# charlemagne cipher

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Charlemagne Cipher:

simple Number Substitution code:

This code is very easy to solve. Each number stands for a letter.

Reverse Alphabet Code:

In this code, each letter in the code stands for a different real letter.

A stands for Z

B stands for Y

C stands for X

etc.

Mary Queen of Scots Code:

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Playfair Cipher:

First a keyword is needed, for this example CHARLES will be used. Next, before

encryption, alphabet are written in a 5x5 square, beginning with the keyword and I&J in a single

element.

C H A R L

E S B D F

G I/J K M N

O P Q T UV W X Y Z

Now, the message is broken up into pairs of letters, of digraphs. The two letters in any

digraph should be different, achieved in the following example by inserting an extra x between

same letters.

Plain text: meet me at hammersmith bridge tonight

plain text in digraphs: me-et-me-at-ha-mx-me-rs-mi-th-br-id-ge-to-ni-gh-tx

Encryption can now begin. All digraphs fall into one of three categories - both letters in same

row, or same column, or neither.

-1- same row: replaced by letter immediate right of each.

MI becomes NK

if one letter is at the end of row, it is replaced by letter at beginning; thus NI becomes GK.

-2- both letters in same column: replaced by letter immediately beneath each.

GE becomes OG

if one letter is at bottom of column, replace by letter at top; thus VE becomes CG.

-3- letters are neither in same row or column. To encipher the first letter, look along its

row until you reach the column containing the second letter; the letter at this intersection then

replaces the first letter. To encipher second letter, look along its row until your reach the column

containing the first letter; the letter at this intersection replaces second letter. Hence, ME becomes

GD, and ET becomes DO.

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Data Shift Cipher:

Pick a date (month / day / year) using a 0 in front of any single digits. Write out the date,without slash marks. Write out the message and then under write the date, continuously. Now

shift each letter of the plaintext by number written under it. Using the wrap around continuous

letters from Z go back to A, B,C etc. Example use 110466 (my birth date).

D a t a S h i f t C i p h e r

1 1 0 4 6 6 11 0 4 6 6 1 1 0

D=E A=B T=T A= D Data will then be EBTD

Decoding all that is needed is the key number. Write the key number under the letters and

then reversing you can decode.

Substitute code:

As an example:

A D H I K M O R S U W Y Z

V X B G J C Q L N E P P T

With this code A=V and V=A and so on. This code can be arranged in any way

desired. Half the letters on top and half on bottom, each letter is reversed with the other.

Code would be MQXU.

Navajo Code:

A Ant Wol-la-chee

B Bear Shush

C Cat Moasi

D Deer Be

E Elk Dzeh

F Fox Ma-e

G Goat Klizzie

H Horse Lin

I Ice Tkin

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J Jackass Tkele-cho-gi

K Kid Klizzie-yazzi

L Lamb Dibeh-yazzi

M Mouse Na-as-tso-si

N Nut Nesh-chee

O Owl Ne-ahs-jshP Pig Bi-sodih

Q Quiver Ca-yeilth

R Rabbit Gah

S Sheep Dibeh

T Turkey Than-zie

U Ute No-do-ih

V Victor A-keh-ki-glini

W Weasel Gloe-ih

X Cross Al-an-as-dzoh

Y Yucca Tsah-as-zih

Z Zinc Besh-do-gliz

Block Cipher:

Write message in a rectangular block, one row at a time.

Block cipher = Bloc

kcip

her!

From here you can re-write the code from left to right and from top to bottom, per row.

Bkhlceoircp!

Codeword Cipher:

This code is based on a special code word.

Write out the alphabet, in plain text.

Now, using the code word (a word that doesnt repeat letters) place each letter under the

plain text alphabet. Example code word is newsboy.

A B C D E F G H I J etc.

n e w s b o y a c d etc.

Remember to skip the letters in you codeword when you finish the alphabet. Once

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the entire alphabet is coded use the code of the plain text to leave a message. Example : A

= n B = e C = w etc.

Half - Reversed Alphabet:

Just write out the letters from A to M, and write the letters from N to Z directly below

them.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A = N and N = A and so on.

Example: Half would be coded as : UNYS

Break This Code = oernx guvf pbqr

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Hiding among the Diamonds:

Using a deck of cards you can leave messages.

Aces = 1 Back of a card = 10 and the number cards = their number.

By looking at the numerals and adding them sum will create a letter from the alphabet.

Example: one back of a card = J a back and a 5 = 15 = O an Ace and back = 11 = K

a 5 = E a back and an 8 = 18 = R. So that = JOKER.

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Skyscraper:

Using any number to equal a letter. Using three symbols to equal 1,5 and 10. Using

various combinations to create a number from 1-26 will be a letter. Using a drawing of a

skyscraper you can use the three symbols as a line down = 1, a color box for 5 and another color

box for 10. Making them windows in the skyscraper you can create letters.

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Moth Codes:

Using morse code you can place them on wings of moths to send a code.

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Color Dot Code:

Four colors give you 24 patterns. Arranging the four colors in various orders creates

letters. Using any four symbols in various orders.

Colored dots: Red, Blue, Green, Yellow (or any other colors or symbols)

Another example: [ ] { } in various orders.

[]{} = A []}{ = B ][{} = C and so on to create 24 various letters

can combine I/J and Y/Z to form a full alphabetical code.

Picture / Dot Messages:

Creating pictures to indicate dots and dashes to make morse code. Example is black birds.

Small birds are dots and larger ones being dashes. Or use clouds or any objects. As well you

can use dots on a letter or picture or these dots could be small bees or butterflys, etc. A pre

constructed ruler using alphabet can indicate letter, depending on were object is located. From a

computer you can use the ruler bar to indicate letter position. (Every other mark =s a letter) Just

place a letter or symbol at that position, its the position not the letter that indicates letter.

Paragraph - Word - Letter:

This type of code refers to a specific piece of text, i.e. a newspaper or book of some kind.

Each triple set of numbers represent a paragraph, word or letter. First number is the paragraph,

Second is the word and the third is the letter. This also works as far as page, paragraph and word

or letter.

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Classified Code:

Used like (or as) a want ad in a newspaper. Create a three line ad (this is were the

message is hidden). Now create a fourth line that is a Nul line. The last line is the phone number,

which is the Key to the code.

The area code, in parentheses, is the letters of the first line. The next three numbers decodes the

second line, as does the third set of numbers and third line. The fourth line is only a mislead.

Zero (0) in a telephone number signals the end of a coded message.

EX. (Coded word: Classified)

Cider Sale

Sifted Flour

I have seeds

Full service old time feed storeCall: 1 (876) 127-1590

To add additional letters you can us a 800 or 900. As ex. 1 800 (876) 127 - 1590

Columnar Transposition:

First pick an eight (8) letter key word ( or one as long as there are rows) example will be

using Diplomat Making an eight row grid 4 lines down you write message

d i p l o m a t

m i c r o f i l

m n i l l b e a

r r i v i n g b

y c o u r i e r The message : microfilm will be arriving by courier

Now, below the key word diplomat write the corresponding number as were the letter

comes in the alphabet. D= 4, I= 9, P= 16, L= 12, O= 15, M= 13, A= 1, T=20

Using the order of letters A-Z write the letters from that row. Ex. A(1)= iege D(4)= mmry, etc.,

until the whole message is coded.

