Chemistry Chapter 1 & 2 Introduction to Chemistry & Matter and Change.

Download Chemistry Chapter 1 & 2 Introduction to Chemistry & Matter and Change.

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  • ChemistryChapter 1 & 2Introduction to Chemistry & Matter and Change

  • Chemistry study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

  • Organic chemistry chemistry of carbon compounds.

  • Inorganic chemistry chemistry of non-carbon compounds.

  • Physical chemistry defines chemical behavior mathematically.

  • Analytical chemistry identifying the composition of materials.

  • Biochemistry the chemistry in living organisms.

  • Mass the amount of matter in an object.

    Matter anything that has mass and takes up space (not energy).

  • substance (pure) has a fixed composition unlike a mixture; (i.e. element or compound)

  • Physical property what a substance looks like. (color, size, shape)

  • Physical change change in physical appearance. (chop, cut, paint)

  • Change of state a physical change of a substance from one state to another. Requires the addition or removal of heat.

    Changes of State

  • Solid matter with definite shape and volume.

  • Liquid matter with indefinite shape and definite volume.

  • Gas matter with indefinite shape and volume.

  • Molecule animation

  • Vapor gaseous form of a substance that is normally a liquid or solid at room temperature.

  • Plasma atoms lose their electrons at a high temperature.

  • Mixture a physical blend of two or more substances.

  • Heterogeneous mixture not uniform.

  • Homogeneous mixture uniform mixture

  • Solution a homogeneous mixture. (ex. Salt water or kool-aid)

  • phase part of a system with uniform composition and properties.

    Ex. Oil and water are in two phases; Ice water has two phases

  • distillation physical method of separation involving boiling, then condensing vapor.

  • Atom smallest unit of an element.

    Element a pure substance made of only one kind of atom.

    Compound two or more elements that are chemically bonded.

  • Mixtures vs Pure Substance

  • Chemical symbol represents an element1 3 lettersthe first letter is capitalizedEx. Fe, Si (not SI!!!)

  • Chemical property a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Ex. Flammable, reacts with water, etc.

  • Chemical change (or chemical reaction) Change in which one or more substances are changed into new substances.

  • Reactants substances that react in a chemical change. Go on the left of a chemical equation.

    Products substances that are formed in a chemical change. Go on the right of a chemical equation.

  • Reactants Products 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl H2O H2 + O22Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2

  • Indicators of a chemical change (5)

    Color changeOdor changeProduction of a gas or a solid (precipitate)Energy change (heat, light, sound)Usually irreversible

  • Law of conservation of mass

    Mass is neither created nor destroyedMass reactants = mass products 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl(10g reactants) (10g products)

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