characteristics of british romantic poetry rev

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    English 5BCharacteristics of

    British RomanticPoetry

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    What does Romantic mean?

    The word romanticfirst became current in 18th-century English and originally meant romance-like, that is, resembling the strange, fanciful,

    mythical character of medieval romances. Theword came to be associated with interest in theMiddle Ages, the emerging taste for wildscenery, ruins and other sublime locations, atendency reflected in the increasing emphasis inaesthetic theory on the sublime as opposed tothe beautiful.

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    Romanticism

    In Europe, Romanticism flourished in England,Germany, and France

    It elevated the individual, the passions, and theinner life, embracing a more dramatic, personal,and emotional style--even to the point ofmelancholic emotion

    Romanticism followed a period we call the

    Enlightenment. During the 18th century, in areaction against Enlightenment ideas, feelingbegan to be considered more important thanreason, both in literature and in ethics

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    What was the Enlightenment?

    A broad intellectual movement in eighteenth-century Europe, particularly Britain, France andGermany, characterized by a rejection ofsuperstition and mystery and an optimismconcerning the power of human reasoning andscientific endeavor. It is also referred to as The

    Age of Reason. It was both within and against

    Enlightenment thought that Romanticism can besaid to have been conceived.

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    What is Neoclassicism?

    An 18th-century artistic movement, associated

    with the Enlightenment, drawing on classical

    models and emphasizing reason, harmony, andrestraint. Literally, new classicism, it marked a

    renewed interest in the literary and artistic

    theories of ancient Greece and Rome and an

    attempt to reformulate them for contemporarysociety.

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    German Precursors

    Sturm und Drang, conventionally

    translated as "Storm and Stress, was a

    proto-Romantic movement in Germanliterature and music

    It took place from the late 1760s through

    the early 1780s

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    Sturm und Drang

    Individual subjectivity, and, in particular,

    extremes of emotion were given free

    expression in reaction to the perceivedconstraints of rationalism imposed by the

    Enlightenment and associated aesthetic

    movements

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    German Romanticism

    German Romanticism was the dominantmovement of the late 18th and early 19thcenturies in the philosophy, art, and culture of

    German-speaking countries It developed relatively late compared to its

    English counterpart, coinciding in its early yearswith the movement known as German

    Classicism or Weimar Classicism, which itopposed

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    German Romanticism

    The early German romantics tried to create anew synthesis of art, philosophy, and science,looking to the Middle Ages as a simpler, more

    integrated period. Later German Romanticism emphasized the

    tension between the everyday world and theseemingly irrational and supernatural projections

    of creative genius.

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    German Romanticism: Goethe

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) said

    that classical meant health, and romantic

    meant illness Goethe was one of the key figures of German

    literature and the movement of Weimar

    Classicism in the late 18th and early 19th

    centuries; this movement coincides with theEnlightenment and Romanticism

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    German Romanticism: Goethe

    The Sorrows of Young Werther(1774) is a novelthat was the first popular success of Goethe. Itwas very important in establishing the image ofthe introspective, self-pitying, melancholicRomantic hero

    It is about a sensitive and intelligent young manwho is tormented by his own intellectualspeculations and love for a girl who is engagedto someone else

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    German Romanticism: Goethe

    Ultimately, Werther shoots himself The novel was credited with causing a wave of

    suicides among young romantics throughoutEurope

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    German Romantic Composers

    Carl Maria von Weber Franz Schubert

    Robert Schumann Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Franz Liszt Johannes Brahms Richard Wagner Ludwig van Beethoven

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    French Romanticism

    French literature from the first half of the 19th

    century was dominated by Romanticism

    English and German influences were importantin defining the interests of the French Romantics

    They include Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott,

    Lord Byron, Goethe, and Friedrich Schiller

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    English and German influences on French

    Romanticism encouraged interests in. . . The historical novel

    The Medieval Romance

    Traditional myths Nationalism

    The "roman noir" (Gothic novel)

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    English and German influences on French

    Romanticism encouraged interests in. . . Lyricism

    Sentimentalism

    Descriptions of the natural world The common man

    Exoticism and orientalism

    The myth of the romantic hero

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    Impact and Authors (France)

    The effect of the romantic movement wouldcontinue to be felt in the latter half of the centuryin wildly diverse literary developments, such asrealism, symbolism, and the so-called fin desicle decadent movement

    Authors of prose, poetry, and drama includeVictor Hugo; Alexandre Dumas, pre; Franois-Ren de Chateaubriand; Alphonse deLamartine; Grard de Nerval; Charles Nodier;

    Alfred de Musset; Thophile Gautier; and Alfredde Vigny

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    What is the sublime?

    Often associated with huge, overpowering

    natural phenomena like mountains, waterfalls,

    turbulent seas, and thunderstorms, thedelightful terror inspired by sublime visions was

    supposed both to remind viewers of their own

    insignificance in the face of nature and divinity

    and to inspire them with a sense oftranscendence.

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    How did the sublime relate to the beautiful?

    Mere beauty was thought by the Romantics to

    be inferior to the concept of the sublime. The

    British writer and statesman Edmund Burke, whowas interested in categorizing aesthetic

    responses, identified beauty with delicacy and

    harmony, and he identified the sublime with

    vastness, obscurity, and a capacity to inspireterror.

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    The Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen

    Philippe Jacques De Loutherbourg

    Caspar Da id Friedrich

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    Caspar David Friedrich

    Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog

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    What shaped Romanticism?

    At the turn of the century, fired by ideas ofpersonal and political liberty and of the energyand sublimity of the natural world, artists, writers,and intellectuals sought to break the bonds of

    18th-century convention. Although thephilosophers Jean Jacques Rousseau (France)and William Godwin (England) had great

    influence, the French Revolution and itsaftermath had the strongest impact.

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    What shaped Romanticism?

    In England, initial support for the French

    Revolution was primarily utopian and idealistic

    When the French failed to live up toexpectations, most English intellectuals

    renounced the Revolution

    However, the Romantic vision had taken forms

    other than the political, and these continued to

    develop

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    Romanticism emphasized. . .

    Individualism Creativity Revolutionary political ideas The use of the imagination over reason Reverence for nature Mystery

    Transcendence Synthesis Universality

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    The beginnings of Romantic Poetry

    In Lyrical Ballads (1798 and 1800), WilliamWordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridgepresented and illustrated a liberating aesthetic:

    poetry should express, in genuine language,experience as filtere

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