Deciphering the Columnar

Knowing the keyword write out the keyword and below each letter write the letters

that align with them. Once you have completed the letters the message will appear. Knowing the

key word you then go from A to Z in order, arranging the grouped letters in their proper places,

under the key word.

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Trifid Cipher:

The Trifid Cipher is the Bifid Cipher taken to one more dimension. Instead of using a 5x5Polybius Square, you use a 3x3x3 cube. Otherwise everything else remains the same. As with the

Bifid Cipher, the cube can be mixed to add an extra layer of protection, but for these examples we

will not be using a mixed alphabet cube.

Step one is to use the cube to convert the letters into numbers. We will be writing the numbers

vertically below the message in the order of Layer, Column, Row.

Secret Message

311213 2133111

123322 1211112121321 2211132

The numbers are then read off horizontally and grouped into triplets.

311 213 213 311 112 332 212 111 121 213 212 211 132

The cube is used again to convert the numbers back into letters which gives us our cihertext.

Sppsdxmabpmjf

To decipher a Trifid encrypted message, you first convert each letter into its corresponding

number via the cube. Now divide the long string of numbers into three equal rows. Now, read off

each column and use the cube to convert the three numbers into the plaintext letter.

Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1 a b c 1 j k l 1 s t u

2 d e f 2 m n o 2 v w x

3 g h i 3 p q r 3 y z

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Inch Word:

Lay the ruler across the paper. Print your message in capital letters, placing each letter above the

inch and the half-inch marks on the ruler. (See the picture above.)

Circle the last letter of your message.

Then, to confuse snoopers, fill in other letters between the letters of your message so that they

form other words. The words shouldn't have anything to do with the real message.

To read the message, your friend places a ruler under the line of words, with the circle letter over

an inch or a half-inch mark and copies off the letters at each inch and half-inch interval.

Jefferson Cipher:

Have students use the coded message at the bottom of the cipher ("The man whose mind on

virtue bent...") to try to figure out the pa ttern. Give studen ts 5 to 10 minutes to try to find the pattern. When

a studen t thinks he or she has figured it out, have that student use the code to write your last name. (To

mak e an easy job of correcting students' work, you will have figured out in advance the coded spe lling of

your last name.) Then let them work at coding their own names.

The code is fairly straightforward. The letters of the alphabet read down the ciphe r chart. Students will find

the first letter of your last name in the left column and then find the corresponding code-letter in the column

labeled with the num ber 1. For the sec ond letter of your last name, students will find that letter in the left

column and write the corresponding code-letter found in the column labeled with the number 2. For the

third letter of your last name, find that letter in the left column and write the co rresponding code-letter found

in the column labeled with the number 3and so on.

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Frequency:

This code is based on the frequency of each letter. E is the most common letter, so it

represents A. T is the second most common, so it is B.

A E

B T

C A

D OE N

F R

G I

H S

I H

J D

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K L

L F

M C

N M

O U

P GQ Y

R P

S W

T B

U V

V K

W X

X J

Y Q

Z Z

Witches Alphabet:

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Pictswirl cipher:

A B C D E F G H I J KL

A B C D E F G H I J KL

M N O P Q R S T U V WX

M N O P Q R S T U V WX

Y Z

Y Z

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Tagalog cipher:

A B C D E F G H I J KL

A B C D E F G H I J KL

M N O P Q R S T U V WX

M N O P Q R S T U V WX

Y Z

Y Z

Navajo Code Talkers' Dictionary

REVISED AS OF 15 JUNE 1945

(DECLASSIFIED UNDER DEPARTM ENT OF DEFENSE DIRECTIVE 5200.9)

ALPHABET NAVAJO WORD LITERAL TRANSLATION

A WOL-LA-CHEE ANT

A BE-LA-SANA APPLE

A TSE-NILL AXE

B SHUSH BEAR

B TOISH-JEH BARREL

C MOASI CAT

C TLA-GIN COAL

C BA-GOSHI COW

D BE DEER

D CHINDI DEVIL

D LHA-CHA-EH DOG

E AH-JAH EAR

E DZEH ELK

E AH-NAH EYE

F CHUO FIR

F TSA-E-DONIN-EE FLY

F MA-E FOX

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G KLIZZIE GOAT

G JEHA GUM

H TSE-GAH HAIR

H CHA HAT

H LIN HORSE

I TKIN ICE

I YEH-HES ITCHI A-CHI INTESTINE

J TKELE-CHO-G JACKASS

J AH-YA-TSINNE JAW

J YIL-DOI JERK

K BA-AH-NE-DI-TININ KEY

K KLIZZIE-YAZZIE KID

L DIBEH-YAZZIE LAMB

L NASH-DOIE-TSO LION

M TSIN-TLITI MATCH

M BE-TAS-TNI MIRROR

M NA-AS-TSO-SI MOUSE

N TSAH NEEDLE

N A-CHIN NOSE

O A-KHA OIL

O TLO-CHIN ONION

O NE-AHS-JAH OWL

P CLA-GI-AIH PANT

P BI-SO-DIH PIG

P NE-ZHONI PRETTY

Q CA-YEILTH QUIVER

R GAH RABBIT

R DAH-NES-TSA RAM

R AH-LOSZ RICE

S DIBEH SHEEP

S KLESH SNAKE

T D-AH TEA

T A-WOH TOOTHT THAN-ZIE TURKEY

U SHI-DA UNCLE

U NO-DA-IH UTE

V A-KEH-DI-GLINI VICTOR

W GLOE-IH WEASEL

X AL-NA-AS-DZOH CROSS

Y TSAH-AS-ZIH YUCCA

Z BESH-DO-TLIZ ZINC

NAMES OF VARIOUS

ORGANIZATIONS NAVAJO WORD LITERAL TRANSLATION

CORPS DIN-NEH-IH CLAN

DIVISION ASHIH-HI SALT

REGIMENT TABAHA EDGE WATER

BATTALION TACHEENE RED SOIL

COMPANY NAKIA MEXICAN

PLATOON HAS-CLISH-NIH MUD

OFFICERS

COMMANDING GEN. BIH-KEH-HE (G) WAR CHIEF

MAJOR GEN. SO-NA-KIH TWO STAR

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COLONEL ATSAH-BESH-LE-GAI SILVER EAGLE

