chemistry terminologies

Download Chemistry Terminologies

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Here are some useful chemistry terminologies

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  • 1. Chemistry Terminologies

2. Chemistry Matter Property Composition Structure Changes = Laws 3. Antoine Lavoisier Robert Boyle 4. Mass vs. Weight 5.

  • Unit of mass
  • Amount of material in an object
  • Constant
  • Unit of force
  • Force of gravity pulling on the object
  • Depends on the location

Mass Weight 6. Temperature hotness or coldness of an object 7. Celsius vs. Fahrenheit vs. Kelvin

  • 0 C = ( 0 F 32)/ 1.8
  • 0 F = (1.8 X0 C) + 32
  • K = 0 C + 273

8. 273 K 320 F ? Freezing point 373 K ? 1000 C Boiling point ? 98.60 F 370 C Normal body temperature K 0 F 0 C 9. 273 K 320 F 00 C Freezing point 373 K 2120 F 1000 C Boiling point 310 K 98.60 F 370 C Normal body temperature K 0 F 0 C 10. Evaporation vs. Condensation 11. 12. Evaporation vs. Condensation

  • Evaporation
    • Liquid to Gas
  • Condensation
    • Gas to Liquid

13. 14. Sublimation vs. Condensation 15. Sublimation vs. Condensation

  • Sublimation
    • Solid to Gas
  • Condensation
    • Gas to Solid

16. Sublimation Condensation 17. Matter 18. Matter Substance Mixture Element Compound Homogenous Heterogeneous Solution Suspension Colloid 19. Matter Space Mass 20. Pure Substance

  • Compose of the same kind of particles
  • Has same color and taste
  • Has definite properties and uniform characteristics
  • Has single phase
    • Salt
    • Sugar
    • Pure water

21. Element

  • made up of only one kind ofatomshaving the same atomic number
  • cannot be further reduced to simpler substances by ordinary physical or chemical processes
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen

22. Compound

  • Formed by the combination two or more elements
  • Could not be separated into its constituents by mechanical or physical means
  • Properties of a compound differ entirely from those of its constituent elements

23. Mixture

  • Combination of two or more substances
  • Each substance retains its own properties
    • Air
    • Gasoline
    • Halo Halo
    • Fruit Salad

24.

  • Uniform characteristic
  • Single phase
    • Air
    • Gasoline
  • No uniform characteristic
  • Two or more phase
    • Fruit Salad
    • Halo Halo

Homogenous Heterogeneous 25. Solution

  • Homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances
  • May be solid, liquid or gas
    • salt water (liquid solution)
    • air (gaseous solution)
    • alloy (solid solution)

26. 27. Solute + Solvent = Solution 28. Suspension

  • Consists of particles of a solid suspended in a liquid medium
  • Has two distinct phases
  • Particles of a suspension may not be visible to the naked eye
    • Sand and water
    • Oil and water

29. Colloid

  • Represents an intermediate kind between true solution and suspension
  • Two-phase heterogeneous system
    • dispersed phase
    • dispersion medium
  • Dispersed phase = solute in a solution

30. Soda water, whipped cream froth Foam, Froth Liquid Gas Foam, Ice-cream, Rubber Solid foam Solid Gas Insecticide sprays Aerosols of Liquids Gas Liquid Smoke, dust in air, smog Aerosols of solids Gas Solid Milk, hair cream, Emulsion Liquid Liquid cheese butter Gels Solid Liquid Paints, starch, Sols Liquid Solid Colored glues, gem stones, pearls, Solid sols Solid Solid Examples Colloidal system Dispersed medium Dispersed phase 31. Matter Substance Mixture Element Compound Homogenous Heterogeneous Solution Suspension Colloid 32. Acid vs. Base 33.

  • Latin acidus
  • Sour
  • Proton donor
  • Blue to red
  • Bitter
  • Slippery
  • Proton acceptor
  • Red to blue

Acid Base 34.

  • Fruits
    • Citric Acid
  • Vinegar
    • Acetic Acid
  • Soft drinks
    • Carbonic Acid
  • Milk
    • Lactic Acid
  • Vomit
    • Hydrochloric Acid
  • Lye
  • Baking soda
  • Milk of magnesia
  • Antacid

Acid Base 35. Indicator Exhibits specific color in the presence of acid or base 36. pH measure of acidity or basicity pH paper pH meter 37. pH Reading

  • Values 1-14
  • Lessthan 7 = acidic
  • Higherthan 7 = basic
  • Equalto 7 = neutral

38. pH = 5 Acidic 39. pH = 4 Acidic 40. pH = 7 Neutral 41. pH = 6 Acidic 42. pH = 8 Basic 43. Strong or Weak 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 44. Acid + Base =Neutralization 45. Atom 46. Atom

  • Smallest particle of an atom
  • John Dalton : indivisible

47. Parts of an Atom 48. Nucleus= center = proton and neutron

  • Near protons
  • Holds the protons together
  • Surrounds proton and neutron
  • In the nucleus

Location No charge - + Charge Neutron Electron Proton 49. Atomic Number vs. Atomic Mass 50. Atomic Number Atomic weight

  • Equal to the number of protons
  • Equal to mass number
  • Equal to the no. of neutron + no. of proton

51. S 16 32.06 Ga 31 69.72 Ba 56 137.33 52. Isotope vs. Isotone vs. Isobar 53. Isotope

  • Same element
  • Different atomic mass

C 12 6 C 13 6 Mg 23 12 Mg 26 12 54. Isotone

  • Same number of neutrons
  • Neutrons = A. Mass A. No.

C 14 6 N 15 7 Ca 40 20 K 39 19 55. Isobar

  • Same atomic mass
  • Different elements

Ne 22 10 Na 22 11 Ar 40 18 K 40 19 56. Isotope vs. Isotone vs. Isobar C 14 6 N 14 7 Pb 206 82 Pb 207 82 Na 22 11 Mg 23 12 57. Alpha vs. Beta vs. Gamma 58. Radioactivity

  • process whereby unstable atomic nuclei release energetic subatomic particles
  • subatomic particles released during the process

59. Least Maximum No charge Gamma Less Less - Beta Maximum Least + Alpha IonizingPower PenetratingPower Charge 60. Penetrating Power 61.

  • If you have three radioactive cookies alpha beta and gamma, what will you
  • Eat?
  • Place in your pocket?
  • Hold by your hand?

62.

  • If you have three radioactive cookies alpha beta and gamma, what will you
  • Eat?Gamma
  • Place in your pocket?Beta
  • Hold by your hand?Alpha

63. End