characteristics of the contemporary english phatic communication style.ppt
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Characteristics of the Contemporary English Phatic Communication Style Liliana SlavianovaUniversity of Ruse
IntroductionAim: to define the cultural characteristics of the phatic communication in English based on the theoretical platforms of Edward Hall and Geert Hofstede
The paper:Defines key termsGives a brief overview of the two theoretical modelsSuggests parameters for communication style analysisDescribes the characteristics of the contemporary English communication style
communicationAccording to Craig Storti "is one of the most common of all human behaviors...." Contrary to its simple definition, the process of communication is highly complex, multilayered and dynamic
communicationDepends on the perception, interpretation and evaluation of a person's behavior which includes verbal versus non-verbal as well as consciously versus unconsciously sent messages
communicationthe process of encoding and decodinghighly dependent on a person's cultural background which "determines the meanings attached to particular words and behaviour" (Adler 1997).
cultureNow there are hundreds of definitions. a shared system of attitudes, beliefs, values and behaviour" (Gibson 2000). "a shared system of perceptions" (Martin Soley 2003). The latter indicates that culture plays a highly significant role in communication.
The terms "intercultural communication" or "cross-cultural communication" apply when the sender and the receiver of a message are from different cultures
communication styles across cultures Differences in communication styles, determine how much of the meaning people encode into actual words.
Eduard Halls theory "context carries varying proportions of the meaning." In other words, meaning that is not encoded into words by the message sender is supplied by context.
"low-context" communication systems people translate a large part of the meaning into explicit code (Hall 1979). As a result, "the spoken word carries most of the meaning". People explicitly say what they want to convey without beating around the bush.
high-context communicationa large part of the meaning lies in the physical context, which includes facial expressions, tone of voice and gestures. As a result, the message itself carries less information. People do not explicitly say what they want to convey. Instead, they beat around the bush until their interlocutor decodes the message correctly
Hofstede theory of national cultural dimensionsPower Distance (PDI)Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
Phatic communicationthe nonreferential use of language to share feelings or establish a mood of sociability rather than to communicate information or ideas ritualized formulas intended to attract the attention of the listener or prolong communication.
Emotional communication/emotive communicationUnconscious demonstration of emotionsSpontaneousExpressing both positive and negative emotions
conscious demonstration of emotionsconcern for people's sensitivities Social function
Parameters for communication style analysisdistance / intimacy in communicationdegree of formality / informalitysubjective / objective - orientationdegree of imposition of the communicative actiondirect / indirect expression of communicative intentionsorientation of emotionslevel of expressivenessdegree of ritualizationwordiness / brevity.
British communication styledistant (strict observance of the distance)unimposing (communicative impact is minimized )indirect or implicit (in terms of expressing communicative intention )cooperative (characterized by clear orientation towards the interlocutor) informal (symmetry and equality between interlocutors)personally-oriented (priority is on person, not status )friendly and polite (show friendliness and optimism )
British communication styleemotive (relative to the manner of expression of emotions and their communicative function)expressive (characterized by frequent use of superlative adjectives in many situations)hyperbolic (exaggeration of the qualities and characteristics)insincere (oriented largely to the form and not the content of the speech, which, in turn, leads to a difference in their semantic and pragmatic meaning)wordy (use of a wide variety of language tools )
ConclusionsPeople from different cultures have different understandings of the interaction process and different communication styles culture and communication are therefore closely related one way of avoiding cross-cultural communication problems is having a better understanding of cross-cultural differences
ConclusionsHalls and Hofstedes theoretical models help to analyze the cultural dimensions of each culture and to outline its characteristicsculture only exists by comparison the achieved results refer to the English communication style compared to the Bulgarian
Thank youfor your attention!