LT. COLONEL CHE-CHIL-BE-TAH-BESH-LEGAI SILVER OAK LEAF

MAJOR CHE-CHIL-BE-TAH-OLA GOLD OAK LEAF

CAPTAIN BESH-LEGAI-NAH-KIH TWO SILVER BARS

LIEUTENANT BESH-LEGAI-A-LAH-IH ONE SILVER BAR

COMMANDING OFFICER HASH-KAY-GI-NA-TAH WAR CHIEF

EXECUTIVE OFFICER BIH-DA-HOL-NEHI THOSE IN CHARGE

NAMES OF COUNTRIES

AFRICA ZHIN-NI BLACKIES

AMERICA NE-HE-MAH OUR MOTHER

AUSTRALIA CHA-YES-DESI ROLLED HAT

BRITAIN TOH-TA BETWEEN WATERS

CHINA CEH-YEHS-BESI BRAIDED HAIR

FRANCE DA-GHA-HI BEARD

GERMANY BESH-BE-CHA-HE IRON HAT

ICELAND TKIN-KE-YAH ICE LAND

INDIA AH-LE-GAI WHITE CLOTHES

ITALY DOH-HA-CHI-YALI-TCHI STUTTER

JAPAN BEH-NA-ALI-TSOSIE SLANT EYE

PHILIPPINE KE-YAH-DA-NA-LHE FLOATING ISLAND

RUSSIA SILA-GOL-CHI-IH RED ARMY

SOUTH AMERICA SHA-DE-AH-NE-HI-MAH SOUTH OUR MOTHER

SPAIN DEBA-DE-NIH SHEEP PAIN

NAMES OF AIRPLANES

PLANES WO-TAH-DE-NE-IH AIR FORCE

DIVE BOMBER GINI CHICKEN HAWK

TORPEDO PLANE TAS-CHIZZIE SWALLOW

OBS. PLAN NE-AS-JAH OWL

FIGHTER PLANE DA-HE-TIH-HI HUMMING BIRD

BOMBER PLANE JAY-SHO BUZZARD

PATROL PLANE GA-GIH CROW

TRANSPORT ATSAH EAGLE

NAMES OF SHIPS

SHIPS TOH-DINEH-IH SEA FORCE

BATTLESHIP LO-TSO WHALE

AIRCRAFT TSIDI-MOFFA-YE-HI BIRD CARRIER

SUBMARINE BESH-LO IRON FISH

MINE SWEEPER CHA BEAVER

DESTROYER CA-LO SHARK

TRANSPORT DINEH-NAY-YE-HI MAN CARRIER

CRUISER LO-TSO-YAZZIE SMALL WHALE

MOSQUITO BOAT TSE-E MOSQUITO

NAMES OF MONTHS

JANUARY ATSAH-BE-YAZ SMALL EAGLE

FEBRUARY WOZ-CHEIND SQUEEKY VOICE

MARCH TAH-CHILL SMALL PLANT

APRIL TAH-TSO BIG PLANT

MAY TAH-TSOSIE SMALL PLANT

JUNE BE-NE-EH-EH-JAH-TSO BIG PLANTING

JULY BE-NE-TA-TSOSIE SMALL HARVEST

AUGUST BE-NEEN-TA-TSO BIG HARVEST

SEPTEMBER GHAW-JIH HALF

OCTOBER NIL-CHI-TSOSIE SMALL WIND

NOVEMBER NIL-CHI-TSO BIG WIND

DECEMBER YAS-NIL-TES CRUSTED SNOW

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VOCABULARY

WORD NAVAJO LITERAL TRANSACTION

ABANDON YE-TSAN RUN AWAY FROM

ABREAST WOLA-CHEE-BE-YIED ANT BREAST

ACCOMPLISH UL-SO ALL DONE

ACCORDING BE-KA-HO ACCORDING TO

ACKNOWLEDGE HANOT-DZIED ACKNOWLEDGEACTION AH-HA-TINH PLACE OF ACTION

ACTIVITY AH-HA-TINH-Y ACTION ENDING IN Y

AERIAL BE-ZONZ STINGER

AFFIRMATIVE LANH AFFIRMATIVE

AFTER BI-KHA-DI (A) AFTER

AGAINST BE-NA-GNISH AGAINST

AID EDA-ELE-TSOOD AID

AIR NILCHI AIR

AIRDOME NILCHI-BEGHAN AIRDOME

ALL TA-A-TAH (A) ALL

ALLIES NIH-HI-CHO ALLIES

ALONG WOLACHEE-SNEZ LONG ANT

ALSO EH-DO ALSO

ALTERNATE NA-KEE-GO-NE-NAN-DEY-HE SECOND POSITION

AMBUSH KHAC-DA AMBUSH

AMMUNITION BEH-ELI-DOH-BE-CAH-ALI-TAS-AI AMMUNITION

AMPHIBIOUS CHAL FROG

AND DO AND

ANGLE DEE-CAHN SLANTING

ANNOUNCE BEH-HA-O-DZE ANNOUNCEANTI WOL-LA-CHEE-TSIN ANT ICE

ANTICIPATE NI-JOL-LIH ANTICIPATE

ANY TAH-HA-DAH ANY

APPEAR YE-KA-HA-YA APPEAR

APPROACH BI-CHI-OL-DAH APPROACH

APPROXIMATE TO-KUS-DAN APPROXIMATE

ARE GAH-TSO BIG RABBIT

AREA HAZ-A-GIH AREA

ARMOR BESH-YE-HA-DA-DI-TEH IRON PROTECTOR

ARMY LEI-CHA-IH-YIL-KNEE-IH ARMY

ARRIVE IL-DAY ARRIVE

ARTILLERY BE-AL-DOH-TSO-LANI MANY BIG GUNS

AS AHCE AS

ASSAULT ALTSEH-E-JAH-HE FIRST STRIKER

ASSEMBLE DE-JI-KASH BUNCH TOGETHER

ASSIGN BAH-DEH-TAHN ASSIGN

AT AH-DI AT

ATTACK AL-TAH-JE-JAY ATTACK

ATTEMPT BO-O-NE-TAH (A) TRY

ATTENTION GIHA ATTENTION

AUTHORIZE BE-BO-HO-SNEE AUTHORIZE

AVAILABLE TA-SHOZ-TEH-IH AVAILABLE

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BAGGAGE KLAILH (B) BAGGAGE

BANZAI NE-TAH FOOL THEM

BARGE BESH-NA-ELT BARGE

BARRAGE BESH-BA-WA-CHIND BARRAGE

BARRIER BIH-CHAN-NI-AH IN THE WAY

BASE BIH-TSEE-DIH BASE

