyi n g them to h is own g a m e, t h e c h ess a mate u r w i l l i m ­prove t h e strength a n d q u a l ity o f h is p l ay.