Chemistry Chapter 1 & 2 Introduction to Chemistry & Matter and Change.
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ChemistryChapter 1 & 2Introduction to Chemistry & Matter and Change
Chemistry study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Organic chemistry chemistry of carbon compounds.
Inorganic chemistry chemistry of non-carbon compounds.
Physical chemistry defines chemical behavior mathematically.
Analytical chemistry identifying the composition of materials.
Biochemistry the chemistry in living organisms.
Mass the amount of matter in an object.
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space (not energy).
substance (pure) has a fixed composition unlike a mixture; (i.e. element or compound)
Physical property what a substance looks like. (color, size, shape)
Physical change change in physical appearance. (chop, cut, paint)
Change of state a physical change of a substance from one state to another. Requires the addition or removal of heat.
Changes of State
Solid matter with definite shape and volume.
Liquid matter with indefinite shape and definite volume.
Gas matter with indefinite shape and volume.
Vapor gaseous form of a substance that is normally a liquid or solid at room temperature.
Plasma atoms lose their electrons at a high temperature.
Mixture a physical blend of two or more substances.
Heterogeneous mixture not uniform.
Homogeneous mixture uniform mixture
Solution a homogeneous mixture. (ex. Salt water or kool-aid)
phase part of a system with uniform composition and properties.
Ex. Oil and water are in two phases; Ice water has two phases
distillation physical method of separation involving boiling, then condensing vapor.
Atom smallest unit of an element.
Element a pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
Compound two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
Mixtures vs Pure Substance
Chemical symbol represents an element1 3 lettersthe first letter is capitalizedEx. Fe, Si (not SI!!!)
Chemical property a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Ex. Flammable, reacts with water, etc.
Chemical change (or chemical reaction) Change in which one or more substances are changed into new substances.
Reactants substances that react in a chemical change. Go on the left of a chemical equation.
Products substances that are formed in a chemical change. Go on the right of a chemical equation.
Reactants Products 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl H2O H2 + O22Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2
Indicators of a chemical change (5)
Color changeOdor changeProduction of a gas or a solid (precipitate)Energy change (heat, light, sound)Usually irreversible
Law of conservation of mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyedMass reactants = mass products 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl(10g reactants) (10g products)