BATTERY BIH-BE-AL-DOH-TKA-IH THREE GUNS

BATTLE DA-AH-HI-DZI-TSIO BATTLEBAY TOH-AH-HI-GHINH BAY

BAZOOKA AH-ZHOL BAZOOKA

BE TSES-NAH BEE

BEACH TAH-BAHN (B) BEACH

BEEN TSES-NAH-NES-CHEE BEE NUT

BEFORE BIH-TSE-DIH BEFORE

BEGIN HA-HOL-ZIZ COMMENCE FROM

BELONG TSES-NAH-SNEZ LONG BEE

BETWEEN BI-TAH-KIZ BETWEEN

BEYOND BILH-LA DI DOWN BELOW

BIVOUAC EHL-NAS-TEH BRUSH SHELTER

BOMB A-YE-SHI EGGS

BOOBY TRAP DINEH-BA-WHOA-BLEHI MAN TRAP

BORNE YE-CHIE-TSAH BORN ELK

BOUNDARY KA-YAH-BI-NA-HAS-DZOH(B) BOUNDARY

BULL DOZER DOLA-ALTH-WHOSH BULL SLEEP

BUNKER TSAS-KA SANDY HOLLOW

BUT NEH-DIH BUT

BY BE-GHA BY

CABLE BESH-LKOH WIRE ROPE

CALIBER NAHL-KIHD MOVE AROUND

CAMP TO-ALTSEH-HOGAN TEMPORARY PLACE

CAMOUFLAGE DI-NES-IH HID

CAN YAH-DI-ZINI CAN

CANNONEER BE-AL-DOH-TSO-DEY-DIL-DON-IGI BIG GUN OPERATOR

CAPACITY BE-NEL-AH CAPACITY

CAPTURE YIS-NAH CAPTURE

CARRY YO-LAILH CARRYCASE BIT-SAH CASE

CASUALTY BIH-DIN-NE-DEY PUT OUT OF ACTION

CAUSE BI-NIH-NANI CAUSE

CAVE TSA-OND ROCK CAVE

CEILING DA-TEL-JAY SEAL

CEMETARY JISH-CHA AMONG DEVILS

CENTER ULH-NE-IH CENTER

CHANGE THLA-GO-A-NAT-ZAH CHANGE

CHANNEL HA-TALHI-YAZZIE SMALL SINGER

CHARGE AH-TAH-GI-JAH CHARGE

CHEMICAL TA-NEE ALKALI

CIRCLE NAS-PAS CIRCLE

CIRCUIT AH-HEH-HA-DAILH CIRCUIT

CLASS ALTH-AH-A-TEH CLASS

CLEAR YO-AH-HOL-ZHOD CLEAR

CLIFF TSE-YE-CHEE CLIFF

CLOSE UL-CHI-UH-NAL-YAH CLOSE

COAST GUARD TA-BAS-DSISSI SHORE RUNNER

CODE YIL-TAS PECK

COLON NAKI-ALH--DEH-DA-AL-ZHIN TWO SPOTS

COLUMN ALTH-KAY-NE-ZIH COLUMN

COMBAT DA-AH-HI-JIH-GANH FIGHTING

COMBINATION AL-TKAS-EI MIXED

COME HUC-QUO COME

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COMMA TSA-NA-DAHL TAIL DROP

COMMERCIAL NAI-EL-NE-HI COMMERCIAL

COMMIT HUC-QUO-LA-JISH COME GLOVE

COMMUNICATION HA-NEH-AL-ENJI MAKING TALK

CONCEAL BE-KI-ASZ-JOLE CONCEAL

CONCENTRATION TA-LA-HI-JIH ONE PLACE

CONCUSSION WHE-HUS-DIL CONCUSSION

CONDITION AH-HO-TAI HOW IT ISCONFERENCE BE-KE-YA-TI TALK OVER

CONFIDENTIAL NA-NIL-IN KEPT SECRET

CONFIRM TA-A-NEH MAKE SURE

CONQUER A-KEH-DES-DLIN WON

CONSIDER NE-TSA-CAS THINK IT OVER

CONSIST BILH (C) CONSIST

CONSOLIDATE AH-HIH-HI-NIL PUT TOGETHER

CONSTRUCT AHL-NEH TO MAKE

CONTACT AH-HI-DI-DAIL COME TOGETHER

CONTINUE TA-YI-TEH CONTINUE

CONTROL NAI-GHIZ CONTROL

CONVOY TKAL-KAH-O-NEL MOVING ON WATER

COORDINATE BEH-EH-HO-ZIN-NA-AS-DZOH KNOWN LINES

COUNTER ATTACK WOLTAH-AL-KI-GI-JEH COUNTER ACT

COURSE CO-JI-GOH COURSE

CRAFT AH-TOH NEST

CREEK TOH-NIL-TSANH VERY LITTLE WATER

CROSS AL-N-AS-DZOH CROSS

CUB SHUSH-YAHZ CUB

DASH US-DZOH DASH

DAWN HA-YELI-KAHN DAWN

DEFENSE AH-KIN-CIL-TOH DEFENSE

DEGREE NAHL-KIHD DEGREE

DELAY BE-SITIHN DEER LAY

DELIVER BE-BIH-ZIHDE DEER LIVER

DEMOLITION AH-DEEL-TAHI BLOW UP

DENSE HO-DILH-CLA (D) WET

DEPART DA-DE-YAH DEPARTDEPARTMENT HOGAN DEPARTMENT

DESIGNATE YE-KHI-DEL-NEI POINT OUT

DESPERATE AH-DA-AH-HO-DZAH DOWN TO LAST

DETACH AL-CHA-NIL DETACHED

DETAIL BE-BEH-SHA DEER TAIL

DETONATOR AH-DEEL-TAHI (OR) BLOWN UP

DIFFICULT NA-NE-KLAH DIFFICULT

DIRECT AH-JI-GO DIRECT

DISEMBARK EH-HA-JAY GET OUT

DISPATCH LA-CHAI-EN-SEIS-BE-JAY DOG IS PATCH

DISPLACE HIH-DO-NAL MOVE

DISPLAY BE-SEIS-NA-NEH DEER IS PLAY

DISPOSITION A-HO-TEY DISPOSITION

DISTRIBUTE NAH-NEH DISTRIBUTE

DISTRICT BE-THIN-YA-NI-CHE DEER ICE STRICT

DO TSE-LE SMALL PUP

DOCUMENT BEH-EH-HO-ZINZ DOCUMENT

DRIVE AH-NOL-KAHL DRIVE

DUD DI-GISS-YAHZIE SMALL DUMMY

DUMMY DI-GISS-TSO BIG DUMMY

EACH TA-LAHI-NE-ZINI-GO (D) EACH

ECHELON WHO-DZAH LINE

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EDGE BE-BA-HI EDGE

EFFECTIVE BE-DELH-NEED EFFECTIVE

EFFORT YEA-GO WITH ALL YOUR MIGHT

ELEMENT AH-NA-NAI TROOP REPRESENTING OTHERS

ELEVATE ALI-KHI-HO-NE-OHA ELEVATE

ELIMINATE HA-BEH-TO-DZIL ELIMINATE

EMBARK EH-HO-JAY GET ON

EMERGENCY HO-NEZ-CLA EMERGENCYEMPLACEMENT LA-AZ-NIL EMPLACEMENT

ENCIRCLE YE-NAS-TEH (E) ENCIRCLE

ENCOUNTER BI-KHANH GO AGAINST

ENGAGE A-HA-NE-HO-TA AGREED

ENGINE CHIDI-BI-TSI-TSINE (E) ENGINE

ENGINEER DAY-DIL-JAH-HE ENGINEER

ENLARGE NIH-TSA-GOH-AL-NEH MAKE BIG

ENLIST BIH-ZIH-A-DA-YI-LAH ENLIST

ENTIRE TA-A-TAH (E) ENTIRE

ENVELOP A-ZAH-GI-YA ENVELOP

EQUIPMENT YA-HA-DE-TAHI EQUIPMENT

ERECT YEH-ZIHN STAND UP

ESCAPE A-ZEH-HA-GE-YAH ESCAPE

ESTABLISH HAS-TAY-DZAH ESTABLISH

ESTIMATE BIH-KE-TSE-HOD-DES-KEZ ESTIMATE

EVACUATE HA-NA EVACUATE

EXCEPT NEH-DIH (E) EXCEPT

EXCEPT NA-WOL-NE EXPECT

EXCHANGE ALH-NAHL-YAH EXCHANGE

EXECUTE A-DO-NIL EXECUTE

EXPLOSIVE AH-DEL-TAHI (E) EXPLOSIVE

EXPEDITE SHIL-LOH (E) SPEED UP

EXTEND NE-TDALE MAKE WIDE

EXTREME AL-TSAN-AH-BAHM EACH END

FAIL CHA-AL-EIND FAIL

FAILURE YEES-GHIN FAILURE

FARM MAI-BE-HE-AHGAN FOX ARMFEED DZEH-CHI-YON FEED

FIELD CLO-DIH (F) FIELD

FIERCE TOH-BAH-HA-ZSID AFRAID

FILE BA-EH-CHEZ FILE

FINAL TAH-AH-KWO-DIH THAT IS ALL

FLAME THROWER COH-AH-GHIL-TLID FLAME THROWER

FLARE WO-CHI LIGHT STREAK

FLIGHT MA-E-AS-ZLOLI FOX LIGHT

FORM BE-CHA FORM

FORMATION BE-CHA-YE-LAILH FORMATION

FORTIFICATION AH-NA-SOZI CLIFF DWELLING

FORTIFY AH-NA-SOZI-YAZZIE SMALL FORTIFICATION

FORWARD TEHI LET'S GO

FRAGMENTATION BESH-YAZZIE SMALL METAL

FREQUENCY HA-TALHI-TSO BIG SINGER

FRIENDLY NEH-HECHO-DA-NE FRIENDLY

FROM BI-TSAN-DEHN FROM

FURNISH YEAS-NIL (F) FURNISH

FURTHER WO-NAS-DI FURTHER

GARRISON YAH-A-DA-HAL-YON-IH TAKE CARE OF

GASOLINE CHIDI-BI-TOH GASOLINE

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GUARD NI-DIH-DA-HI GUARD

GUIDE NAH-E-THLAI GUIDE

HALL LHI-TA-A-TA HORSE ALL

HALF TRACK ALH-NIH-JAH-A-QUHE RACE TRACK

HALT TA-AKWAI-I HALT

HANDLE BET-SEEN HANDLEHAVE JO HAVE

HELD WO-TAH-TA-EH-DAHN-OH HELD (PAST TENSE)

HIGH WO-TAH HIGH

HIGH EXPLOSIVE BE-AL-DOH-BE-CA-BIH-DZIL-IGI POWERFUL SHELL

HIGHWAY WO-TAH-HO-NE-TEH HIGH WAY

HOLD WO-TKANH HOLD

HOSPITAL A-ZEY-AL-IH PLACE OF MEDICINE

HOSTILE A-NAH-NE-DZIN NOT FRIENDLY

HOWITZER BE-EL-DON-TS-QUODI SHORT BIG GUN

ILLUMINATE WO-CHI (I) LIGHT UP

IMMEDIATELY SHIL-LOH (I) IMMEDIATELY

IMPACT A-HE-DIS-GOH IMPACT

IMPORTANT BA-HAS-TEH IMPORTANT

IMPROVE HO-DOL-ZHOND IMPROVE

INCLUDE EL-TSOD INCLUDE

INCREASE HO-NALH INCREASE

INFANTRY TA-NEH-NAL-DAHI INFANTRY

INFILTRATE YE-GHA-NE-JEH WENT THROUGH

INITIAL BEH-ED-DE-DLID BRAND

INSTALL EHD-TNAH INSTALL

INSTALLATION NAS-NIL IN PLACE

INSTRUCT NA-NE-TGIN TEACH

INTELLIGENCE HO-YA (I) SMART

INTENSE DZEEL STRENGTH

INTERCEPT YEL-NA-ME-JAH INTERCEPT

INTERFERE AH-NILH-KHLAI INTERFEREINTERPRET AH-TAH-HA-NE INTERPRET

INVESTIGATE NA-ALI-KA TRACK

INVOLVE A-TAH INVOLVOE

IS SEIS SEVEN

ISLAND SEIS-KEYAH SEVEN ISLAND

JUNGLE WOH-DI-CHIL JUNGLE

KILL NAZ-TSAID KILL

KILOCYCLE NAS-TSAID-A-KHA-AH-YEH- KILL OIL GO AROUND

HA-DILH

LABOR NA-NISH (L) LABOR

LAND KAY-YAH LAND

LAUNCH TKA-GHIL-ZHOD LAUNCH

LEAST DE-BE-YAZIE-HA-A-AH LAMB FEAST

LEAVE DAH-DE-YAH HE LEFT

LEFT NISH-CLA-JIH-GOH LEFT

LESS BI-OH (L) LESS

LEVEL DIL-KONH LEVEL

LIAISON DA-A-HE-GI-ENEH KNOW OTHER'S ACTION

LIMIT BA-HAS-AH LIMIT

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LITTER NI-DAS-TON (L) SCATTER

LOCATE A-KWE-EH SPOT

LOSS UT-DIN LOSS

MACHINE GUN A-KNAH-AS-DONIH RAPID FIRE GUN

MAGNETIC NA-E-LAHI PICK UP

MANAGE HASTNI-BEH-NA-HAI MAN AGE

MANEUVER NA-NA-O-NALTH MOVING AROUNDMAP KAH-YA-NESH-CHAI MAP

MAXIMUM BEL-DIL-KHON FILL TO TOP

MECHANIC CHITI-A-NAYL-INIH AUTO REPAIRMAN

MECHANIZED CHIDI-DA-AH-HE-GONI FIGHTING CARS

MEDICAL A-ZAY MEDICINE

MEGACYCLE MIL-AH-HEH-AH-DILH MILLION GO AROUND

MERCHANT SHIP NA-EL-NEHI-TSIN-NA-AILH MERCHANT SHIP

MESSAGE HANE-AL-NEH MESSAGE

MILITARY SILAGO-KEH-GOH MILITARY

MILLIMETER NA-AS-TSO-SI-A-YE-DO-TISH DOUBLE MOUSE

MINIMUM BE-OH (M) MINIMUM

MINUTE AH-KHAY-EL-KIT-YAZZIE LITTLE HOUR

MISSION AL-NESHODI MISSION

MISTAKE O-ZHI MISS

MOPPING HA-TAO-DI MOPPING

MORE THLA-NA-NAH MORE

MORTAR BE-AL-DOH-CID-DA-HI SITTING GUN

MOTION NA-HOT-NAH MOTION

NATIVE KA-HA-TENI NATIVE

NAVY TAL-KAH-SILAGO SEA SOLDIER

NECESSARY YE-NA-ZEHN WANT

NEGATIVE DO-YA-SHO-DA NO GOOD

NET NA-NES-DIZI NET

NEUTRAL DO-NEH-LINI NEUTRAL

NORMAL DOH-A-TA-H-DAH NORMAL

NOT NI-DAH-THAN-ZIE NO TURKEYNOTICE NE-DA-TAZI-THIN NO TURKEY ICE

NOW KUT NOW

NUMBER BEH-BIH-KE-AS-CHINIGH WHAT'S WRITTEN

OBJECTIVE BI-NE-YEI GOAL

OBSERVE HAL-ZID OBSERVE

OBSTACLE DA-HO-DESH-ZHA OBSTACLE

OCCUPY YEEL-TSOD TAKEN

OF TOH-NI-TKAL-LO OCEAN FISH

OFFENSIVE BIN-KIE-JINH-JIH-DEZ-JAY OFFENSIVE

ONCE TA-LAI-DI ONCE

ONLY TA-EI-TAY-A-YAH ONLY

OPERATE YE-NAHL-NISH WORK AT

OPPORTUNITY ASH-GA-ALIN OPPORTUNITY

OPPOSITION NE-HE-TSAH-JIH-SHIN OPPOSITION

OR EH-DO-DAH-GOH EITHER

ORANGE TCHIL-LHE-SOI ORANGE

ORDER BE-EH-HO-ZINI ORDER

ORDNANCE LEI-AZ-JAH UNDER GROUND

ORIGINATE DAS-TEH-DO BEGIN

OTHER LA-E-CIH OTHER

OUT CLO-DIH OUT SIDE

OVERLAY BE-KA-HAS-TSOZ OVERLAY

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PARENTHESIS ATSANH RIB

PARTY DA-SHA-JAH PARTY

PAY NA-ELI-YA PAY

PENALIZE TAH-NI-DES-TANH SET BACK

PERCENT YAL MONEY

PERIOD DA-AHL-ZHIN PERIOD

PERIODIC DA-AL-ZHIN-THIN-MOASI PERIOD ICE CATPERMIT GOS-SHI-E PERMIT

PERSONNEL DA-NE-LEI MEMBER

PILL BOX BI-SO-DIH-DOT-SAHI-BI-TSAH SICK PIG BOX

PINNED DOWN BIL-DAH-HAS-TANH-YA PINNED DOWN

PLANE TSIDI BIRD

PLASMA DIL-DI-GHILI PLASMA

POINT BE-SO-DE-DEZ-AHE PIG POINT

PONTOON TKOSH-JAH-DA-NA-ELT FLOATING BARREL

POSITION BILH-HAS-AHN POSITION

POSSIBLE TA-HA-AH-TAY POSSIBLE

POST SAH-DEI POST

PREPARE HASH-TAY-HO-DIT-NE PREPARE

PRESENT KUT PRESENT

PREVIOUS BIH-TSE-DIH PREVIOUS

PRIMARY ALTSEH-NAN-DAY-HI-GIH 1ST POSTION

PRIORITY HANE-PESODI PRIORITY

PROBABLE DA-TSI PROBABLE

PROBLEM NA-NISH-TSOH BIG JOB

PROCEED NAY-NIH-JIH GO

PROGRESS NAH-SAI PROGRESS

PROTECT AH-CHANH SELF DEFENSE

PROVIDE YIS-NIL PROVIDE

PURPLE DINL-CHI PURPLE

PYROTECHNIC COH-NA-CHANH FANCY FIRE

QUESTION AH-JAH EAR

QUICK SHIL-LOH QUICK

RAID DEZJAY RAID

RALLYING A-LAH-NA-O-GLALIH GATHERING

RANGE AN-ZAH DISTANCE

RATE GAH-EH-YAHN RABBIT ATE

RATION NA-A-JAH RATION

RAVINE CHUSH-KA (R) RAVINE

REACH IL-DAY (R) REACH

REAR BE-KA-DENH (R) REAR

RECEIPT SHOZ-TEH RECEIPT

RECOMMEND CHE-HO-TAI-TAHN RECOMMEND

RECONNAISSANCE HA-A-CIDI INSPECTOR

RECONNOITER TA-HA-NE-AL-YA MAKE SURE

RECORD GAH-AH-NAH-KLOLI R-E-ROPE

RED LI-CHI RED

REEF TSA-ZHIN BLACK ROCK

REEMBARK EH-NA-COH GO IN

REFIRE NA-NA-COH REFIRE

REGULATE NA-YEL-N REGULATE

REINFORCE NAL-DZIL REINFORCE

RELIEF AGANH-TOL-JAY RELIEF

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RELIEVE NAH-JIH-CO-NAL-YA REMOVE

REORGANIZE HA-DIT-ZAH REORGANIZE

REPLACEMENT NI-NA-DO-NIL REPLACEMENT

REPORT WHO-NEH GOT WORD

REPRESENTATIVE TKA-NAZ-NILI TRIPLE MEN

RESERVE HESH-J-E RESERVE

RESTRICT BA-HO-CHINI RESTRICTRETIRE AH-HOS-TEEND RETIRE

RETREAT JI-DIN-NES-CHANH RETREAT

RETURN NA-DZAH CAME BACK

REVEAL WHO-NEH (L) REVEAL

REVETMENT BA-NAS-CLA (R) CORNER

RIDGE GAH-GHIL-KEID RABBIT RIDGE

RIFLEMAN BE-AL-DO-HOSTEEN RIFLEMEN

RIVER TOH-YIL-KAL MUCH WATER

ROBOT BOMB A-YE-SHI-NA-TAH-IH EGG FLY

ROCKET LESZ-YIL-BESHI SAND BOIL

ROLL YEH-MAS ROLL

ROUND NAZ-PAS (R) ROUND

ROUTE GAH-BIH-TKEEN RABBIT TRAIL

RUNNER NIH-DZID-TEIH RUNNER

SABOTAGE A-TKEL-YAH HINDERED

SABOTEUR A-TKEL-EL-INI TROUBLE MAKER

SAILOR CHA-LE-GAI WHITE CAPS

SALVAGE NA-HAS-GLAH PICK THEM UP

SAT BIH-LA-SANA-CID-DA-HI APPLE SITTING

SCARLET, RED LHE-CHI (S & R) RED

SCHEDULE BEH-EH-HO-ZINI SCHEDULE

SCOUT HA-A-SID-AL-SIZI-GIH SHORT RACOON

SCREEN BESH-NA-NES-DIZI SCREEN

SEAMAN TKAL-KAH-DINEH-IH SEAMAN

SECRET BAH-HAS-TKIH SECRET

SECTOR YOEHI (S) SECTOR

SECURE YE-DZHE-AL-TSISI SMALL SECURITYSEIZE YEEL-STOD SEIZE

SELECT BE-TAH-HAS-GLA TOOK OUT

SEMI COLON DA-AHL-ZHIN-BI-TSA-NA-DAHL DOT DROP

SET DZEH-CID-DA-HI ELK SITTING

SHACKLE DI-BAH-NESH-GOHZ SHACKLE

SHELL BE-AL-DOH-BE-CA SHELL

SHORE TAH-BAHN (S) SHORE

SHORT BOSH-KEESH SHORT

SIDE BOSH-KEESH SIDE

SIGHT YE-EL-TSANH SEEN

SIGNAL NA-EH-EH-GISH BY SIGNS

SIMPLEX ALAH-IH-NE-TIH INNER WIRE

SIT TKIN-CID-DA-HI ICE SITTING

SITUATE A-HO-TAY (S) SITUATE

SMOKE LIT SMOKE

SNIPER OH-BEHI PICK 'EM OFF

SPACE BE-TKAH BETWEEN

SPECIAL E-YIH-SIH MAIN THING

SPEED YO-ZONS SWIFT MOTION

SPOTTER EEL-TSAY-I SPOTTER

SPRAY KLESH-SO-DILZIN SNAKE PRAY

STORM NE-OL STORM

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STRAFF NA-WO-GHI-GOID HOE

STRAGGLER CHY-NE-DE-DAHE STRAGGLER

STRATEGY NA-HA-TAH (S) STRATEGY

STREAM TOH-NI-LIH RUNNING WATER

STRENGTH DZHEL STRENGTH

STRETCH DESZ-TSOOD STRETCH

STRIKE NAY-DAL-GHAL STRIKE

STRIP HA-TIH-JAH STRIPSTUBBORN NIL-TA STUBBORN

SUBJECT NA-NISH-YAZZIE SMALL JOB

SUBMERGE TKAL-CLA-YI-YAH WENT UNDER WATER

SUBMIT A-NIH-LEH SEND

SUBORDINATE AL-KHI-NAL-DZL HELPING EACH OTHER

SUCCEED YAH-TAY-GO-E-ELAH MAKE GOOD

SUCCESS UT-ZAH IT IS DONE

SUCCESSFUL UT-ZAH-HA-DEZ-BIN IT IS DONE WELL

SUCCESSIVE UT-ZAH-SID SUCCESS SCAR

SUCH YIS-CLEH SOX

SUFFER TO-HO-NE SUFFER

SUMMARY SHIN-GO-BAH SUMMER MARY

SUPPLEMENTARY TKA-GO-NE-NAN-DEY-HE 3RD POSITION

SUPPLY NAL-YEH-HI SUPPLY

SUPPLY SHIP NALGA-HI-TSIN-NAH-AILH SUPPLY SHIP

SUPPORT BA-AH-HOT-GLI DEPEND

SURRENDER NE-NA-CHA SURRENDER

SURROUND NAZ-PAS (S) SURROUND

SURVIVE YIS-DA-YA SURVIVE

SYSTEM DI-BA-TSA-AS-ZHI-BI-TSIN SYSTEM

TACTICAL E-CHIHN TACTICAL

TAKE GAH-TAHN TAKE

TANK CHAY-DA-GAHI TORTOISE

TANK DESTROYER CHAY-DA-GAHI-NAIL-TSAIDI TORTOISE KILLER

TARGET WOL-DONI TARGET

TEAM DEH-NA-AS-TSO-SI TEA MOUSE

TERRACE ALI-KHI-HO-NE-OHA (T) TERRACETERRAIN TASHI-NA-HAL-THIN TURKEY RAIN

TERRITORY KA-YAH (T) TERRITORY

THAT TAZI-CHA TURKEY HAT

THE CHA-GEE BLUE-JAY

THEIR BIH THEIR

THEREAFTER TA-ZI-KWA-I-BE-KA-DI TURKEY HERE AFTER

THESE CHA-GI-O-EH THE SEE

THEY CHA-GEE (Y) THE Y

THIS DI THE

TOGETHER TA-BILH TOGETHER

TORPEDO LO-BE-CA FISH SHELL

TOTAL TA-AL-SO TOTAL

TRACER BEH-NA-AL-KAH-HI TRACER

TRAFFIC DIAGRAM HANE-BA-NA-AS-DZOH DIAGRAM STORY LINE

TRAIN COH-NAI-ALI-BAHN-SI TRAIN

TRANSPORTATION A-HAH-DA-A-CHA TRANSPORTATION

TRIPLE TKA-IH TRIPLE

TROOP NAL-DEH-HI TROOP

TRUCK CHIDO-TSO BIG AUTO

TYPE ALTH-AH-A-TEH TYPE

UNDER BI-YAH UNDER

UNIDENTIFIED DO-BAY-HOSEN-E UNIDENTIFIED

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UNIT DA-AZ-JAH (U) UNIT

UNSHACKLE NO-DA-EH-NESH-GOHZ UNSHACKLE

UNTIL UH-QUO-HO UNTIL

VILLAGE CHAH-HO-OH-LHAN-IH MANY SHELTER

VISIBILITY NAY-ES-TEE VISIBILITY

VITAL TA-EH-YE-SY VITAL

WARNING BILH-HE-NEH (W) WARNING

WAS NE-TEH WAS

WATER TKOH WATER

WAVE YILH-KOLH WAVE

WEAPON BEH-DAH-A-HI-JIH-GANI FIGHTING WEAPON

WELL TO-HA-HA-DLAY WELL

WHEN GLOE-EH-NA-AH-WO-HAI WEASEL HEN

WHERE GLOE-IH-QUI-AH WEASEL HERE

WHICH GLOE-IH-A-HSI-TLON WEASEL TIED TOGETHER

WILL GLOE-IH-DOT-SAHI SICK WEASEL

WIRE BESH-TSOSIE SMALL WIRE

WITH BILH (W) WITH

WITHIN BILH-BIGIH WITH IN

WITHOUT TA-GAID WITHOUT

WOOD CHIZ FIRE WOOD

WOUND CAH-DA-KHI WOUND

YARD A-DEL-TAHL YARD

ZONE BIH-NA-HAS-DZOH ZONE

What are Codes?

Throughout history, world events have changed because of secret messages.Secrets that were kept and secrets that were not.

In the world of diplomacy, knowing what your enemy is planning helps you toprepare. But it is also important that your enemies do not know what youhave planned. It is the mission of the NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (NSA)and the CENTRAL SECURITY SERVICE (CSS) to learn what it can about itspotential enemies and to protect America's government communications.

In this section, learn about the differences between codes and ciphers, howto make secret ciphers, and what to look for when trying to break a cipher.

What Are Codes?

Although most people think of codes as being secret messages, codes arereally any symbol or signal used to represent, or communicate, somethingelse. Any word could be considered a codeword. The code word given to afour-legged furry creature that barks are the letters D, O, G. Because youknow that those three letters represent a real dog, you understand the code!

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Sometimes, however, it is important that only a few people understand themessage. In the world of cryptology, codes are used to make messagessecret by changing the words into something else. But, in order for yourfriends to understand the coded message, they need the key! If your friendshave the key, and your enemies do not, your messages become secret.

How well you've created your code and key will determine how long yourmessage stays a secret from others.

Creating a Dictionary Code

Dictionary Codes have been used for centuries. They can be quite confusingto anyone who doesn't know the system - which makes them great forsending secret messages!

DIRECTIONS: Use a dictionary or any book with a lot of different words.

1. Write down your message in English, this is called "plaintext."Example: YOU CAN CREATE YOUR OWN CODED MESSAGE.

2. Find the first word in your dictionary or book.

3. Write down the page number, column or paragraph number, and the

Nth word down that column or into that paragraph.Example: YOU = Page 1454, Column 1, 24th word down.

4. Separate the numbers by a period.

YOU=1454.1.24

5. Repeat Steps 2-4 for every word in your sentence.

YOU = 1454.1.24 CAN = 178.1.35 CREATE = 293.1.29YOUR = 1454.2.2 OWN = 887.1.16 CODED = 239.2.2DMESSAGE = 778.2.20

6. In some cases, you may have to add a prefix or suffix to the numbers.

CODED = 239.2.2D

7. The finished cipher should look like the cipher below.

1454.1.24 178.1.35 293.1.29 1454.2.2 887.1.16 239.2.2D 778.2.20Remember to leave a space between each group of numbers.

CONGRATULATIONS!You have created your very first code!

What is a Cipher?

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A cipher is a way to make a word or message secret by changing orrearranging the letters in the message. (A code affects the word, not theindividual letters.)

One type of cipher, called a TRANSPOSITION CIPHER, is created by simply

rearranging the letters in the word itself. For example, CHYPRAGTOPRY canbe unscrambled to reveal the word CRYPTOGRAPHY. Another cipher, theSUBSTITUTION CIPHER, is a bit harder. It involves changing the letters ofyour message into something else: other letters, numbers, or symbols. Usinga substitution cipher, the word CRYPTOGRAPHY might look like this:DOHQMRZOFQYH. In this example C=D, R=O, Y=H, and so on.

For your friends to understand the message, they must know your system. Inour substitution cipher, your friend would need to know the KEY, or how thesystem is set up (a=f, etc.). If only you and your friend have the key, then itis very difficult for others to read your message.

Make A Cipher: The Key

How to Encrypt a Key Cipher

Step 1Choose a word to be your KEY word. Make sure the word you select has atleast five or six letters in it and has no repeating letters. For example theword APPLE will not work with this cipher because there are two P's in the

word. In our example, we will use the word MAPLE for our key.

Step 2

Write the Key word on a piece of paper. Leave a little bit of space betweeneach letter as you write down each letter of your Key.

Next, draw a column under each letter of the Key word.

Step 3

Fill in the columns by writing your PLAINTEXT message one letter at a time.

Any empty spaces should be filled in with a NULL. A NULL is usually

represented by the letter X.

Step 4Rewrite the columns so that the letters in your Key word are in alphabeticalorder.

In our example, the word MAPLE will be rearranged to read AELMP.

Step 5

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To see your encrypted message, copy the letters in each column from top tobottom, but DO NOT include the letters in the Key word.

CONGRATULATIONS! You have successfully created a KEY CIPHER!

How to Decrypt a Key Cipher

Step 1Find out what the KEY word is from the person who sent you the message.Write the letters from the Key word in alphabetical order on a piece of paper.

Draw a column under each letter of the Key word.

Step 2

Starting under the letter A and writing from left to right, fill in the grid withthe letters from the ciphertext.

Step 3Once the grid is filled in, rearrange the columns so the Key word is spelledout correctly. Reading from left to right, you should be able to see theplaintext message.

CONGRATULATIONS! You have successfully deciphered a KEY CIPHER!

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Solving Cryptograms:

Approximate number of times this letter occurs in 100 letters. Since no fractions are used,

several groups of frequency numbers appear to be identical. They are not. Each letter occurs less

often than the letter above it.

-1- E 13

-2- T 10

-3- A 08

-4- O 08

-5- N 07

-6- R 07

-7- I 06

-8- S 06

-9- H 05

-10- D 04

-11- L 03-12- F 03

-13- C 03

-14- M 03

-15- U 02

-16- G 02

-17- Y 02

-18- P 02

-19- W less than two, in this order

-20- B

-21- V

-22- K

-23- X

-24- J

-25- Q

-26- Z

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Most common letters in the English language is E. T is the 2nd most frequently used letter.

The nine most frequent letters used are: E, T, A, O, N, R, I, S, H.

When breaking a cryptogram count how many times each letter is used. Using a table of

frequencies, you can guess many of the letters. Example:

after you have used a frequency chart you have found that B is the most common letter in

the cryptogram, and L is the second most common letter. You have a word LKB. Knowing that

B was the most used letter B is probably E. The second most used letter is L and knowing that T

is the second most used letter it is likely that L = T. Now you have a three letter word that begins

with T and ends with E using the frequencies chart the word is most likely THE.

Copy cipher onto another piece of paper or photo copy it.

Use pen for message and pencil to decode.

Make a frequency table, list all symbols or letters and keep track of amount of times tey

occur in coded message.

Creative ways to help hide ciphers:

Arrange words into groups, as example, of five (5). The average length of a word in the

English language is 4 or 5 letters.

Add Null to words, meaningless letters to pad out the 5 letter words. Nulls should not

spell anything. NULLS can be used in any cipher.

Dont use spaces or punctuation.

Dont use an under sheet that can retain the impression of your writing.

Use lined or graph paper, helps keep things straight or in a grid.

Destroy waste paper carefully

Combine several types of codes together to create ciphers.

Hide ciphers and codes in normal seaming letters and notes.

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Messages are best if they are at least 50 letters long.

Common English words in order of use:

The Or

Of Her

To At

A From

In This

That My

Is They

I AllIt Their

For An

As She

With Has

Was Were

His Me

He Been

Be Him

Not OneBy So

But If

Have Will

You There

Which Who

Are Who

On No

Two letter combinations in order of use:

TH RA

IN RO

ER LI

RE RI

AN IO

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HE LE

AR ND

EN MA

TI SE

TE AL

AT IC

ON FO

HA IL

OU NE

IT LA

ES TA

ST EL

OR ME

NT EC

HI ISEA DI

VE SI

CO CA

DE

Most Frequently Used Two letter Words:

Of

To

In

It

Is

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Be

As

At

So

We

He

By

Or

On

Do

If

Me

My

Up

An

Three letter combinations in order of use:

THE CON

ING NCE

AND ALL

ION EVE

ENT ITHFOR TED

TIO AIN

ERE EST

HER MAN

ATE RED

VER THI

TER IVE

THA REA

ATI WIT

HAT ONS

ERS ESS

HIS AVE

RES PER

ILL ECT

ARE ONE

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Most Frequently used three letter words:

The

And

For

Are

But

Not

Her

Was

One

Our

Out

YouAll

Any

Can

Day

Get

Has

Him

Most Frequently used four letter words:

That

With

Have

This

Will

Your

From

They

Know

Want

Been

Good

Much

Some

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Time

Very

When

Come

Here

Just

Most Frequently Used First Letter:

T, O, A, W, B, C, D, S, F, M, R, H, I, Y, E, G, L, N, P, U, J, K

Most frequently Used Last Letters:

E, S, T, D, N, R, Y, F, L, O, G, H, A, M, P, U, W

Most Common Double Letters:

SS, EE, TT, FF, LL, MM, OO